Bio495

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Bio495

  1. 1. Malaria Vaccines Elizabeth Brochu Spring 2014
  2. 2. Malaria Statistics Malaria kills 650,000 people each year 3.3 billion people are at risk for infection. 86% of malaria deaths are children 90% of malaria deaths occur in Africa Over 200 million clinical episodes were reported in 2010 Malaria mortality rates have fallen 45% since 2000
  3. 3. Where Does Malaria Occur?
  4. 4. Disease Symptoms  Uncomplicated Malaria Fever Chills Sweats Enlarged spleen/liver Nausea and vomiting Mild jaundice General malaise  Severe Malaria Anemia Seizures Coma Kidney failure Low blood pressure Metabolic acidosis Acute respiratory distress syndrome
  5. 5. Diagnosis & Treatment  Diagnostic Techniques Microscopy Rapid Diagnostic Test Serology  Treatments Quinine Chloroquinine Clindamycin
  6. 6. Plasmodium 5 human-infecting species: Plasmodium falciparum Plasmodium vivax Plasmodium malariae Plasmodium ovale Plasmodium knowlesi Phylum: Apicomplexa Class: Aconoidasida Order: Haemosporida Family: Plasmodiidae Genus: Plasmodium
  7. 7. Plasmodium Life Cycle
  8. 8. Plasmodium Anatomy
  9. 9. Malaria Vaccine Approaches 1. Pre-erythrocytic stage - in the liver 2. Erythrocytic stage -in the bloodstream 3. Sexual stage -in the mosquito
  10. 10. Future Outline  Immunogen identification, characterization & synthesis  Antibody production  Vaccine design  Vaccine history  Current vaccine progress  Other methods of prevention
  11. 11. References Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Malaria. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/ RE, Green J, Katsimitsoulia Z, Taylor WR, Holder AA, Molloy JE. 2011. The mechanism of erythrocyte invasion by the malarial parasite, plasmodium falciparum. Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology 22: 953-960. Malaria: The Human Host. HHMI Biointeractive. Youtube. Sam-Yellowe TY, Fujioka H, Aikawa M. 1999. Morphological analysis of isolated rhoptries from plasmodium yoelii, P-berghei, and P-chabaudi merozoites. Experimental Parasitology 92: 275-278. Sam-Yellowe TY, Banks TL, Fujioka H, Drazba JA, Yadav SP. 2008. Plasmodium yoelii: Novel rhoptry proteins identified within the body of merozoite rhoptries in rodent plasmodium malaria. Experimental Parasitology 120: 113-117.

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