Gender Differences in New Residents' Preparation to teach


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This study used a mixed methods approach to analyze both quanitative and qualitaitve data from a new resident survey administered at the beginning of two academic years. Gender differences were found in both types of data, across all post graduate years.

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Gender Differences in New Residents' Preparation to teach

  1. 1. Gender Differences in New Residents’ Preparation to Teach Elisabeth E. Bennett, PhD Rebecca D. Blanchard, PhD Brendan P. Kelly, MD
  2. 2. New Residents <ul><li>Residents spend up to 20% time teaching (Hatem, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Confidence and self-efficacy may vary by gender (Pajares, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>New residents represent a variety of backgrounds </li></ul>
  3. 3. Teaching Survey <ul><li>Education event orienting new residents to teaching role at Baystate. Discussion and survey had to two purposes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflective Tool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General Needs Assessment </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Retrospective Analysis <ul><li>Quantitative Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do you need help in improving your teaching ability? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coding of all open-ended responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualitative analysis also yielded gender differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistically significant difference between genders (n=183) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Top Qualitative Findings <ul><li>Teaching Opportunities - males (n=31) were more than twice as likely as females (n=15) to identify the need to be given opportunities to teach </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Techniques - females (n=23) were more than twice as likely as males (n=9) to identify the need to learn established teaching techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge - two properties found in the data </li></ul>
  6. 6. Two Knowledge Properties <ul><li>1. Fund of Knowledge – building a volume of personal medical knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>2. Knowledge Leadership - the confidence to trust what they know and share their knowledge with learners </li></ul><ul><li>Representative quote : </li></ul><ul><li>“ I would like to gain more confidence in applying my fund of knowledge, while simultaneously increasing that knowledge base” </li></ul><ul><li>Finding : </li></ul><ul><li>Males and females both identified the need to increase their fund of knowledge but females (n=19) were substantially more likely than males (n=5) to indicate need to improve knowledge leadership </li></ul>
  7. 7. Knowledge Leadership Further Explored <ul><li>KL involves experience, application, presentation skills, confidence, and the ability to meet the level of the learner </li></ul><ul><li>In resident teaching, consider: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comfort at the edge of one’s knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of being “the expert” vs. “the guide” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsibility for mistakes of junior learners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of residency and one’s knowledge limits </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Implications <ul><ul><li>Building funds of knowledge not the only ingredient in teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>While gender differences may exist, avoid stereotypes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mentoring and equity of opportunity needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build confidence in knowledge through application, experience, reflection, & feedback </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. References <ul><li>Hatem, C. J. (2003). Teaching approaches that reflect and promote professionalism. Academic Medicine , 78(7), 709-713. </li></ul><ul><li>Pajares, F. (2002). Gender and perceived self-efficacy in self-regulated learning. Theory into Practice , 41(2), 116-125. </li></ul>