People and Environment 2009 - Landscape Architecture Programme


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People and Environment 2009 - Landscape Architecture Programme

  1. 1. People and Environment 2009 Purling water Water Water has many Hiding place in the reed It fascintes, gives courages play.Department of Work Science, Business Economics and Environmental Psychology in cooperation with Department of Landscape Architecture
  2. 2. LK0069 Objective The aim of the course is to provide insights into how the interaction betweenPeople and Environment, people and the physical environment functions and what different outdoor en- vironments can mean for quality of life, well-being and health. The course will provide training in the ability to analyse and investigate people’s relationships15 HEC to their surroundings and to translate this knowledge into design and planning processes. After completion of the course, the student should be able to: - describe perspectives and concepts within social science and behaviouralMänniska och fysisk miljö science, mainly within environmental psychology and urban sociology, that are relevant for the knowledge area of Landscape ArchitectureThe course is given as part of the Landscape Architecture Programme (admission - apply a selection of the methods used for investigating how people use,before 1 July 2007); Landscape Architecture Programme, Alnarp; Urban Land- experience and evaluate external environments (e.g. interviews, street walks,scape Dynamics - Master´s Programme observations or surveys) - problematise and analyse people’s different needs and interests in externalSyllabus Approved: 6 November 2007 environments on the basis of e.g. gender, age, social situation, cultural context and disabilitySubjects: Landscape Architecture/Landscape Planning - analyse and critically examine people’s relation to place and use this under-Level and Depth: Master D standing in design and planning contextsMarking Scale: 5:Pass with Distinction = A and B / 4:Pass with Credit = C / 3:Pass =D and E / U:Fail = F and Fx Content The course is characterised by perspectives of social- and behavioural science on problem issues within Landscape Architecture, Architecture and Town Plan- ning. Seminars and exercises will provide training in the ability to investigate and analyse people’s situation in relation to their surroundings. Students will also be posed different design problems and will be given the opportunity to translate their knowledge within environmental psychology and urban sociol- ogy into planning and design proposals. 2
  3. 3. A course summaryThis resport is a summary, a kind of review, of the four different assignments thestudents had during this course. These projects were called Street Art, Places forMemory and Meaning, Spetsamossen and Sommarsol.The first assignment was made during week 5-6, in the Urban Sociology theme.Here the students chose wether they wanted to work with Street Art (supervisedby Emma Paulsson) or Places for Memory and Meaning (supervised by SabinaJallow) and handed in an individual assignment on it. During week 7-8 all madeindividual assignments on Spetsamossen which is an urban playground. In week9-10 all handed in individual assignments on Sommarsol; a rehabililtation centrefor people with neurological diseases. Finally the students, in eight groups, re-viewed one of these four projects.l Street Artl Places for Memory and Meaningl Spetsamossenl SommarsolAlnarp, 27 March 2009Carina Tenngart Ivarsson & Elisabeth von Essen 3
  4. 4. People and EnvironmentStreet Art Eva-Marie Samuelson, Karolina Bjerler, Jessica MacDonald, Mateja Havlicek, Sona Kralikova 4
  5. 5. Introduction DiscussionThe intention of this summary is to highlight the main themes and trains of The intention or message that street art is trying to get across was discussed,thought present throughout the various projects. The projects focused on traffic if the message is too hidden or difficult to understand. The message behind thesigns, switchboxes, tags and all street art. This summary analyzes the different street art is what makes it significant, however many people either do not lookmethods and results and compares the discussions between the various groups. at the street art or do not understand the message that they are trying to get across. The length of time that the street art was present was also consideredMethod because if it has been there for a long time the message may not be relevant any longer. Street art was also seen as a method of communication between theDifferent methods used were mapping, photographing and categorizing. various residents within the city, it creates a dialogue between people who wouldDifferent groups had difficulties making categories and clearly defining otherwise not communicate with one another.them. Dividing street art from advertising and political messages was hard. Ageneral comment was that there was not enough time given to develop a more The reason that stickers were thought to be so prevalent on the traffic signs waseffective method for gathering the information. Some groups thought it would also thought to be because there is such limited space on the signs. This limitedbe beneficial to go back and see the same area later on or to investigate two space does not allow for a masterpiece or a large installation so the artworkdifferent areas within the city. Also to be able to look up the links included in adapts to fit the space available.some of the art to see if it is actually street art or rather an advertisement forsomething. It may have been beneficial as well to write some notes while you are The right to the public space was considered concerning commercials andgathering the information about the different types and materials used as you advertising. The thought of how only rich people who can pay to have theirmight not be able to see it from photographs. message communicated can have a voice within public space. Some people think that street art takes up too much public space.Results Street art could be considered the life between buildings. Jan Gehl mentionsGroups with similar methods interpreted and presented the results in different that life between buildings is not just pedestrian traffic but includes social andways. Some groups created maps that showed the locations of the different recreational activities (Gehl 2006, p.14). He explains that life between buildingstypes of street art. Others created graphs that interpreted the prevalence of contains a wide range of activities that make the place have meaning and Different kinds of street art and graffiti.different types of street art as well as the locations that they were observed. aesthetics (Gehl 2006, p.14). Street art could be one of these activities that All images by Karolina Bjerler.Another group mapped out all of the traffic signs and numbered them on a create meaning within a residential area and personalize the showing their locations. The graphs were effective and presented theinformation clearly but this method would not translate perfectly with thedifferent projects. 5
