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1. 1. Nonrenewable EnergyNonrenewable Energy Chapters 15Chapters 15 Living in the EnvironmentLiving in the Environment, 11, 11thth Edition, MillerEdition, Miller Advanced Placement Environmental Science La Canada High School Dr. E
2. 2. 1. Energy Resources1. Energy Resources 2. Oil 3. Natural Gas 4. Coal 5. Nuclear Energy www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
3. 3. Energy SourcesEnergy Sources Modern society requires large quantities of energy that are generated from the earth’s natural resources. Primary Energy Resources: The fossil fuels(oil, gas, and coal), nuclear energy, falling water, geothermal, and solar energy. Secondary Energy Resources: Those sources which are derived from primary resources such as electricity, fuels from coal, (synthetic natural gas and synthetic gasoline), as well as alcohol fuels.
4. 4. TO MAKE ELECTRICITY Heat is needed to- Boil the water to- Make the steam to- Turn the turbine to- Generate the electrical energy WE CALL ELECTRICITY!
5. 5. ThermodynamicsThermodynamics The laws of thermodynamics tell us two things about converting heat energy from steam to work: 1)1) The conversion of heat to work cannot be 100 % efficient because a portion of the heat is wasted. 2)2) The efficiency of converting heat to work increases as the heat temperature increases.
6. 6. Energy Units and UseEnergy Units and Use Btu (British thermal unit) - amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 lb of water by 1 ºF. cal (calorie) - the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 ºC. Commonly, kilocalorie (kcal) is used. 1 Btu = 252 cal = 0.252 kcal 1 Btu = 1055 J (joule) = 1.055 kJ 1 cal = 4.184 J
7. 7. Two other units that are often seen are theTwo other units that are often seen are the horsepower and the watt. These are not units ofhorsepower and the watt. These are not units of energy, but are units of power.energy, but are units of power. 1 watt (W) = 3.412 Btu / hour1 watt (W) = 3.412 Btu / hour 1 horsepower (hp) = 746 W1 horsepower (hp) = 746 W Watt-hour - Another unit of energy used only toWatt-hour - Another unit of energy used only to describe electrical energy. Usually we usedescribe electrical energy. Usually we use kilowatt-hour (kW-h) since it is larger.kilowatt-hour (kW-h) since it is larger. Energy Units and UseEnergy Units and Use
8. 8. Evaluating Energy ResourcesEvaluating Energy Resources U.S. has 4.6% of world population; uses 24% of the world’s energy; 84% from nonrenewable fossil fuels (oil, coal, & natural gas); 7% from nuclear power; 9% from renewable sources (hydropower, geothermal, solar, biomass).
9. 9. Changes in U.S. Energy UseChanges in U.S. Energy Use www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.pptwww.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
10. 10. Energy resources removed from the earth’s crust include: oil, natural gas, coal, and uranium www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
11. 11. Fossil FuelsFossil Fuels Fossil fuels originated from the decay of living organisms millions of years ago, and account for about 80% of the energy generated in the U.S. The fossil fuels used in energy generation are: Natural gas, which is 70 - 80% methane (CH4) Liquid hydrocarbons obtained from the distillation of petroleum Coal - a solid mixture of large molecules with a H/C ratio of about 1
12. 12. Problems with Fossil FuelsProblems with Fossil Fuels Fossil fuels are nonrenewable resources At projected consumption rates, natural gas and petroleum will be depleted before the end of the 21st century Impurities in fossil fuels are a major source of pollution Burning fossil fuels produce large amounts of CO2, which contributes to global warming
13. 13. Petroleum products Refined components of crude oil are used to manufacture many of the material goods we use every day.
14. 14. 1. Energy Resources 2. Oil2. Oil 3. Natural Gas 4. Coal 5. Nuclear Energy www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
15. 15. OilOil Deposits of crude oil often are trapped within the earth's crust and can be extracted by drilling a well Fossil fuel, produced by the decomposition of deeply buried organic matter from plants & animals Crude oil: complex liquid mixture of hydrocarbons, with small amounts of S, O, N impurities
16. 16. Sources of OilSources of Oil •Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) -- 13 countries have 67% world reserves: • Algeria, Ecuador, Gabon, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, & Venezuela •Other important producers: Alaska, Siberia, & Mexico. www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
17. 17. Oil in U.S.Oil in U.S. •2.3% of world reserves •uses nearly 30% of world reserves •65% for transportation •increasing dependence on imports. www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
18. 18. Low oil prices have stimulated economic growth, they have discouraged / prevented improvements in energy efficiency and alternative technologies favoring renewable resources.
