Tools for Managing Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants: Copper Wire Particles


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Tools for Managing Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants: Copper Wire Particles

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Tools for Managing Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants: Copper Wire Particles

  1. 1. Tools for Managing Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants: Copper Wire Particles A Publication of ATTRA - National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service • 1-800-346-9140 • www.attra.ncat.orgBy Margo Hale,Joan Burke, Jim Miller,and Tom TerrillNCAT/ATTRA andSouthern Consortiumfor Small RuminantParasite Control2007ContentsIntroduction ..................... 1Copper Oxide WireParticles (COWP) ............. 2Things You Should Knowabout Copper .................. 2COWP Boluses ................. 3How to Make COWPBoluses ............................... 3COWP Results .................. 4Summary ........................... 5Resources .......................... 6 Sheep and goat producers must rely on a combination of techniques to manage internal parasites.References ........................ 6 Introduction are shed in the feces. After the eggs pass I out of the host, they hatch into larvae in nternal parasite management, especially the pellet. Warm, moist conditions encour- of Haemonchus contortus (barber pole age hatching of the eggs and development worm, stomach worm), is a primary con- into infective larvae. The larvae need mois- cern for the majority of sheep and goat pro- ture, such as dew or rain, to break open ducers. These parasites have become more the fecal pellet, releasing the larvae. The difficult to manage because of developed infective larvae migrate out of the feces and resistance to nearly all available deworm- up blades of grass (usually 1 to 3 inches). ers. A severe infection of barber pole worm When an animal (sheep or goat) grazes, it causes anemia, reduced animal production, may take in parasite larvae along with the bottle jaw, and—if not treated—death of grass blade, resulting in infection. Numbers infected sheep and goats.ATTRA—National SustainableAgriculture Information Ser- of infective larvae on the pasture increasevice is managed by the National Mature parasites breed inside the host and over time when environmental conditionsCenter for Appropriate Technol-ogy (NCAT) and is funded under “lay eggs,” which pass through the host and are favorable (warm, wet).a grant from the United StatesDepartment of Agriculture’sRural Business- Cooperative Ideas and research were generated by the Southern Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control ( Visit the NCAT Web site and funding support for this work was provided by USDA, CSREES, Integrated Organic Program, and Capacity Building( for more informa- Grants Program (Award No. 2005-38814-16429). Mention of trade names or commercial products in this manuscript istion on our sustainable solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by theagriculture projects. U.S. Department of Agriculture.
  2. 2. Parasites are now developing resistance to Selective Deworming all commercially available anthelmintics or FAMACHA© (dewormers). Drug resistance is the ability of worms in a population to survive drug • A system for classifying animals treatment of the animal at the standard based on levels of anemia (accord- prescribed dosage. Over-use of deworm- ing to eye mucous membrane color) ers (frequent deworming and treating all • Treat only animals with symptoms animals regardless of need) has led to of the barber pole worm (anemia)O ver-use dewormer resistance, and as a consequence • Reduces the use of dewormers and most available dewormers are now ineffec- slows development of resistance of deworm- tive. Producers cannot rely on anthelmintics ers has led alone to control internal parasites. There- • Is only effective for the treatment ofto dewormer resis- fore, it is important to use several tools to H. contortus (barber pole worm)tance, and as a manage internal parasites. Selecting Resistant Animalsconsequence most The following are tools that can be used to • Several breeds show resistance toavailable dewormers manage internal parasites. For more infor- internal parasitesare now ineffective. mation see ATTRA’s Managing Internal Parasites in Sheep and Goats. • Individual animals can demonstrate resistance to parasites Pasture Management o Resistant animals have a lower • Maintain forage height greater than host parasite burden and are 2 inches not negatively affected by the • Provide areas of browse (brush, parasites (don’t show signs of shrubs, small trees, etc.) parasitism, remain productive) • Maintain low stocking rate o FAMACHA scores can be helpful for selection • Graze sheep and goats with cattle, or in a rotation with cattle or horses Copper Oxide Wire Particles • Provide tannin-rich forages, such as sericea lespedeza Copper oxide wire particles (COWP) have also been found to reduce parasite loads in • Harvest hay off pastures sheep and goats. COWP were developed for • Avoid wet patches in a pasture, such copper deficiency in cattle and sheep. Sheep as from a leaky water trough are very susceptible to copper toxicity, which • Fence-off naturally-wet areas can result in death. The form of copper used Things you should know about copper… • Copper is important for immune function in livestock. does not endorse the use of high copper sulfate • Sheep are very sensitive to copper accumulation in mineral mixes to control parasites. the liver, which causes toxicity. • There are complex mineral interactions that affect • The amount of copper required by sheep is not copper absorption; deficiencies in other minerals can greatly different from the toxic level, making copper increase the risk for copper toxicity. level an important consideration when mixing sheep o Low levels of molybdenum can increase risk of rations or feeding mineral. copper toxicity o The margin of safety between the required • Pastures fertilized with poultry waste may have high amount of copper (10 ppm) and toxic level (25 copper levels. ppm) is very narrow in sheep. o Sheep should not be fed poultry wastes, due to • Some sheep breeds are more susceptible to copper the high copper levels toxicity than others (Texel and dairy breeds). • Goats are less susceptible to copper toxicity, tolerat- • Copper sulfate is more readily absorbed than copper ing up to 80 ppm. oxide, creating a greater risk for copper toxicity. o While not common, copper toxicity in goats o Recommending COWP use for controlling worms can occur (13).Page 2 ATTRA Tools for Managing Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants: Copper Wire Particles
  3. 3. in COWP is poorly absorbed, reducing the Animals can be treated again after 4-6 weeks,risk of copper toxicity. if necessary. Animals should receive no more than four (if 0.5 or 1 g is used) or two (if 2 orThe exact mechanism of how copper wire 4 g is used) COWP boluses in a worm season.particles control internal parasites is not It should be noted that COWP has been foundyet fully understood. Researchers believe to be effective on reducing abomasal (H. con-copper has a direct effect on internal tortus) only and not intestinal worms. COWPparasites. It may also help to boost the has been found to be effective against H. con-immune system. Both effects help to man- tortus in mature goats most of the time, thoughage internal parasites. sometimes marginally effective. Other control strategies may be more effective in matureCopper Oxide Wire Particle animals. As with all anthelmintic treatments,Boluses it is important to work with your veterinarian.COWP boluses can be made and adminis- COWP should not be the only method usedtered on farm. Copper boluses (Copasure© ) for controlling internal parasites. COWPare available for use for copper deficiency boluses should be thought of as one compo-in cattle. These boluses can be repackaged nent of a complete parasite management strat-into doses suitable for growing sheep and egy. COWP boluses should be used selec-goats. The minimum dose that has dem- tively, treating only the animals that needonstrated control in some studies is 0.5 g, it. Using the FAMACHA© system is one waybut as much as 2-4 g may be necessary. to determine animals that should receive a COWP bolus. Selective treatment is advised to reduce the risk of worms developing resis- How to make COWP boluses for parasite control in sheep and goats tance to COWP. Other parasite management techniques are mentioned earlier in this • Purchase copper boluses publication. The use of COWP can also help (Copasure©, available