  6. 6. Especially concerning the traffic signs and the tags repetition was used to brings up the question of what level is acceptable and what street has gone too The legal wall at parking house Anna in Malmöemphasize their work. Repetition is a marketing tool that is somewhat abused by far. The location of this installation added to the inappropriate material raising the All images by Karolina Bjerler.those making use of traffic signs for advertising. Tags were repeated to compete question of where street art is appropriate and acceptable.with others and to mark that space as their own. One thing that was discussed were the different surfaces that were used for theStickers were the most common in the traffic signs and tags were the most street art and graffiti. Smooth surfaces were more common and fences that werecommon when considering the whole environment. This was thought to be the perceived to be more public were used more often. Places that were more privatecase because both mediums are very quick to put up which is helpful when such as people’s homes were not as common, this may also be because artworkyou are doing something illegal. In the literature seminar concerning street art and graffiti are removed more rapidly.the fact that street art is illegal was discussed as something that made it moreappealing. If street art was suddenly made legal it would take away from theexcitement of it. Free zones from the text by Lieberg (1995) were discussed,opportunities for artists to freely express themselves. This discussion on free Conclusionzones or free walls can be interpreted both ways. It can be seen as a great The topic of street art exposed those who participated to different levels of graffitiopportunity for an artist to spend more time on their work and not risk being and street art. The dynamic of public space and the discussions surrounding itcaught by the police but at the same time the context of the work is very may have brought up more questions than answers.important to convey a message. So the message intended by an artist may belost if it is confined to the free zone defined by the city. References Lieberg, M. (1995). Teenagers and Public Space, Communication Research, vol 22, no 6, 1995Something that our group thought was important but not discussed was the Paulsson, Emma, Street art as a theater or a prospect, 26th of January 2009level of street art that is acceptable and how the location also informs if it is Gehl, Jan (2006). Life between buildings: using public space. 6. Ed. København: The Danish Architectural Presswell received or not. One example was given by Emma Paulsson (lecture, 2009)concerning Nazi symbols and a box said to be containing the gas that was usedto kill the Jewish people located near a Jewish synagogue. This type of work 6
  7. 7. REFLECTION - STREET ARTThis is a reflection up on projects carried out during the course People and envi-ronment LK0069 in 2009.Method Street art in the public spaceWhen approachning a problem, an adequate method is needed. The method has Who has the right to the city was one common issue put forth in reflections. Itto be carefully thought through as it will be reflected in and perhaps affect the is considered to be a problem of democracy, referring to Mitchell (1995), whereresults you get. It is also important to carefully describe the method to be able the threat is that public space can start to function as a individual property, whereto evaluate the results in a good way. One way to find a suitable method for a the owner sets the rules (advertisement companies, corporations...). In this wayspecific investigation is to start up with a background research and literature the ones with financial resources has more control over the city. Furthermore itstudies, to find out what questions you want to be able to answer. Added to this was discussed that everyone should thus have the right to express themselves inuseful preparations can be making some kind of checklist to keep in hand when the city, but can this really be done everywhere in public spaces and in any way?in field. Further on it is of importance to evaluate the used method as this can Then, if the public space belongs to everyone, what right do street artists have tolead to new and better approaches of investigation in the future. In the studies do their art in the city in relation to those who does not like street art; they have adone during the course project upon street art, a very limited area of Malmö city need and right to express themselves as well. We perceive the street art as onlywas given every group, consisting of a couple of streets. This was probably due one way to express oneself in the public space, there are many other, such asto the very limited time, but as landscape architects, we discussed this in a plan- with clothes, hairstyle and music for example. What we discussed more, was thatners perspective and wants to point out that it is important to also look at the public space in fact is not thouroughly free of charge, where everyone is allowedcity in a broader perspective. It is interesting to study the whole city as a unit and to act freely and according to his beliefs. Actually we are paying taxes so in thisnot only secluded districts, which is important to have in mind for future studies. way we are paying for the public spaces in cities. There were also some interesting comparisons made how the public space can be perceived, like for example public space as a canvas for street artists or the city as a playground and the streets as aWhat is Street art? parliament where the street art phenomena takes place (Andersen, 2007). When does street art take up to much space? When it becomes too much it can start to takeWhat is art and what is not? This is a very subjective matter that all groups withinthese projects have had a hard time striving with. We cannot really define what over the city and impede the view of the city, just like advertisement in some casesart is in general, and therefore not street art. There are a lot of different motives do. Then there is no space left for the “empty” spaces that probably appeals to a lotamong artist why they do street art. It could be to send out political messages, of people. When it impedes the function of a place it is also considered too much,clearly shown or for the observer to interpret. Some artists see the reaction like when street art is put up on the front on a traffic sign and impedes the view ofperceived from people as the actual art. Artists might want to provoke the public it and in this way disturbs the drivers. It is also less accepted when the street art goin this way. Street art can also be seen as a way for the artist to show his or beyond the public realm and into the private. It can perhaps also cause disturbanceher territory and existence in the city. Some artist might just want to make the among people when it is placed in highly public places, where a lot of people notstreets more beautiful, like making a hidden corner in the city visible by putting only pass by but stay for a longer period of time.up a trophy for citizens to find. Art work seams to have some kind of meaningfor the artists but not always for the observer. If the meaning is known to the ob-server he or she has the possibility to reflect from a different point as comparedto when viewing the art when the meaning is unknown. We as designers arereflecting upon street art from our point of view and our amount of knowledge inthe subject. That is why it is important to decide on forehand what you want toinvestigate to be able to choose a proper method that will take all user groups into consideration, when it comes to public spaces. 7
  8. 8. Where does street art occur? Appropriate and offensiveStreet art is found everywhere along the streets, on objects, on the ground or on Some people perceive street art as vandalism and perhaps find the expressionsthe walls. Street art in general seems to occur more frequently in semi-public ar- of the art frightening and offensive. The art is not affecting only the visual ex-eas instead of the highly public areas. Repeated objects such as traffic signs and pression of the room but also the feeling and atmosphere of it. It may also inter-switch boxes are frequently used. A constantly competition between street art, fere with the movement pattern of people, for those who percieve the street artadvertisements and the ones cleaning the limited surfaces available is a common as something negative. When people are affected in this way of street art it canscene in the streets. Artists probably think quite differently about the location of result in segregation, as people might feel that they don’t belong in certain areas.their street art. Some seems to place it very visible so that it is easy to spot for as To divide Street art in accepted and not accepted art is as difficult as describingmany people as possible and some seems to want to place it more hidden as a art because there are no answers. In the public space where the street art oftensurprise for the viewer. The connection with a certain place might also sometimes occurs, we can discuss democracy and the question of who has the right to thebe of importance, but in the projects there were no street art showing this con- public space. Is some street art more accepted than other? From the researchesnection. The street art could though give a comment on that very specific place, point of view in the studies carried out in Malmö, schablons, stickers and posterslike environmental issues on switch boxes commenting on the ongoing discus- seems to be more accepted than spray tags. One reason can be the effort andsion of the greenhouse effect. money put into the art and the more careful preparations to create a schablon, sticker or poster in contrast to spray tags. Seeing the concept of street art as temporary art installations stickers and poster are also visionary easily to removeHow do people see street art? compared to the spray tags which can be another reason to why this kind of street art is more accepted. Professionally printed stickers can also cost a lot ofWe can make a conclusion that the perception of street art (and also what is money and many people might therefore think of it as more socially accepted.treated as such and what isn’t) is in the eyes of viewer and of the individualsknowledge and background. Is he or she familiar with the special meaning of theexpressed action? Some think that street art enriches the city, but others saysit cheapens places no matter the meaning behind it. Maybe it is also a matter of Temporary artscale when accepting something as appropriate to be there. For example, a bus As it was mentioned above, tags are the ones often seen as an action of van-completely filled with graffiti expressions perhaps might work as an art expres- dalism. Making a tag more temporary by spraying it on a poster would perhapssion, but on the other hand just a tag on an otherwise clean street wall can be be precieved as more accepted. In relation to temporary art we discussed theperceived as an act of vandalism. An interesting theory about how we percieve possibilities of using paint that is easily washed away in rainy weather. As it coststhe environment is that we filter out the necessary information from the environ- a lot of money to remove spray paint and stickers from the streets, the morement and disregard the rest, as all would be too much information to process. temporary the art is, the more accepted it would probably be; something that(Grahn, P., Stigsdotter, U, 2002 p.62) street art would therefore most likely in the society do not actively has to remove. The notion of dynamics in the publicmany situations get filtered out as not important information, at least for most of space is also an interesting topic widely discussed in the course projects. Theus. appearance of the city and the street art within the city changes all the time and agitates the feeling of the art being permanent. 8
  9. 9. Street art vs. advertising ConclusionThere were the conclusions that advertising occurs probably more frequent in During our task we came across with lot of further questions. We didn’t feel likethe streets than street art does. Some groups expressed that they wanted to in- we have the competence to completely answer them but to put them up forvestigate this relationship further, which demands more time for deeper research further discussions. In our reflection of the street art theme in the course weabout it. However, it was found out that advertising consumes public space for therefore tried to scoop the overall reflections, both from the student assign-sure. And there were questions about the borders between street art and adver- ments and the literature.tisement. Is it possible for them both to overlap each other? Rather many reflec-tions resulted in the opinion that advertisement impedes the view of the city. Itis also a matter of relation between size and perception. Huge advertisementsmean that you have no chance to escape. On the other hand the city gets moneyfrom advertising and not from street art.In relation to city planningWhen discussing the role of landscape architects or spatial planners in relationto street art, we can draw a line that street artists do more temporary things.One student expressed it as the street art is a way of temporarily tattooing thecityscape and leaving visual traces behind. Landscape architects and plannersthough plan and design the city as a whole and in a more permanent way. It isalso important to mention that these professions have a more objective perspec-tive and see to the needs of the user groups. One can think of street art as abeginning of revival of urban wastelands which offer a lot of possibilities fortemporary uses and street artists – areas where less people are affected by theirart. Street artists can be seen as catalysts in planning in the way that they bringlost places back in people’s minds, as Oswalt (2007) claims. There is perhaps aneed to include this potential in our formal planning to make our surroundingsmore interesting and exciting. There was also a notion of Lieberg’s thought ofbackstage places in the cities where teenagers can try out new things, like streetart. As we can agree with Oswalt’s statement that spontaneous, temporary usescould have positive long term effects, we can at the same time discuss that thestrictly defined areas where there is no room for backstage expressions maybecannot contribute to a place for all. The public space in the city should representthe city’s heart and its people. L e n a A g r e l l , E v a - B r i t t K a r l s s o n , Ta d e j a R o z m a n 9
  10. 10. Places for Memory and MeaningNicholas Pettinati, Karolina Alvaker, Marielle Karlsson, Shabnam Gholoobi 10
  11. 11. INTRODUCTION Background Memory and meaning in public spaces, whether an urban square or acountry road, is a difficult issue to discuss. However, this was the subject for oneof the projects in the course People and the Environment at SLU. The assign- The site that was selected for the design is located along the coast inment was to design an urban space in the Western Harbor of Malmö as a place the Western Harbor of Malmö. The physical site itself is a large square that isfor memory and meaning. The assignment started with a review of some relevant elevated, overlooking the sea and the Oresund Bridge. Also, in the northwest cor-literature and continued with a walking tour of some different spaces in Malmö. ner there is a small platform that protrudes from the square and forms an over-Ultimately, the students prepared a group presentation about their thoughts on look. This corner has been nicknamed “the Titanic” after the scene in the moviememory and meaning, and an individual proposal for the site they were asked to where the two main characters are hanging off the bow of the boat pretendingdesign. to fly. In the center of the square there is a stage that is handicap accessible. The entire site is handicap accessible via ramps up to the square. The space also The students read through several relevant texts to gain a deeper un- fits into the larger scheme that forms a boardwalk along the coast. The area isderstanding behind the concepts of memory and meaning. The texts dealt with extremely popular in summer, with hundreds of people lounging, swimming, andsome very difficult theories regarding memory and provided a general framework diving into the sea.for the students. After a discussion of the texts the students embarked on awalking tour to try and discover places for memory and meaning that already As was mentioned previously, the goal of the design was to create aexisted in Malmö. The goal was to try and photograph places that had charac- space for memory and meaning. Some of the difficult questions that the studentsteristics of memory and meaning as a basis for thinking about the site. These had to answer are how do you create a space for memory and meaning in thespaces weren’t necessarily meaningful places, but spaces that could have some public realm? Whose memory and/or what meaning should the space have?elements that create meaning. The walk culminated with a visit to the design Does there have to be an event that occurred to make a space meaningful?site, and the begining of the design process for the students. What about the meaning that the space already has? What characteristics or ele- ments give a space meaning? The design proposals answer all these and many The goal of this paper is to summarize the results from these proposals more questions in amazingly unique ways.and the overall success of the assignment. There is also a brief summary of the Pictures of the site (provided by Matejatexts that were used for this assignment. We will start with a brief background and Tadjea)of the site, and some of the questions that faced the students as they began thedesign process. Then we will move to a discussion of the proposals themselves,and the themes that we felt emerged from the designs. Finally, we will end withsome of our own thoughts and comments on the project. 11
  12. 12. THEMES While each proposal addressed the issues associated with creating be decrbied as a parallel reality where an anti sound installation makes you aware memory and meaning in an urban public space in their own way, there were also of sounds by creating absolute silence at a place which should have sounds...” several themes that emerged from the designs. The three main themes focused The next proposal, by Tadeja Rozman, also used the view as a driving on the view of the sea, the element of water, and the use of sculpture. force for her design. “To feel its drops, to smell and taste the salt (of life!), to hear The proposal by Jenny Åkesson, Johanna Verbaan and Sofia Fribyter the roaring, to see the ocean`s horizon and its eternal vastness. Just being here used the view as a major element in their design. They created “cave-like” rooms and now, in the present of the preseence of all sense sactivated. It gives a shelter, (see graphic below) that could be entered and used as a place to quietly reflect. a possibility to draw back, be among people, but still alone, hearing stifled sounds They wanted to highlight the view of the sea and the powerful meaning associ- of the ocean and of people´s voices somewhere around...” She talks about using ated with it. and also use silence as a way to create meaning. “...The place could this space as a place to pause from the everyday flow of life,Picture from the proposal “Silence” by Graphic provided by Tadeja RozmanJenny Åkesson, Johanna Verbaan andSofia Fribyter 12
  13. 13. and creating meaning through taking this break. Using this space as a chance to Finally, the last theme that developed from the different proposals Left: Graphic Provided bystop and reflect on whatever we can. centered around the use of scupltures, and their ability to create meaning. The Mateja Havlicek Middle: Graphic Provided by The second theme that emerged from the different proposals revolves proposal by Emily Hansen used a sculptural element to create activity and mean- Cordula Gielen ing simultaneously in the space. She created several different pillars that can be Right: Graphic Provided byaround the element of water and its possible uses on the site. The proposal by Emily HansenMateja Havliček focuses on just this element. She wanted to create a space used for sitting, standing, jumping, demonstrating, and anything else someonewhere the experience of water drives the meaning of the place. She accom- can think of. The focus is on the social interactions that can be created by theseplished this through a shallow pool that flows into a waterfall off the edge. This elements and the people in the space, and the possibility for that social narrativepool can be experienced by all through as many senses as possible, and as such to evolve and change. “The social character of the space exists in an alternatecreates a new meaning for the space through water. “The tactile experiences of sort of reality, one that continues to define and redefine the space through ex-sight, sound and touch have a big value in this project.” periences and interactions of and between people in the collectively recognized physical setting.” Cordula Gielen also used water as an important element in creatingmeaning in the space. Similar to that of Mateja, she brought the predominant The proposal by Eva-Britt Karlsson also uses a sculpture to bring mean-element of the site (the view of the ocean) into the actual physical space. As the ing to the site. However, her sculpture is one that has a great cultural significancegraphic above depicts, the center stage has been turned into a shallow reflect- and historical background. The idea she had was to have different artists toing pool that can be experienced in many different ways. Her main concept was create a sculpture of a hand in the center of the stage. This hand could changeto use the idea of reflecting, both metaphorically and physically (in the water), to through time and the idea of the hand has a great deal of meaning attached to it.bring new meaning to the area. “Consequently, this place provides possibilities As thefor being active as well as being spirtiual. They just happen side by side.” 13
  14. 14. Conclusion graphic to the left depicts, even the shapeorientation of the hand can alter its As evidenced by the various proposals, there is no correct answer on meaning. This simple gesture changes the makeup of this urban square and how to add meaning and memory to a space, especially one in the urban public accomplishes the goal of creating new meaning. “No one knows who the hands fabric. However, there are some elements that emerged from this design exer- belong to, (accept the designer). The meaning is to show that all people have the cise as possible solutions. right to the public space.” All the proposals dealt with the existing conditions, and those conditions The next proposal by Karolina Alvaker takes in the sense of hearing in have a large impact on the design of the site. The themes that developed evolved the memorial experience. Echoing sounds and wind passing through the sculp- from the interpretations of the site, and the conditions that are present there. It tural elements creating music which stimulates the senses and draws upon the would be interesting to see what would happen if a completely different site was idea of remembrance in a playful way. “With particular focus on sense and spirit, given for this same exercise. and with the natural elements as a mirror rather than any connection to a god, The question of how to create meaning or memory in a space is still a the Titanic Memorial is built to capture the individual person i a vast crowd.” difficult one to address, but this assignment helped to shed light on some pos- The proposal by Ann Henrikson also uses the idea of wind and sculp- sible ways to deal with the very complex issue. ture to define meaning in this urban space. Her concept revolves around the idea of wind as a way to trigger a fascination about the site. The sculptures force an extra awareness about the environment that surrounds the users of the site, and adds a new dimension. The statue of the wind formalizes the idea of the sculptures and the concept that they symbolize. “...a public meeting place where the perception of feeling and being a human being is in focus. The memorial of the wind is in fact a masque of the human perception of the wind...” Finally, the proposal by Nicholas Pettinati, deals with sculpture in a slightly different way. He wanted to use the memories of the people who use the Top: Graphic provided by Ann Henrikson site to add meaning to the space. He accomplished this goal by creating a photo Bottom: Graphic provided by collage as the paving pattern for the center stage, and on the walls of the space. Nicholas Pettinati The photographs to be used would be donated by people who use the space and would be constantly evolving, with more and more photographs being added. This collage is a physical representation of the memories that have occured on the site, and as such embody the meaning of the place. “The installation has a pround effect on the meaning of the space. Now, it is not only about what activi- ties are occuring there, it is also about remembering and re-living those experi- ences and learning about the experiences of others”Top: Graphic provided by Eva-Britt KarlssonBottom: Graphic provided by Karolina Alvaker 14
  15. 15. REFLECTION We want to take this opportunity to share our thoughts and comments proposal, but was difficult for some to get started. It definately added a uniqueon the project. To start some general thoughts on the process; The literature for dimension to the proejct.this project was helpful as a starting point, and definately got us thinking about Overall, we all really enjoyed this project and would reccomendmemory and meaning. However it didn´t directly relate to the site, or the task. For The Titanic Corner, Picture by Cordula Gielen doing something similar in another course. It provoked someus, it provided more of a framework for the design, and the design evolved more very difficult and challenging questions about how peoplefrom the site conditions and the individual thoughts of the students. interact in an environment. Those types of questions Memory and meaning also occur on a very individual level, and we we think are at the core of this course andquestion whether you can create a space for everyone that is meaningful in a should be the ones to be exploredspirtual way. The question of religious vs nonreligious is always at the back of further.our minds when talking about this issue and another big question is how do weresolve that? Getting to the actual proposals, we thought it was incredible how therewere so many different solutions to this problem. Each proposal handled thesedifficult questions in a very unique way. It was also really interesting to see howthe themes evolved from the projects. It showed us how while each project wasindividual the group discussions had a great impact on how the process washandled. The discussion with Sabina Jallow also had a very profound impact onthe process. Sabina Jallow talked about how the ocean allows us to be silent, andeven just that comment influenced the designs.Another really interesting aspect of this project was the requirement to write it asan article from a third persons view. This was an excellent way to critique our own 15
  16. 16. MEMORY AND MEANINGLiterature reviews- a summary • Spiritual and memorial places can be used for all outdoor activities; necessary, voluntary and social activities. These places can today also often be more symbolic than religious. As the time goes on, the use and meaning of a memorial place furthermore changes.The following summary is made from reflections on the course Many memorial objects, such as statues in the city, act for instanceliterature made by the students working with “places of memory as places for meeting where the original meaning of the object noand meaning” and from our group discussions. longer is important. • Spiritual places can gather people and act as meeting points • The remembrance can be voluntary, but it can also bein the outdoor environment. The experiences of a tragedy also uncontrollable. Memories are often recalled by complex andoften get people in difficult situations which can make them work individual triggers and not by places themselves. The triggers cantogether and get stronger. Memorial places can however also act be a certain symbol, feeling, spatiality, detail, etc. Of these triggers,excluding in the way that they sometimes can have a too directed some can be more effective than others. One of the triggers thatdesign or purpose. can be very important for our remembrance is the activation of our senses since they are a primitive part of us. • Memories can be personal and/or public. There havetherefore to be a balance between memorial places for individuals, • Sometimes people want to remember actively, which oftenwhich are person-oriented and can be individualized, and places for make them connect the memory to a certain thing or a place. Thethe public, which are spiritual and suitable for different people and active remembrance can however be created in a lot of differentcultures. Every person has however their own mourning process and ways.there are therefore good if it is possible to make room for individualmourning expressions in places with common monuments. • Memories are not the whole truth, but a creative imagination of the past. The memory and meaning of an event or thing can • Both the past and the future are important for the present therefore vary a lot between different individuals.time as the present exists in between the two. Since we can relateto things in the past it can be a great source of information andinspiration when forming the future.For a person who is morning it can be very hard to look into thefuture as one wants to remember the past, but it can also be hard asyou see that the future will be different than you had pictured. The reviews where based on the literature, which references are on the next page. 16
  17. 17. References Guidelines and Tip-offs• Gehl, J. (2006). Life between buildings: using public space. 6. These guidelines are inspired by and canalized of what we have readed. København: The Danish Architectural Press. Or in Danish; Gehl, in the literature reviews/articles and of our discussion.J. (1996). Livet mellem husene. Udeaktiviteter och udemiljö.3. uppl.Köpenhamn: Arkitektens Forlag.• Hillier, J. (2007). Stretching beyond the Horizon. A MultiplanarTheory of Spatial Planning and Governance. pp 94-95Lieberg, M.(1995). Teenagers and Public Space, Communication Research, vol TOOLS: TEASE THE SENSES & SYMBOLISM22, no 6, 1995, pp.720 -744.• Mitchell, D. (2003). The Right to the City. Social Justice andthe Fight for Public Space. New York: The Guilford Press. Chapter 4, • TEASE THE SENSESThe End of Public Space? , pp 118-160. - To strengthen or weaken one or more senses:• Parr, A. (2008). Deleuze and Memorial Culture. Desire, o Stimulate one sense by e.g. using a significantSingular Memory and the Politics of Trauma. Pp 181-189. Edinburgh. smell or sound.Edinburgh University Press. o To mute one sense by e.g. make a place quiet.• Petersson, A. (2004). The Presence of the Absent. Memorials o Stimulate all the senses by using one phenomenon,and Places of Ritual. Lund University: Dept. of Architecture. Chapter1 e.g. water that you can touch, smell, taste and hear.and 3. o To emphasize by using contrasts, e.g. dark and• Santino, J. (2006) (Ed). Spontaneous Shrines and the Public light, loud and quiet, small and big, high and low, etc.Memorialization of Death. Goldstein, D. E. & Tye, D. The Call ofthe Ice: Tragedy and Vernacular Responses of Resistance, Heroic - You can control some senses more than others e.g. youReconstruction, and Reclamation. New York. Palgrave Macmillan. can decide whether you like to touch something but it’s harder to not experience a smell or a sound.• The Wanås Foundation (2008). Loss. Svenle, E. Defining thePast within the Present: Loss at Wanås. pp 13-32. Laholm. TrydellsTryckeri. ISBN 978-91-973972-9-2. 17
  18. 18. • SYMBOLISM BE AWARE OF: THE PUBLIC SPACE & THE PERSONS - Who will understand the symbolism and what does it mean if you do not understand the symbolism? • THE PUBLIC SPACE - Use symbolism from the past, the moment or for the - A memorial place can exclude some people e.g. different future. religions, different cultures, people who are not mourning, - Beware of the change of symbolism, e.g. the swastika etc. that was a symbol for sun but now are connected with - Memorial places can act as meeting points where people Nazism and the christian cross that should be the symbolIs this hope? can share a memory with others, e.g. a memorial place of an for hope but now are perceived as a symbol of death by accident. How does the dis- many. tance affect you? - The accessibility, e.g. for disabled people, wheelchair - Use the universal symbolism of nature elements, e.g. users and different genders, ethnicity, religion, age, etc. water can be recognized as the source of life. - How to raise a memorial. - Use contrasts that make the symbolism clear, e.g. a water element might have a stronger influence in a dense city - How to take a memorial away e.g. build up something than in direct connection to the seaside. new with another meaning. - Use the written language, e.g. quotations written on a - That different places are more or less appropriate for street in Stockholm that remind you of certain things. memory and meaning and that the right design for the place is important. What happened? • THE PERSONS - That a traumatic memory can pop up trigged by some thing in the environment. - That the memory can be actively evoked, e.g. by some ritual. - The fact that a memory is not the whole truth but a creative imagination of the past, e.g. some childhood memories of certain happenings get more “pink” after a period of time. What do we remember? - Different kinds of stages in for e.g. the mourning. ...or just Summer? 18
  19. 19. Influences by the literature Influences by the groupIt was quite interesting to regard the influence of the literature Every design proposal is based on, first of all, the person’s ownbackground on the final design proposals. We figured out that experience of the place and it has the marks of the concerningthere is an obvious connection between the given literature and literature. As people worked on this task in several groups, and theythe proposals. The literature directed the thoughts of the students’ had group discussions, the effects of the discussions are noticeabledesign process. While discussing about the different proposals we in each person’s individual work. For example:noticed that for us senses could play an important role in triggeringmemories. Although senses like the sense of hearing play animportant role in several designs, students hardly discussed about it • when elements of nature were emphasized on a discussion, it isperhaps as they had no text to rely on. noticeable on the students works • it is the same effect with triggersEven if the students had the same theoretical background, the • or the importance of public interactionliterature was used in different ways. Some students used clear • the most of students kept the original identity of the traced areareferences to the texts and thus created a proposal with a veryscientific character. Other students however used the literature • and a group which discussed the importance of height, viewmore like a first inspiration. Although they did not use strict and freedom, it is mentioned in the individual texts as well.references it is obvious that they refer to the same theoreticalbackground. As we noticed, every work was seemingly completely different, but looking behind it – reading the text – there were marked signsWe regard it as very important to do either or. If one uses references which group they belonged to. This shows the importance ofone should try to do it in a correct and stringent way because parts talking to different kind of people, different kind of user groups andof the proposal without references seem to be one’s own ideas. professionals.Without any references the reader of a text might be aware that theauthor draws upon a given theoretical framework. 19
  20. 20. SPETSAMOSSENGroup 7: Anna Ekdahl, Anna Stefkova, Hrafnhildur Hrafnkelsdóttir, Karin Ingemansson, Sigrid Lönnerholm 20
  21. 21. THE TASKOur task was to make proposal for a kind of urban playground in part of Spetsa-mossen park in Vaxjo. The city is surrounded by water, which is a major elementof this town. The park is located in the downtown. People pass through the siteeveryday to get to work or city centre but there is no inviting atmosphere that willmake them stay and spend some time there. The municipality have now decidedto rebuild the park because it is considered to be unsafe and of limited use bythe citizens. The new suggestion for the park structure came from Kragh & Ber-glund architects.Difficulties:One of the difficulties we were confronted with was how we were supposed tomake the proposal if we didn’t know how the place exactly looks like and didn’thave opportunity to see it.Another question was the concept of an “urban” playground. An urban play-ground feels a bit on contrary to what we have learned or read in the literature.Many people defined urbanity with materials, shapes, vegetation which can givean urban character to a space.Safety: A lot of people didn’t consider the park as a safe place. Lighting and alsovegetation were considered as elements to counteract this perception.Activity was also mentioned according to different age groups. People came upwith question if it is possible to include all age groups to one place and makeeverybody satisfied and active. If you try to please everyone you may loose thefascination of the place.The term “playground” tends to be used for children and it was confusing to workwith. Also play was included between all age groups- from the children to elderlyand disabled people.Some people made their assignment as a professional design proposal for themunicipality; the others made it more as a school assignment and were writingmore reflectively about their ideas than promoting them. 21 Illustration: The proposed activity area (Kragh and Berglund Architects)
  22. 22. THE KRAGH AND BERGLUND PROPOSAL In this assignment we were given an overall proposal from the Architect Com- pany Kragh & Berglund. The students have different attitudes to this concept, whereas no one has chosen not to work with it all, people have used their con- cept differently and in varying degrees. The distinct paths are a subject that many students have mentioned, and many have seen the paths as an urban shape and something that will contribute to the desired urban character of the park. Some have decided to work further on these, also on a more detailed level in the urban activity area that we were given. And that seems to have worked well, the activity area then look more connected to the rest of the park. Some are critical against the elevated paths, that they will direct the movement too much and prevent people from finding their own way around in the park. And also that they will give a feeling on being on-stage and possibly make people feel very visible, vulnerable and exposed. The Kragh and Berglund concept have raised a discussion about urbanity among many students. Especially when they mentioned that materials as asphalt and concrete would contribute to the urban character many students questioned what urbanity is? The conclusion is that urbanity partly lies in the choice and use of materials, but also distinct shapes, elements and lighting etc. are important to get the desired urban feeling. Also it is argued that the many different activities that will take place in the park can give it an urban feel, that this density of activities is very urban. Some think that the Kragh and Berglund proposal have divided the different ac- tivities in the park and not made the park inclusive enough. They describe it as a park consisting of different ‘activity islands’. Some have reflected on that it might be a good idea to extend the ‘Urban activity’ area and lead the main path trough it so that it will be a natural place for people to stop by at, and thus avoid it to be another separated ‘activity island’. This division is feared to lead to divided age groups and less integration in the park.Illustrations from top: Carina Daubner,Zita Lándori, Sofia Fribyter 22
  23. 23. THEMES IN DESIGNPROPOSALSA great variation in handed-in material could be noted. Some proposals were very • Area divided into “islands” Illustrations from left: Anna Ekdahl, Erikaconceptual whereas others were more detailed, some had illustration plans and Jonasson, Emily Hansen, Jessica Macdonaldothers simple sketches illustrating basic ideas. When looking through the design • Inspiration for idiomproposals we found some common themes and similarities. WaterWetland/Bog Water has been used in almost all of the proposals in one way or another. It is, by many, considered a playful element that increases well-being just by being pres-A lot of the proposals discussed the context of Spetsamossen as a formerwetland and used this as an inspiration for the design of the activity area. This ent.background was first introduced in the Kragh & Berglund concept. • Water-play • FountainNature-like design or actual biotope • Streaming water • Still waterIn some proposals the wetland as a biotope or natural elements from it have beenused, for instance:• Dewatering area with reed and jumping stones Use of all senses Exploration with other senses than just vision (touching, tasting, smelling andSymbolic listening) affects the experience of place. Activity does not necessarily have to beOther proposals have mainly been inspired by the shapes or forms found in wet- physical, it can also be mental.lands, for example: • Tactile elements • Exploring with your body and activating your brain 23
  24. 24. Eye catching objects MultifunctionalityIllustrations from left: Mateja Havlicek,Merle Talviste, Magdalena Galle, Eva-Britt Karlsson Objects that attract attention and evoke curiosity. Work like magnets that draw This theme includes objects or elements that have no specific function and can people into the area from where they can start-off and discover other parts. be used in more than one way. Places can also have multiple functions. Some examples of this: • Maze Idiom • Disco-game with musical tiles lighted in different colours. Some have used an over-all idiom, like a certain shape or pattern, often devel- • High-rope course oped from the concept of Kragh & Berglund, others have used objects conse- quently throughout the area. • Original swings/hammocks • Spectacular furniture Security • Red path • Play-sculptures The problems with rape and criminality in the park have been considered in many • Creative lighting of the proposals, often by avoiding dense shrubberies and putting emphasis on lighting. Other aspects of security are all the regulations concerning play equip- ment and public places. This is not something that is discussed to any larger Hills and levels extent in the proposals, perhaps because it might be limiting in the conceptual stage of the design process. Arguments for using hills or other differences in height include that they promote motion and evoke curiosity of what might be behind. They can also provide a place for overview of the area. Examples of this: Accessibility • Rocks or structures to climb Access for all seems to be an important issue in all of the proposals. It has been • Large hill as border/viewpoint considered in the choice of ground-material, by making paths and by allowing • Group of smaller hills activities for everyone, including people with disabilities. • Modeling of landscape 24
  25. 25. USE OF REFERENCESWe think it is important to think about who will be reading your proposal. Who is o three elements: the permanent, the changeable, the momentaryyour target group? Will your use of the references be easily understandable to o provide a feeling of freedom and keep play goingthose who have not read the literature, or have forgotten what the literature was o use of all senses when experiencing placeabout? The references must be presented in such a way that the reader willknow what they are referring to and be able to connect them to your work. o awareness of geography, concrete place and not just abstract o gender perspective, boys do not necessarily need more space than girlsReferences in individual proposals were used to strengthen and support thestudent’s concept in the design proposal. Some were relevant to the literaturewe have been reading, while others weren’t. Cooper Marcus and BarnesReflections on children’s play, public places, the senses, activities, users, objects o gardens must convey a sense of securityand vegetation were the most common ones. The researchers with the most o positive effects of waterreferences to their work were Gehl, Cele, Mårtensson, Kylin and Boldeman. o positive effects of being outdoorsReferences - literature for every- Gehl o people gather where the main attractions areone; o primary seats and secondary seating o new activities begin in the vicinity of events that are already in progressBoldeman o people as social creatureso better motor skills in natural environments o activities grow from the edge to the middleo different height levels important o people are attracted to other people, especially if they are activeo a green environments triggers activity o public places have changed from being used because of needs to beingo vegetation protect children from dangerous sun radiation Illustration: Lavanya Asogamoorthy places for optional, recreational activitieso physical qualities of outdoor places important to trigger healthy behav o human scaleiour in children o other people are the main attraction of public spaceso physical elements like sculptures result in more spontaneous play than prefabricated equipment o public spaces need to have opportunities for people and meetingso fenced-in surfaces can have a hindering affect on physical activity GiffordCele o passive observation most of the timeo object o people have different experience and thoughts of placeo problems with creating labelled places o if groups feel welcome and use it, there will be more life 25
  26. 26. Grahn and Stigsdotter o elements that allow you to test your senses o benefits of being outdoors Kylin o absence of large green areas o children, special place, special meaning o children’s need to manipulate environments o dens – hidden places where children can observe without being observed o possibilities to climb, hide, meet with friends o layers of vegetation is important to play o dens vary from very secret to very socialIllustration: Emma Ekdahl o vegetation promotes activity o children needs a more intimate scale, this triggers them to create their own space o teenagers need to have opportunities to feel free and independent o step-by-step, smaller children keep closer to parents o respect for children’s own creativity and needs is necessary when planning for them Lieberg o on stage, offstage o teenagers seek to avoid adult supervision o teenagers have few places in the city in which they can hang out o in between/ free zones o places to retreat 26
  27. 27. References - from lectures: References – for further reading: JacobsGrahn o the mixture of users and uses is what changes a place into an urban placeo easier to find something they like if the place offers one function, and easier to find something to do if one part is used for a particularplay or activity Wardo usage of the eight park characters o defining aspect of a park is accessibilityo using an orange colour as stimulation of activity- white and bluish co lours are good in relaxing environments References - from other than those in our literature list:Mårtenssono objects Appeltono objects, something to touch, things to do o prospect, refugeo own rules, play and usage of spaceo vegetation promotes activity Illustration: Cordula Gielen Delshammar, Timo vegetation should be emphasized in the outskirts of the area, focus on edges which promote play o user participationo children create their own world in which they define roles, places that can be related to each other like high or low, dense or open support this Diarmuid Gavin kind of play o wooden platforms inspired one studento areas for children are often too organizedo children need to have places for their own F.L.Right o quotation:” form follows function “Nebelongo stimulate the senses Gaventa o traditional public places are not enough to meet the needs and wishes of people today Kaplan and Kaplan o sitting places with open front and closed back make you feel comfortable 27
  28. 28. Integrated sitting facilities gives the possibility to rest, observe, listen, meet randomly a friend. These one of the activities that can take place next to a urban playground. Children are experiencing the ru Spetsamossen playground human figures. The figures in a active poses can trigger others also be active in this park. Illustration by Merle Talvieste. 28Rubber element next to the playground (first characteristics). It function as a space in its own. It opens up
  29. 29. INTRODUCTION SPETSAMOSSEN PROJECTThis project holds the summary and reflection of the project Spetsamossen. Our given proposal site is in the Spetsamossen Park. Our task for the site was to The proposed urban pathways for the Spetsamossen park illustrated byThe ideas, opinions, and discussions are that of spring 2009 students of the create an untraditional urban playground. This space had previously been very Kragh&Berglund.class People and Environment. This student project took place in the campus of unsafe and more of a forgotten nature area. It has been neglected and underap-Alnarp, SLU Agricultural Sciences. The results and reflection are those concern- preciated. The municipality would like to change the park to something that alling the design of the site Spetsomossen and general design elements that may citizens can use and take pride in. Kragh & Berglund are the landscape architectsbe effective elsewhere. We tried to provide an impression of all these proposals taking part in this project and have provided a proposed plan for the entire site.without evaluating each design proposal. Thus, we wanted to reflect and maybe However, our task was to look into this one specific part located south of theprovide some feedback on how to incorporate the design of Spetsomesson to skateboard area. We were supposed to create a suitable design considering thefuture design proposals. What were the basic questions asked by students? How context and requirements of the site. In this process questions and discussionscan this be related to the current understanding of the public’s view? What is were formulated to provide a better understanding of the task at hand. This sum-the outlook on future designs concerning the matters discussed in this project? mary and reflection is a conclusion of our findings, of our questions and futureWhat elements are repeated? These are some questions that are addressed in this design 29