19. 19. • Burning any fossil fuel releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and thus promotes global warming. • Comparison of CO2 emitted by fossil fuels and nuclear power. www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
20. 20. www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
21. 21. Refining crude oil Crude oil from the ground is a messy mix of hundreds of hydrocarbons. It is put through a refining process to segregate different components. • Small-chain hydrocarbons boil at cooler temperatures in a distillation column, isolating lighter weight oils (e.g., butane). • Long-chain hydrocarbons boil at hot temperatures, isolating heavier oils (e.g., lubricating oils).
22. 22. 1. Energy Resources 2. Oil 3. Natural Gas3. Natural Gas 4. Coal 5. Nuclear Energy www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
23. 23. Natural Gas - Fossil FuelNatural Gas - Fossil Fuel • Mixture •50–90% Methane (CH4) •Ethane (C2H6) •Propane (C3H8) •Butane (C4H10) •Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
24. 24. Sources of Natural GasSources of Natural Gas •Russia & Kazakhstan - almost 40% of world's supply. •Iran (15%), Qatar (5%), Saudi Arabia (4%), Algeria (4%), United States (3%), Nigeria (3%), Venezuela (3%); •90–95% of natural gas in U.S. domestic (~411,000 km = 255,000 miles of pipeline). www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
25. 25. www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
26. 26. Natural GasNatural Gas Experts predict increased use of natural gas during this century
27. 27. Natural GasNatural Gas When a natural gas field is tapped, propane and butane are liquefied and removed as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) The rest of the gas (mostly methane) is dried, cleaned, and pumped into pressurized pipelines for distribution Liquefied natural gas (LNG) can be shipped in refrigerated tanker ships
28. 28. 1. Energy Resources 2. Oil 3. Natural Gas 4. Coal4. Coal 5. Nuclear Energy www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
29. 29. Coal Coal: compressed under high pressure to form dense carbon structures First used 3,000 years ago Powered the industrial revolution in England, then in other countries Today is surpassed by oil, but is still the most abundant fossil fuel Provides 1/4 of the world’s commercial energy
30. 30. How coal is formed Several types of coal exist, depending on the amount of heat and pressure that overlying sediments have exerted.
31. 31. Ranks of CoalRanks of Coal Lignite: A brownish-black coal of low quality (i.e., low heat content per unit) with high inherent moisture and volatile matter. Energy content is lower 4000 BTU/lb. Subbituminous: Black lignite, is dull black and generally contains 20 to 30 percent moisture Energy content is 8,300 BTU/lb. Bituminous: most common coal is dense and black (often with well-defined bands of bright and dull material). Its moisture content usually is less than 20 percent. Energy content about 10,500 Btu / lb. Anthracite :A hard, black lustrous coal, often referred to as hard coal, containing a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. Energy content of about 14,000 Btu/lb. www.uvawise.edu/philosophy/Hist%20295/ Powerpoint%5CCoal.ppt
32. 32. PEATPEAT LIGNITELIGNITE garnero101.asu.edu/glg101/Lectures/L37.pptgarnero101.asu.edu/glg101/Lectures/L37.ppt
33. 33. BITUMINOUSBITUMINOUS ANTHRACITEANTHRACITE garnero101.asu.edu/glg101/Lectures/L37.pptgarnero101.asu.edu/glg101/Lectures/L37.ppt
34. 34. Main Coal DepositsMain Coal Deposits BituminousBituminous AnthraciteAnthracite SubbituminousSubbituminous LigniteLignite
35. 35. Advantages and DisadvantagesAdvantages and Disadvantages Pros •Most abundant fossil fuel •Major U.S. reserves •300 yrs. at current consumption rates •High net energy yield Cons •Dirtiest fuel, highest carbon dioxide •Major environmental degradation •Major threat to health © Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
36. 36. Mountaintop Removal Machinery removes the tops of mountains to expose coal. The resulting waste rock and dirt are dumped into the streams and valleys below. Figure 15-14Figure 15-14
37. 37. Environmental impacts Mountaintop removal is every bit as drastic as it sounds. This type of coal mining causes massive erosion, runoff, and habitat destruction.
