Tools for Managing Internal                                             Parasites in Small Ruminants:                     ...
Producers can no longer rely on anthelmin-         • Select individual animals that dem-                 tics alone to con...
• Negative effects may include reduced                     especially <       intake and redu...
residing in animals that are grazing sericea                                                                              ...
Animals Used                  Treatment                    Results                         NotesGoats, confined and fed    ...
Resources                                                        includes information about establishment, manage-        ...
Shaik, S.A., T.H. Terrill, J.E. Miller, B. Kouakou,        2006. Sericea lespedeza hay as a natural dewormingG. Kannan, R....
Tools for Managing Internal Parasites in Small                 Ruminants: Sericea Lespedeza                 By Linda Coffey...
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Tools for Managing Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants: Sericea Lespedeza


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Tools for Managing Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants: Sericea Lespedeza

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Tools for Managing Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants: Sericea Lespedeza

  1. 1. Tools for Managing Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants: Sericea Lespedeza A Publication of ATTRA - National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service • 1-800-346-9140 • www.attra.ncat.orgBy Linda Coffey,Margo Hale,Tom Terrill,Jorge Mosjidis,Jim Miller, andJoan BurkeNCAT/ATTRA andSouthern Consortiumfor Small RuminantParasite Control2007ContentsIntroduction ..................... 1Sericea Lespedeza ......... 3 Goat grazing sericea lespedeza. Photo by Jean-Marie Luginbuhl.Sericea LespedezaResults ................................ 4 Introduction hatching of the eggs and development intoUsing Sericea infective larvae. The larvae need moisture, CLespedeza ......................... 5 ontrol of internal parasites, espe- such as dew or rain, to break open the fecalResources .......................... 6 cially of Haemonchus contortus (bar- pellet and move. They migrate out of theReferences ........................ 6 ber pole worm, stomach worm), is a feces and up blades of grass (usually 1 to primary concern for the majority of sheep 3 inches). When an animal (sheep or goat) and goat producers. These parasites have grazes, they may take in parasite larvae become more difficult to manage because of along with the grass blade. Parasite num- increasing resistance to nearly all available bers increase over time when conditions are dewormers. A severe infection of barber pole favorable (warm, wet). worm causes anemia, bottle jaw, and—if not Parasites are now developing resistance to treated—death of infected sheep and goats. anthelmintics (dewormers). Drug resistance Mature parasites breed inside the host and is the ability of worms in a population to sur- “lay eggs,” which pass through the host vive drug (deworming) treatment of the ani-ATTRA—National SustainableAgriculture Information Ser- and are shed in the feces. After the eggs mal at the prescribed dosage. Over-use ofvice is managed by the National pass out of the host, they hatch into lar- dewormers has led to resistance, and manyCenter for Appropriate Technol-ogy (NCAT) and is funded under vae. Warm, humid conditions encourage available dewormers are now ineffective.a grant from the United StatesDepartment of Agriculture’sRural Business- Cooperative Ideas and research were generated by the Southern Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control ( Visit the NCAT Web site and funding support for this work was provided by USDA, CSREES, Integrated Organic Program, and Capacity Building( Grants Program (Award No. 2005-38814-16429). Mention of trade names or commercial products in this manuscript ishtml) for more informa-tion on our sustainable solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by theagriculture projects. U.S. Department of Agriculture.
  2. 2. Producers can no longer rely on anthelmin- • Select individual animals that dem- tics alone to control internal parasites. It onstrate resistance to parasites is important to use multiple management • Resilient animals can host a parasite practices to control internal parasites. burden and not be negatively affected The following are tools that can be used to by the parasites (don’t show signs of manage internal parasites. For more infor- parasitism, and they remain produc- mation see ATTRA’s Managing Internal tive); however, they may be shedding Parasites in Sheep and Goats. high numbers of parasite eggs and causing illness in other animals. Pasture Management • Cull animals that are most sus- ceptible to parasites and those • Maintain forage height greater than that contribute most to pasture 3 inches (beware of patch grazing) contamination. • Provide areas of browse (brush, shrubs, small trees, etc.) Alternative Treatments • Maintain low stocking rate • Copper Oxide Wire Particles • Graze sheep and goats with cattle, (COWP) boluses or in a rotation with cattle or horses • Garlic and other botanical materials • Provide tannin-rich forages, such as and formulations (being tested) sericea lespedeza • Nematode-trapping fungus (not com- • Harvest hay from pastures mercially available yet) • Avoid wet patches in pasture, such • Condensed-tannin (CT)-containing as from a leaky water trough supplements (such as sericea hay) Condensed tannins and, in particular, Selective Deworming the high-CT forage sericea lespedeza are • Use a visual system (FAMACHA© ) discussed in this paper. An overview of for classifying animals based on current research on the topic, as well as levels of anemia additional resources and references, are provided. Producers can use this informa- o FAMACHA© is only effective tion to keep their animals healthier. for diagnosing infection by H. contortus (barber pole worm) Tannins o Treat only animals that are • Tannins are plant compounds that anemic (a sign of parasitism) bind to proteins and other mole- o Reduces the use of dewormers cules. • Tannin is related to “tanning”, as in o Helps slow down drug resis- preserving hides, and tannins are tance problems found in many plants. o Saves money • There are two main types of tan- nins; hydrolyzable (HT), some of Selecting Resistant Animals which may have toxic effects on ani- • Several breeds show resistance mals, and condensed tannins (CT), to internal parasites (that is, when which are found in forage legumes exposed to parasites, the animal (including sericea lespedeza) and immune system does not allow the other plants. parasites to be established in its • Effects of tannins vary depending on body). Select a resistant breed if it type of tannin, concentration, and on fits your system. the animal consuming the tannins.Page 2 ATTRA Tools for Managing Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants: Sericea Lespedeza
  3. 3. • Negative effects may include reduced especially < intake and reduced digestibility, toxicagents/ tannin>. leading to a decline in animal pro- ductivity. Negative effects are seen According to Min et al. (2003), low more often when CT concentration is concentrations of CT (20-45 g CT/kg DM) high (above 55 g CT/kg DM in the are helpful to animals, while high forage CT forage). (Min et al., 2003) concentrations (>55 g CT/kg DM) may have negative effects. Results vary according • Posit ive effect s may i nclude to CT concent rat ion and st ructure an increase in by-pass protein (causing the animal to use protein and the animal that is grazing the forage, more effi ciently), a reduction in however. bloating, increased milk produc- Researchers have shown that big trefoil, tion, and a reduction in internal sulla, sanfoin, and sericea lespedeza parasite numbers, egg output, are useful in controlling internal para- and hatchability. site infection in sheep and goats. Provid-For more information on tannins, see ing condensed-tannin-containing forages Sthe references listed at the end of this is one way to boost the health of sheep ericeapublication and the Resources section, or goats. lespedeza isTable 1. Condensed tannin (CT) content in different forage species.* a high-tannin(Adapted from Min and Hart, 2003 and Min et al., 2005). forage that has been scientifically proven Forage CT, g/kg of DM %DM to reduce parasite Birdsfoot trefoil 48 4.8 loads in sheep Big trefoil 77 7.7 and goats. Sanfoin 29 2.9 Sulla 51–84 5.1–8.4 Lucerne (alfalfa) 0.5 .05 Sericea lespedeza 46-152 4.6–15.2 Perennial ryegrass 1.8 0.18 Chicory 3.1 0.31 Crabgrass/tall fescue 3.2 0.32 mixture* The standard used for analysis will affect the results. For these studies, a Quebracho standard was used.Sericea Lespedeza by improving protein nutrition of the goat and boosting the immune system. In addi-Sericea lespedeza is a high-tannin forage (4– tion, tannins appear to reduce the hatch-15% DM) that has been scientifically proven ing of fecal eggs and development of lar-to reduce parasite loads in sheep and goats. vae, perhaps by binding to the larvae. (MinThe mechanism of action is not yet known. et al., 2005). The tannins could also bindResearchers believe that the plant tannins with feed nutrients and possibly preventmay affect parasites either directly or indi- bacterial growth in the feces (larva feed onrectly (or both). Tannins may react directly bacteria) and so limit the feed available forwith adult worms by attaching to their larval growth, or in some other way inhibit“skin”, causing them distress, or indirectly larvae growth and movement. Adult ATTRA Page 3
  4. 4. residing in animals that are grazing sericea lespedeza shed fewer eggs, and the eggs that are produced have reduced hatching ability. However, when animals are moved off seri- cea lespedeza pastures and on to other for- ages, egg counts go back up, indicating that mature worms were inhibited but not killed in the short term. As animals are fed with sericea for longer periods of time, research has shown a reduction in mature worms as well (Min et al., 2005, Shaik et al., 2006, Lange et al., 2006). Reducing pasture con- tamination and animal worm burdens will help sheep and goats to be healthier andGoat grazing sericea lespedeza. Photo by Margo Hale. more productive. Things you should know about sericea lespedeza • Sericea lespedeza is a legume that grows in low fertility • Sheep and goats may need time to adjust to grazing and acid soils and was widely planted to rebuild eroded sericea if they are not familiar with the forage; and depleted soils. It is one of the most commonly used however, they will graze it readily once they go species for planting on surface mine spoils, road banks, through the adjustment period. Cattle will graze and other disturbed or eroding areas. sericea if it is not too mature. • Sericea is listed as a noxious weed in some states • No adjustment period is needed for feeding sericea (Colorado and Kansas, at the time of this writing) and hay, as it is readily consumed by all classes of livestock. may become invasive or weedy in some areas. • Researchers are investigating the performance of • Where sericea is considered a noxious or invasive animals grazing sericea or being fed sericea hay or weed, sheep and goat grazing can help to control supplement. the plant while also helping sheep or goat parasite • Research has shown that sericea is effective against problems. It will not be invasive when grazed and internal parasites when grazed or when fed in dried prevented from producing seed. forms, such as hay or pellets. Sericea Lespedeza Results internal parasites in sheep and goats. The There have been several research trials following table summarizes the results. Ref- studying the effects of sericea lespedeza on erences are included in the last column. Animals Used Treatment Results Notes Spanish wether goats, 15 days grazing sericea or Fecal egg counts (FEC) FEC increased after switch- grazing rye/crabgrass, switch to reduced (2500 vs. 710 eggs ing to rye/crabgrass; tan- other forage 15 days per gram), percentage of nins seemed to have short eggs developing to larvae residual effect (Min et al., reduced (99% vs. 58.2%) 2004) Goats, confined and Ground hay–sericea or ber- Reduced fecal egg counts FEC not significantly dif- fed hay mudagrass– 4 week trial, (FEC) for sericea-fed goats ferent once animals were all on bermudagrass hay (significant in 3rd and 4th taken off sericea, but still for 3 weeks following weeks of trial) numerically lower (Shaik et al., 2004Page 4 ATTRA Tools for Managing Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants: Sericea Lespedeza
  5. 5. Animals Used Treatment Results NotesGoats, confined and fed Ground sericea (0, 25, 50, FEC reduced for those Optimum level of SL hayhay (75% of diet) and grain 75%) and/or bermudagrass fed SL at all levels, greater appeared to be 50-75%(25%) (75, 50, 25, 0%) in combi- reduction as % SL increases of total diet (Dykes et al., nations equaling 75% hay; and with time; at 6 weeks, 2006), but 25% was also levels testing dose of SL 75% SL hay, 91.9% reduc- beneficial, reducing num- needed, 6 weeks tion ber of adult barber pole worms in the stomach by 58% (unpublished data)Goats, confined and fed Sericea hay or FEC reduced, number of Egg counts dropped byhay and grain bermudagrass hay, adult worms reduced, about 80% one week after 7 weeks hatchability of eggs into sericea feeding started; L-3 larvae reduced in goats reduction increased to fed sericea hay almost 90% by end of trial. Both abomasal and small intestinal worms reduced and female worms reduced more than male worms. Male and female H. contor- tus were reduced by 61 and 76%, respectively (Shaik et al., 2006)Lambs, fed hay; Sericea hay or bermudag- FEC reduced for those SL fed as hay reducednatural and experimen- rass hay, 7 weeks, bermu- receiving sericea (67-98%); naturally infected wormtal Haemonchus contortus dagrass an additional 2 FEC increased after sericea burdens 67%; reducedinfections weeks feeding stopped. Sericea establishment of incoming also reduced worm larvae 26%. (Lange et al., numbers. 2006)Angora does, grazing Sericea or crabgrass/tall Goats on sericea had Goats grazing sericea fescue grazing, 81 days reduced FEC and fewer reduced both H. contortus adult worms. Inhibited (89%) and Trichostrongylus larval activity. Improved parasites (50%). (Min et al., weight gain and immune 2005) responses. No adverse effect on does and kids (3.6 kg/kid).Kiko-Spanish kids fed Sericea hay in ground and Pelleted sericea reduced Pelleting increased effec-ground hay and pellets; pelleted forms, ground FEC 78%; increased PCV tiveness of sericea haynatural infection bermudagrass hay 32% compared with ber- against parasitic worms; mudagrass reduced adult H. contortus 75% (Terrill et al., 2007)Using Sericea Lespedeza of time, it can reduce the number of adultProducers should not rely on sericea as the worms. Researchers are working to deter-sole method for controlling internal par- mine the most effective and economicalasites. However, sericea can be useful as ways to use sericea lespedeza as a substi-one part of a complete parasite management tute for anthelmintics, or as a “dewormingstrategy. Sericea has been shown to reduce pasture.” More information will be avail-hatchability and fecundity (egg laying abil- able as the research is done. Continue toity) of internal parasites, and in that way it check the Southern Consortium for Smallwill help reduce pasture contamination with Ruminant Parasite Control Web site atlarvae. Also, when used for longer periods for ATTRA Page 5
  6. 6. Resources includes information about establishment, manage- ment, varieties, and use for internal parasite control.Managing Internal Parasites in Sheep and Goats USDA Plant Fact Sheet: Chinese lespedeza. 2 p. This concise paper includes information gathered from the research of the Southern Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control (see below) and From the USDA Plants database. Lots of information, includes helpful information and pictures explaining including a map showing distribution, links to other many of the concepts needed for an integrated para- sites, pictures, taxonomy and other specific information. site control program.Southern Consortium for Small Ruminant ReferencesParasite Dykes, G.S., T.H. Terrill, S.A. Shaik, J.E. Miller, B. The Consortium is a group of researchers and educa- Kouakou, G. Kannan, J.M. Burke, R.M. Kaplan, and tors who are working on the parasite problem. This J.A. Mosjidis. 2006. Effect of sericea lespedeza hay site includes publications, upcoming events such as on gastrointestinal nematode infection in goats. In: FAMACHA© trainings, contacts for Consortium mem- Proceedings of the 2006 Conference of the American bers, and many other items helpful to producers Forage and Grassland Council. March 10-14. San and educators. This is the place to look for current Antonio, Texas. Volume 15. p. 245–249. research results and information about the latest rec- ommendations for sustainable parasite control. Hale, M. 2006. Managing Internal Parasites in Sheep and Goats. ATTRA publication. attra-pub/ An interesting look at the properties and uses of tannins. Lange, K.C, D.D. Olcott, J.E. Miller, J.A. Mosjidis, T.H. Terrill, J.M. Burke, and M.T. Kearney. 2006.Sericea Lespedeza Effect of sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) as hay, on natural and experimental Haemonchus Alabama forages site; this includes link to Alabama contortus infections in lambs. Veterinary Parasitology forages lespedeza page, as well as access to articles 141. p. 273–278. and experiment station results from Auburn Univer- sity. The lespedeza page includes three articles; titles Min, B.R., and S.P. Hart. 2003. Tannins for sup- are listed below. pression of internal parasites. Journal of Animal · AU Grazer - A Sericea Lespedeza that Tolerates Science 81 (E. Suppl. 2):E102–E109. Heavy Grazing Min, B. R., T.N. Barry, G.T. Attwood, and W.C. · Invasive Plant Misconception McNabb. 2003. The effect of condensed tannins · Sericea Lespedeza: A Pasture, Hay, and Conser- on the nutrition and health of ruminants fed fresh vation Plant temperate forages: a review. Animal Feed Science Technology 106. p. 3–19.sericea1lespedeza.htm This links to the research page; includes the Min, B. R., W.E. Pomroy, S.P. Hart, and T. Sahlu. articles above and an article about establishing 2004. The effect of short-term consumption of a for- lespedeza stands. Exploring the buttons on the left age containing condensed tannins on gastro-intestinal will yield information about cultivars and about nematode parasite infections in grazing wether goats. Auburn research. Small Ruminant Research 51. p. 279– Min, B.R., S.P. Hart, D. Miller, G.M. Tomita, E. Loetz,ANR-1318.pdf and T. Sahlu. 2005. The effect of grazing forage Sericea Lespedeza: A Pasture, Hay, and Conservation containing condensed tannins on gastro-intestinal Plant. Extension publication, 4 p. Written by nematode parasite infection and milk composition in Don Ball and Jorge Mosjidis, this concise paper Angora does. Veterinary Parasitology 151. p. 105–113.Page 6 ATTRA Tools for Managing Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants: Sericea Lespedeza
  7. 7. Shaik, S.A., T.H. Terrill, J.E. Miller, B. Kouakou, 2006. Sericea lespedeza hay as a natural dewormingG. Kannan, R.K. Kallu, and J.A. Mosjidis. 2004. agent against gastrointestinal nematode infection inEffects of feeding sericea lespedeza hay to goats goats. Veterinary Parasitology 139. p. 150–157.infected with Haemonchus contortus. South African Terrill, T.H., J.A. Mosjidis, D.A. Moore, S.A. Shaik,Journal of Animal Science. Volume 34 (Supplement J.E. Miller, J.M. Burke, J.P. Muir, and R. Wolfe.1). p. 248–250. 2007. Effect of pelleting on efficacy of sericea lespe-Shaik, S.A., T.H. Terrill, J.E. Miller, B. Kouakou, G. deza hay as a natural dewormer in goats. VeterinaryKannan, R.M. Kaplan, J.M. Burke, and J.A. Mosjidis. Parasitology 146, p. 117–122.Related ATTRA Publications • Managing Internal Parasites in Sheep and Goats • Integrated Parasite Management for Livestock • Tools for Managing Internal Parasites in Small • Small Ruminant Sustainability Checksheet Ruminants: Copper Wire ATTRA Page 7
  8. 8. Tools for Managing Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants: Sericea Lespedeza By Linda Coffey, Margo Hale, Tom Terrill, Jorge Mosjidis, Jim Miller, and Joan Burke NCAT/ATTRA and Southern Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control, 2007 This publication is available on the Web at: or IP316 Slot 315 Version 112007Page 8 ATTRA