in 12.5 g and Suggested pill guns to slow the development of anthelmintic drug administer COWP to 25 g boluses) resistance, as fewer anthelmintics are used. sheep and goats. Top pill • Obtain smaller gel capsules gun is marketed for dogs o Available at your local phar- and cats (Dr. Hanson’s® macy or health food store, also Bullseye pill gun) and available from veterinary supply bottom is wooden dowel houses at times. inserted into a ½ inch PVC pipe with a rubber • Repackage cattle bolus into smaller band wrapped around gel capsule to make 0.5g dose the dowel to serve as a o Size 1 gelatin capsules filled stop. Photo courtesy of 1/3 full Dr. Joan Burke. o Size 3 capsules filled ¾ full • Administer bolus with a pill gun designed for pets or wooden dowel with PVC pipeGelatin capsules, Size 3 and Size 1, filled with 0.5 g or Illustrates the fate of COWP boluses in the animal. (adapted from500 mg of COWP. Photo courtesy of Dr. Joan Burke. ATTRA Page 3
  4. 4. COWP Results There have been several research trials parasites in sheep and goats. The following studying the effects of COWP on internal table summarizes the results. Animals Used Treatment Results Notes Crossbred (Katahdin, 0.5 g or 1 g COWP every 6 Fecal egg counts (FEC) Lower COWP doses just Dorper, St. Croix cross) weeks (May-October) reduced, fewer as effective at reducing ram lambs H. contortus found in fecals internal parasites as higher of lambs treated with doses in other studies. COWP COWP was highly effec- tive in reducing nematode infection for 4-6 weeks (3) 5-6 month old hair 0, 2, 4, or 6 g COWP FEC reduced in lambs breed lambs receiving 2, 4, or 6 g COWP; H. contortus numbers in the abomasums were reduced (5) Mature Katahdin ewes, 0, 2, or 4 g COWP FEC reduced for those Evidence that lambs prior to lambing receiving COWP (2 g-66%; received copper from 4 g- 55%), FEC increased in treated ewes (in utero and untreated animals through milk) (4) Lactating Polypay ewes Mature ewes—0, 0.5, 1, or Ewes—FEC were lower for In this study, a beneficial and their offspring 2 g COWP 60 days after those treated with 1 or 2 g effect for ewes was seen lambing COWP with 2 g COWP. Offspring—0, 0.5, 0.75, 1 Offspring—All doses of COWP appear to be less or 2 g COWP at 2 months COWP lowered FEC effective in mature ewes of age compared with lambs. (7) Boer-cross yearling goats 0, 5, or 10 g COWP bolus FEC were lower for animals While FEC were lower for treated with COWP animals treated with COWP, they still were over 2000 eggs/g. (9) Boer-cross weanling goats 0 or 2.5 g COWP FEC initially decreased by FEC started to rise 3 weeks ~50% (from 2930 eggs/g after COWP treatment. (10) to 1525 eggs/g) for those treated with COWP, but then rose to over 3000 eggs/g Mature Spanish does graz- 0 or 4 g COWP Overall FEC were similar On days 0, 7, and 14 FEC of ing winter pasture between 0 and 4 g COWP. untreated goats increased while FEC of COWP treated goats remained low. (8) Yearling Spanish x boer 0, 5, or 10 g COWP FEC were similar in 0, 5, or Concentrations of copper cross bucks 10 g COWP treated goats in the liver were greater in and decreased between COWP-treated goats than day 0 and 35. untreated goats. (8) Boer x Spanish doe and 0, 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 g COWP FEC were lower on days 7, Average daily gain tended wether kids 14, and 21 compared with to increase with dose untreated kids, but were of COWP up to 2 g then similar by day 28. decreased at 4 g. (8)Page 4 ATTRA Tools for Managing Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants: Copper Wire Particles
  5. 5. Animals Used Treatment Results Notes Boer x Spanish wether kids 0 g COWP, 5 g COWP, apple There was no effect of vin- cider vinegar drench, or egar drenching on FEC in 0 vinegar drench and 5 g or 5 g COWP treated kids. COWP FEC were reduced in COWP treated kids. (8) Boer and Spanish x Boer 0 or 2 g COWP while sup- FEC were reduced in At the end of this study, does plemented with 220 g of COWP treated goats and 2 g COWP was administered corn and soybean meal or remained lower than to all goats and resulted 220 g of cottonseed meal untreated does until day in a 79% reduction in FEC 21 for corn soybean meal- 7 days later. (8) supplemented does and day 28 in cottonseed meal- supplemented does. FEC were lower in CSM than corn soybean meal-supple- mented does that received COWP. Boer yearling does 0 or 5 g COWP grazing Doses of 5 g COWP By day 28 approx. 