38. 38. garnero101.asu.edu/glg101/Lectures/L37.ppt
39. 39. Sulfur in CoalSulfur in Coal When coal is burned, sulfur is released primarily as sulfur dioxide (SO2 - serious pollutant) Coal Cleaning - Methods of removing sulfur from coal include cleaning, solvent refining, gasification, and liquefaction Scrubbers are used to trap SO2 when coal is burned Two chief forms of sulfur is inorganic (FeS2 or CaSO4) and organic (Sulfur bound to Carbon)
40. 40. Acid MineAcid Mine DrainageDrainage The impact of mine drainage on a lake after receiving effluent from an abandoned tailings impoundment for over 50 years
41. 41. Relatively fresh tailings in anRelatively fresh tailings in an impoundment.impoundment. The same tailings impoundmentThe same tailings impoundment after 7 years of sulfideafter 7 years of sulfide oxidation. The white spots inoxidation. The white spots in Figures A and B are gulls.Figures A and B are gulls. http://www.earth.uwaterloo.ca/services/whaton/s06_amd.html
42. 42. Mine effluent discharging from the bottom of a waste rock pile
43. 43. Shoreline of a pond receiving AMD showing massive accumulation of iron hydroxides on the pond bottom
44. 44. Environmental impacts Compounds and particulate matter resulting from combustion of coal, oil, and gas: Cause air pollution (from power plants, vehicle exhaust, etc.) Drive climate change (from carbon dioxide emissions) Throw the carbon cycle out of balance (transferring carbon stored underground to atmospheric carbon dioxide)
45. 45. Environmental impacts Water pollution also results from fossil fuel use: Acid deposition (from sulfur pollutants emitted in power plant combustion) Runoff from non-point sources (cars, homes) Oil spills (not just large spills from tankers; mostly small spills from nonpoint sources)
46. 46. Environmental impacts Coal mining has impacts: • Habitat destruction from strip mining • Erosion from strip mining • Chemical runoff from strip mining through acid drainage • Human health risks for workers from subsurface mining
47. 47. Political, social, and economic impacts The degree of dependence that our modern economies have on fossil fuels is risky. This puts all our eggs in one basket. Nations that supply oil can call the shots. Nations that need oil are dependent on suppliers.
48. 48. 1. Energy Resources 2. Oil 3. Natural Gas 4. Coal 5. Nuclear Energy5. Nuclear Energy www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
49. 49. Nuclear energy Nuclear energy = energy that holds together protons and neutrons within the nucleus of an atom We harness this energy by converting it to thermal energy, which can then be used to generate electricity. Each conversion process involves transforming isotopes of one element into isotopes of other elements by the addition or loss of neutrons.
50. 50. Nuclear energy: Fission Nuclear fission = energy is released by splitting apart uranium nuclei by bombarding them with neutrons
51. 51. Nuclear energy Comes from the radioactive element uranium The nuclear fuel cycle enriches forms of uranium to make it into usable fuel. Electricity is generated by controlling fission in nuclear reactors.
52. 52. Nuclear reactor In a reactor, fission boils steam to turn a turbine and generate electricity
53. 53. Controlled Nuclear Fission ReactionControlled Nuclear Fission Reaction cstl-cst.semo.edu/bornstein/BS105/ Energy%20Use%20- %203.ppt
54. 54. Nuclear energy Uranium is used for nuclear power because it is radioactive. Radioisotopes emit subatomic particles and high- energy radiation as they decay. Each radioisotope decays at a rate determined by that isotope’s half-life, the amount of time it takes for one-half of the atoms to give off radiation and decay.