50% of either tall fescue or sericea decreased FEC and sericea untreated does required lespedeza lespedeza grazing tended deworming, but no COWP- to decrease FEC. treated does required deworming. (8) Yearling Spanish does, Multi-trace element/vita- Fecal egg counts were prior to breeding min ruminal bolus contain- reduced (by 80%) and ing copper oxide remained low, while untreated animals’ FEC increased (6) Spanish and Boer does, 6 Multi-trace element/vita- H. contortus decreased; FEC Reduction in FEC lasted weeks before kidding min ruminal bolus contain- were reduced (by 60%) 3-4 weeks, similar to ing copper oxide anthelmintic treatments (6) Summary Copper oxide wire particles (COWP) have been proven to be an effective method of controlling H. contortus (barber pole worm) in sheep and goats. While COWP have shown positive results in reducing parasite loads, they should not be the only method of parasite control used. Research continues on the use of COWP to determine the most effective treatments for sheep and goats. COWP can be an effective component of a holistic parasite management strategy.Producers must use a holistic approach to managinginternal ATTRA Page 5
  6. 6. Resources sustained-release multi-trace element/vitamin ruminal bolus containing copper. VeterinaryManaging Internal Parasites in Sheep and Goats Parasitology (141). p. 132-137. 7) Burke, J.M., Morrical, D., & Miller, J.E. 2007.Southern Consortium for Small Ruminant Control of gastrointestinal nematodes withParasite Control copper oxide wire particles in a flock of ing Polypay ewes and offspring in Iowa, USA. Veterinary Parasitology (146). p. 372-375.References 8) Burke, J.M., Terrill, T.H., Kallu, R.R., Miller, J.E.,1) Hale, M. 2006. Managing Internal Parasites in J. Mosjidis. 2007. Use of copper oxide wire Sheep and Goats. ATTRA publication. http:// particles to control gastrointestinal nematodes in goats. Journal of Animal Science (85). p. 2753-2761.2) Burke, J.M., Miller, J.E., & Terrill, T.H. 2007. Use of Copper Oxide Wire Particles (COWP) to 9) Glennon, H.M., Luginbuhl, J-M., Mueller, J.P., Control Barber Pole Worm in Lambs and Kids. Zajac, A.M., Anderson, K.L., Spearks, J.W., Brown, T.T., & C. Brownie. 2004. Effect3) Burke, J.M. & J.E. Miller. 2006. Evaluation of of copper oxide needles on gastrointestinal multiple low doses of copper oxide wire par- parasites in grazing meat goats. Journal of ticles compared with levamisole for control of Animal Science 80 (Suppl. 2): 29. Haemonchus contortus in lambs. Veterinary 10) Luginbuhl, J-M., Glennon, H.M., & J.P. Mueller. Parasitology (139). p. 145-149. 2006. Effect of copper-oxide needles on gas-4) Burke, J.M., Miller, J.E., & D.K. Brauer. 2005. trointestinal parasites in weanling meat goats The effectiveness of copper oxide wire control-grazed on bermudagrass pastures. particles as an anthelmintic in pregnant ewes Journal of Animal Science 84 (Suppl. 2): 21. and safety to offspring. Veterinary Parasitology 11) Copasure© information. (131). p. 291-297. index.php?option=content&task=view&id=295) Burke, J.M., Miller, J.E., Olcott, D.D., Olcott, B.M., &Itemid=31 & T.H. Terrill. 2004. Effect of copper oxide wire particles dosage and feed supplement 12) Schoenian, S. 2000. Copper Toxicity in Sheep. level on Haemonchus contortus infection in lambs. Veterinary Parasitology (123). 13) Cornish, J., Angelos, J., Puschner, B., Miller, p. 235-243. G., & L. George. 2007. Copper toxicosis in a6) Burke, J.M. & J.E. Miller. 2006. Control of dairy goat herd. Journal of American Veteri- Haemonchus contortus in goats with a nary Medicine Association (231). p. 586-589. Related ATTRA Publications • Managing Internal Parasites in Sheep and Goats • Integrated Parasite Management for Livestock • Tools for Managing Internal Parasites in Small • Small Ruminant Sustainability Checksheet Ruminants: Sericea LespedezaPage 6 ATTRA Tools for Managing Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants: Copper Wire Particles
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  8. 8. Tools for Managing Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants: Copper Wire Particles By Margo Hale, Joan Burke, Jim Miller, and Tom Terrill © 2007 NCAT This publication is available on the Web at: or IP317 Slot 316 Version 112007Page 8 ATTRA