55. 55. The time needed for one-half of the nuclei in a radioisotope to decay and emit their radiation to form a different isotope Half-time emitted Uranium 235 710 million yrs alpha, gamma Plutonium 239 24.000 yrs alpha, gamma During operation, nuclear power plants produce radioactive wastes, including some that remain dangerous for tens of thousands of years Half-LifeHalf-Life www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
56. 56. Diagram of Radioactive Decay cstl-cst.semo.edu/bornstein/BS105/ Energy%20Use%20-%203.ppt
57. 57. • Genetic damages: from mutations that alter genes • Genetic defects can become apparent in the next generation • Somatic damages: to tissue, such as burns, miscarriages & cancers Effects of RadiationEffects of Radiation www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
58. 58. 1. Low-level radiation (Gives of low amount of radiation) • Sources: nuclear power plants, hospitals & universities • 1940 – 1970 most was dumped into the ocean • Today deposit into landfills 2. High-level radiation (Gives of large amount of radiation) • Fuel rods from nuclear power plants • Half-time of Plutonium 239 is 24000 years • No agreement about a safe method of storage Radioactive WasteRadioactive Waste www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
59. 59. Nuclear waste disposal Nuclear waste must be disposed where it will not
60. 60. Nuclear waste disposal Nuclear waste is stored at 125 sites in 39 states.
61. 61. Radioactive WasteRadioactive Waste 1. Bury it deep underground. • Problems: i.e. earthquake, groundwater… 2. Shoot it into space or into the sun. • Problems: costs, accident would affect large area. 3. Bury it under the Antarctic ice sheet. • Problems: long-term stability of ice is not known, global warming 4. Most likely plan for the US • Bury it into Yucca Mountain in desert of Nevada • Cost of over \$ 50 billion • 160 miles from Las Vegas • Transportation across the country via train & truck www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
62. 62. Nuclear waste disposal At Yucca Mountain, all nuclear waste in the U.S. would be buried in a network of tunnels deep underground.
63. 63. Yucca Mountain www.geology.fau.edu/course_info/fall02/ EVR3019/Nuclear_Waste.ppt
64. 64. Nuclear troubles Although nuclear power is clean, lacking the pollutants of fossil fuels, it has drawbacks: • Its waste is dangerously radioactive. • Consequences of accidents can be catastrophic. 439 nuclear plants remain operating today in the world.
65. 65. www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
66. 66. Three Mile IslandThree Mile Island •March 29, 1979, a reactor near Harrisburg, PA lost coolant water because of mechanical and human errors and suffered a partial meltdown •50,000 people evacuated & another 50,000 fled area •Unknown amounts of radioactive materials released •Partial cleanup & damages cost \$1.2 billion •Released radiation increased cancer rates. www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
67. 67. Nuclear accidents The Three Mile Island accident caused a partial meltdown.
68. 68. ChernobylChernobyl •April 26, 1986, reactor explosion (Ukraine) flung radioactive debris into atmosphere •Health ministry reported 3,576 deaths •Green Peace estimates 32,000 deaths •About 400,000 people were forced to leave their homes •~160,000 sq km (62,00 sq mi) contaminated •> Half million people exposed to dangerous levels of radioactivity •Cost of incident > \$358 billion www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
69. 69. Nuclear accidents The 1986 Chernobyl explosion caused the world’s most severe nuclear power plant accident.
70. 70. Nuclear accidents Fallout from Chernobyl was deposited across Europe.
71. 71. Human Health Hazards Radioactivity is dangerous to humans because the particles emitted damage DNA sequences and ultimately interrupt cell processes. Radiation poisoning Damage to gametes Cancers Tissue damage
72. 72. Nuclear EnergyNuclear Energy Nuclear plants must be decommissioned after 15-40 years New reactor designs are still proposed Experimental breeder nuclear fission reactors have proven too costly to build and operate Attempts to produce electricity by nuclear fusion have been unsuccessful
73. 73. Phasing Out Nuclear PowerPhasing Out Nuclear Power •Multi-billion-\$\$ construction costs •High operation costs •Frequent malfunctions •False assurances and cover–ups •Overproduction of energy in some areas •Poor management •Lack of public acceptance www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt