Peanuts: Organic Production


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Peanuts: Organic Production

  1. 1. Peanuts: Organic Production A Publication of ATTRA - National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service • 1-800-346-9140 • www.attra.ncat.orgBy Martin Guerena People interested in growing peanuts and experienced peanut growers considering a switch to organicand Katherine Adam production may find a high demand for organic peanuts and enjoy higher premiums over traditionallyNCAT Agriculture grown peanuts.Specialists Labor and management costs can be much higher for organic peanuts than conventionally grown pea-© 2008 NCAT nuts. In place of off-farm inputs, organic peanut farmers can use intensive management, maintain high soil fertility, manage weeds through hand hoeing and specialized equipment and manage insects withContents alternative insect management strategies.Introduction ....................... 1Part I: Markets, peanutsand premiums.................... 2 Organic markets ..................2 Organic peanuts..................2 History .....................................3 Marketing challenges........3 Alternative uses ...................4 Forage peanuts ................4 Peanut oil potential for biodiesel..............................4 Organic demands and premiums ...............................5 Production budgets ..........5Part II: Production oforganic peanuts ................ 5 Soil and fertility ...................5 Rotations ................................6 Organic integrated pest management ........................8 Insects .....................................9 Diseases ................................11 Nematodes ..........................13 Weeds ....................................14 Conservation tillage ........14 Irrigation ..............................15 Harvesting and post Peanut crop. Photo by Brad Haire, University of Georgia, harvest handling ...............15Summary ............................... 16References ........................ 17 Introduction to insect pests and diseases. When pest OFurther resource .............19 controls are neccessary, organic farmersAppendix: Sources of rganic production of peanuts, or any manage insects, diseases, weeds and otherthermal weeders .............19 commodity, relies on management pests with cultural, mechanical, biological techniques that replenish and main- and, as a last resort, organically accepted tain long-term soil fertility by optimizing theATTRA – National Sustainable biorational and chemical controls.Agriculture Information Service is soil’s biological activity. This is achievedmanaged by the National Center forAppropriate Technology (NCAT) through crop rotation, cover cropping or com- In 2002, the U.S. Department of Agri-and is funded under a grant posting and using organically accepted fer- culture implemented its National Organicfrom the U.S. Department ofAgriculture’s Rural Business- tilizers that feed the soil and provide plants Program. The program regulates organicCooperative Service. Visit the with nutrients. production nationwide. Farmers and ranch-NCAT Web site ( for In addition to producing high-quality ers that market their products as organicmore information on crops, healthy and well-balanced soil can must be certified. An exception to thisour sustainable agri-culture projects. help plants develop natural resistance requirement is made for farmers who sell
  2. 2. less than $5,000 annually. For more infor- Several factors may have contributed to the mation on organic crop production and increase, including: organic farm certification, see ATTRA’s • Reduced concern about fat in foods publications Organic Crop Production Over- view, Organic Farm Certification and the • Studies linking peanut consumption National Organic Program and Organic to health Certification Process. • Introduction of new products such as flavored in-shell peanuts Part I: Markets, peanuts • Increased retail promotion by theRelated ATTRApublications and premiums industry • Promotional emphasis on peanutAlternative Agronomic Organic marketsCrops health benefits (USDA/ERS, 2002) There is very little published marketing In conventional peanut production, the bat-NCAT’s Organic Crops research on emerging organic peanut mar- tle for a share of the world peanut market isWorkbook kets. Anecdotal information shows that constant and influenced by price and qual-Organic Field Crops demand is high for organic peanuts and ity of peanuts, on-time service to buyers andDocumentation Forms organic farmers enjoy high premiums over ample peanut supplies (Spearman, 2006a).Soil Management: conventionally grown peanuts. The United States now ranks third in theNational Organic Some large organic food manufacturers seek world in peanut production, behind ChinaProgram Regulations dependable supplies of organic peanuts and and India.Biodiesel: may be willing to contract for organic pro-The Sustainability duction. The snack food industry, rather than Organic peanutsDimension the peanut butter sector, may be the larger Organic peanut production is traditionally market for organic peanuts.Oilseed Processing for confi ned to the Valencia cultivar in NewSmall-scale Producers This has implications for the type of pea- Mexico, Colorado and West Texas.Organic Crop nut desired and for the geographical areaProduction Overview most suited to its production. Since shellers Virginia, Runner, Spanish and Valencia are and manufacturers are the principal con- the four peanut cultivars. The main commer-Organic FarmCertification and the tractors for peanut production in the South, cial peanut crop raised in the United States isNational Organic a much different processing and marketing the Runner type, used mainly for peanut but-Program infrastructure may need to be developed to ter. The Runner cultivar makes up 75 percent serve organic markets. of the country’s planted acreage, mostly inOrganic Certification the Southeast. The Virginia type comprisesProcess In general, peanut production in the United 15 percent of the U.S. crop, grown mainly in States is rising. According to the Peanut Virginia and the Carolinas. Five percent of theOverview of CoverCrops and Green Council, American peanuts are considered national crop is Spanish peanuts, grown inManures to be the highest quality in the world (Led- the Southwest. The Valencia cultivar, grown better and Wallace, 2006). The United in New Mexico, makes up 1 percent of the States exports from 200,000 to 250,000 U.S. crop. metric tons of peanuts per year (American Peanut Council, 2002). While several major market types of Peanuts-value of production in 2005 peanuts can grow in New Mexico, three State rank State Value of production Valencia strains were developed for the climate, soil and length of growing season 1 Georgia $368.1 million in the state. Valencias, a red-skinned pea- 2 Texas $162.9 million nut undesirable for making peanut butter, 3 Alabama $103.6 million are typically marketed as in-shell edible 4 Florida $69.8 million peanuts. 5 North Carolina $56.7 million • Valencia A has a red seed coat and Source: National Agricultural Statistics Service, 2006 a bunching growth habit. The A200Page 2 ATTRA Peanuts: Organic Production
  3. 3. cultivar, developed from the Tennes- pre-colonial times (Georgia Cooperative see Red peanut, was released in 1971 Extension, 1982). Historical records indi- by New Mexico State University’s cate that the peanut was primarily a gar- Agricultural Experiment Station as den crop until after the Civil War. As a field New Mexico Valencia A. This variety crop, farmers grew peanuts only for hog of peanut has the greatest proportion pasture until about 1930 (Putnam et al., of three- and four-seeded pods. 1991). Peanuts are still recommended as an • Valencia C also has a red seed coat easy-to-grow home garden crop in the South and emerges one to three days later and can mature as far north as central New than Valencia A. This strain is a York (Dawling, 2006). The noted scientist 1979 NMSU release, developed George Washington Carver, of Tuskegee from irradiated Colorado Manfredi Institute in Alabama, developed numerous seed with parentage of Colorado de products from the peanut, including food- Cordoba introduced from Argentina. stuff, dyes, medicines and fuels. Valencia C has a larger seed and a Peanuts need a minimum of 110 frost-free higher percentage of sound, mature days to produce a crop, and Virginia-type kernels than other Valencia variet- peanuts require 2520 to 2770 growing- ies. It matures at the same time as degree days above a base of 57 degrees the Valencia A strain. Fahrenheit for successful production (Dawl- • The McRan Valencia cultivar is pro- ing, 2006). Other requirements include tected under the New Mexico Plant warm to hot growing conditions with ade- Variety Protection Act. The McRan quate but not excessive water. Irrigation cultivar produces three- and four- may be necessary in some years. Light, seeded pods that have limited con- loose, well-drained soil is also highly desir- striction and contain full, touching, able. Using the right rotation, or even inter- flattened seed (Baker et al., 2000). planting another legume, often eliminates the need for additional fertilizer.HistoryThe peanut, Arachis hypogaea L. (Fabaceae, Dr. Mark Boudreau, a farm consultant withsubfamily of Leguminoseae), likely origi- Hebert Green Agroecology, received a 2005 Sustainable Agriculture Research and Educa-nated in Bolivia and already grew in the tion grant from Southern Region SustainableAmericas when European explorers arrived Agriculture Research and Education (SoSARE).in the 16th century. Peanuts, a tropical and Boudreau contends that peanut growers in thewarm-season temperate crop, soon were South can switch to organic production usingcultivated in Europe, Africa, Asia and the whole-farm decision risk management andPacific Islands. state-of-the-art techniques. He recommends: • Using resistant cultivarsIn Africa, peanuts are called groundnut,but a related edible weed species (Apios • Using cover crops and rotationsamericana) is also known as groundnut. • Understanding diversification andOther related genera include Amphicar- insect managementpaea (hog peanut), Astragalus (milkvetch), • Checking weather-based advisoriesCajanus (pigeon pea), Canavalia (jackbean • Using organic pesticidesand swordbean), Caragana (Siberian peashrub), Cicer (chickpea), and all garden Marketing challengesbeans, including limas and fabas. Most of It is difficult to fi nd published marketingthese plants have edible seeds or pods, but research results of any type, especiallysome peanuts can cause an allergic reaction research on emerging organic markets. Inin susceptible individuals. New Mexico, Sunland Peanut Company con-A University of Georgia bulletin notes that tracts for 2,500 acres of organic peanutspeanuts have grown in that state since from eight to 10 growers that are ATTRA Page 3
  4. 4. by Farm Verified Organic, a USDA-accred- once established. Perennial peanuts were ited organic certifier, and eligible for export introduced to Florida in 1936 from Bra- to the European Union. Processing occurs zil. Other types of peanut had long been in the certified-organic Sunland facility at used for grazing in the Southeast. Cultivars Portales (Yancy, 2000). include Floragraze, Arbrook and Ecoturf. An Overview of the North Carolina Organic Commercial production is limited to the Industry contained the results of a survey of warmer portion of USDA hardiness zone 8a 17 peanut buyers that handled organic pea- and zones 8b, 9 and above, including the nuts east of the Mississippi: coastal plain from South Carolina to Browns- Six [buyers] typically bought bulk loads of ville, Texas and including all of Florida. organic peanuts...The six companies that Perennial peanut hay is sold by the bale, bought organic peanuts preferred to buy ‘Valencia’ peanuts. Each company purchased but may also be pelleted and cubed. There different amounts of peanuts, with the two is some demand for perennial peanut hay largest volume companies buying in excess of as ornamental material for turf. Perennial 150 tons of organic peanuts per year. Three peanuts are also being used as a cover crop companies bought smaller amounts ranging in citrus groves (Silva, 1998). between 1 and 2 tons annually...Larger volume buyers preferred peanuts to be packaged in In 2005, 16,000 acres of perennial, or containers that held either 55 pounds of pea- forage, peanuts were planted in the United nuts or [in] a bulk bin. Smaller volume buyers found smaller units such as a 25-pound box States (Williams, 2005). Elide Valen- an acceptable container. Peanut buyers paid cia of the University of the Virgin Islands growers between $0.80 per pound and $1.50 published extensively on forage peanut. per pound, with the largest volume buyer pay- In 2003, the USDA’s Agricultural Research ing the lowest price to growers...Peanut buy- Service sent scientists to Paraguay for ers indicated that large proportions of organic new germplasm of A. glabrata, and acces- peanuts were obtained from New Mexico growers because they believed that the afla- sions are being evaluated at six locations toxin risk was lower with New Mexico peanuts in the United States (Williams, 2005). than with east-coast produced peanuts. Buyers Organic production of forage peanut is not also believed that organic peanuts were a com- yet underway. plicated crop to grow using organic methods and encourage growers to improve quality to have a competitive edge in the organic market Peanut oil potential for biodiesel (Estes et al., 1999). As described in the ATTRA publication Biodiesel: The Sustainability Dimensions, Alternative Uses peanuts rank in the first tier of oilseed crops, While nonfood products and by-products producing 109 gallons of oil per acre. This are derived from conventional peanut yield compares very favorably with that production, there is no indication at pres- of other temperate oilseeds like rapeseed, ent that manufacturers of organic body- which yields 122 gallons per acre and sun- care products or livestock feed would flowers, which yield 98 gallons per acre. The constitute a significant market for organic yield from peanuts is much higher than that peanut producers. of soybeans at 46, oats at 22 and corn at 18 gallons per acre. Forage peanuts Competing uses for peanuts and acreage The perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata limitations restricted the investigation of pea- Benth; A. pintoi), a warm season, tropical nut oil as a motor fuel. However, it is quite perennial legume native to South Amer- feasible to produce biodiesel from used ica, is propagated by rhizomes since it does restaurant cooking-oil blends that contain not set seed in temperate zones. The pea- peanut oil. Peanut oil was the prototype fuel nuts are called perennial because they are used by Rudolph Diesel for the Paris World long-lived and do not require replanting Exhibition in the late 19th century. For morePage 4 ATTRA Peanuts: Organic Production
  5. 5. information on this topic, see the References irrigation costs are considered. Costs of off-section at the end of this publication. farm inputs may also rise for conventional producers. For sample production budgetsOrganic demands and for flood-irrigated and sprinkle-irrigatedpremiums peanuts in New Mexico, see Libbin in the References section (2001 a,b).Organic peanut production, like conventionalfarming, is mostly done by contract. At the Wedel said he employs three additional full-2005 Nebraska Sustainable Agriculture time workers for his organic operation. HeSociety meeting, peanut grower Jimmy Wedel spent an additional $100,000 for seasonal,of Muleshoe, Texas, quoted a 2004 organic including migrant, labor including hoeing.premium of $225 per ton for his 650 acres Wedel also spent an additional $20,000of Valencias. The price for conventionally for repairs and fuel expense for equipmentgrown peanuts was $575 per ton (2005). specific to organic production. This repre-Wedel also said the price for 2004 organic sents a cost of about $185 per acre moreSpanish peanuts was quoted at $800 per ton than conventional production, not account-compared to $425 per ton for conventionally ing for lower costs associated with not usinggrown peanuts. Wedel estimated the five-year pesticides and fertilizers. Wedel said a goodyield range for Valencia peanuts at 1 to 1.75 hoe crew is fundamental to managing weedstons per acre. This means a gross income for good crop yields since peanuts areof $1,200. For Spanish peanuts, Wedel particularly susceptible to weed pressures.estimates a five-year yield of 1.25 to 2 tonsper acre with a gross income of $1,400. Part II: Production ofSince peanuts are part of a three-year crop organic peanutsrotation, Wedel also raises organic blue Organic production of peanuts relies oncorn, white and yellow food corn, soybeans, management techniques that replenish andwheat for grain, grazing and green manure, maintain long-term soil fertility by opti-cotton and grass for wildlife habitat. Wedel mizing the soil’s biological activity. This isdevotes 10 percent of his 5,000 mostly irri- achieved through crop rotation, cover crop-gated acres to conventional alfalfa, silagecorn, pinto beans, black-eyed peas and ping or composting, and by using organi-green beans. With this method, Wedel said cally accepted fertilizers that feed the soilhe harvests “virtually the same yield that and provide plants with nutrients. Organicyour conventional acres make” and receives farmers manage insects, diseases, weeds“a huge premium over the conventional and other pests with an array of cultural,market” (2005). mechanical and biological options. As a last resort, peanut growers can use organicallyWedel is certified by the Texas Department accepted biorational and chemical controls.of Agriculture and only has domestic con-tracts. Additional certification would be nec- Soil and fertilityessary if supply and demand ever indicatedexport opportunities. International Certifica- Organic peanut growers need to get a sensetion Services is the internationally accepted of their soil fertility by obtaining a soil testorganic certifier for U.S.-grown peanuts. report with recommendations specificallyFor more information, see the Resources for peanuts. Previous experience with rota-section at the end of this publication. tional cover crops and compost or manure appl icat ions is a lso helpful. OrganicProduction budgets peanut growers must work closely with crop adv i sers fam i l ia r w ith orga n icEvery peanut-producing state publishes production and peanuts.annual production budgets for conventionalproduction, but not organic production. Growers should always consider the his-Budgets vary by state, especially when tory of the field they select for peanuts, ATTRA Page 5
  6. 6. especially if it is a new site. In 2003, the systems. Finding the right rotation crop in North Carolina Department of Agricul- terms of profitability and agronomic char- ture and Consumer Services warned new acteristics can be challenging. Factors like peanut growers about zinc buildup due geography, climate and irrigation capabili- to chicken litter application, especially in ties are important to consider when choos- eastern counties. ing suitable rotational crops. Some fields that received heavy, long-term Relay crops are recommended by North litter applications now have zinc-index (Zn-I) Carolina State University plant pathologist values approaching (Zn-I = 300 (12 ppm), Dr. Jack Bailey, a professor and extension caution advised) or exceeding the toxicity specialist. Relay cropping is a cropping sys- thresholds (Zn-I = 500 (20 ppm), critical tem that calls for two or more crops grown in toxic level) for peanuts. Growing peanuts sequence in the same field in the same year on fields with Zn-I values above 300 is not with little or no overlap in time. Relay crops advisable. Officials alerted growers that tox- keep the ground covered at all times and icity was more likely for soil pH below 6.0 help control the No. 1 problem in organic (Hall, 2003). production — weeds (Yancy, 2002). Lime is essential for successful peanut To combat soilborne diseases endemic in production. Soil pH needs to be carefully the Southeast, Bailey recommended “the monitored and should be in the 5.8 to 6.2 longest possible rotation, with crops such range for Southern growers. Large-seeded as cotton, wheat, corn and grasses.” Other- Virginia peanuts require high calcium con- wise, a field might be out of production for tent in the soil surface at pegging for pod several years just to get rid of disease build- development and quality. Land plaster or up, and long rotations are known to reduce gypsum, a by-product of drywall, is not leafspot problems. allowed as a source of calcium in organic Some rotation crops for peanuts are sweet production. Mined sources of gypsum corn, sweet potatoes, cotton, sesame, veg- are allowed. etables, small grains and pastures like Excessive levels of potassium within the Bahia grass. In Australia, tropical peanuts fruiting zone, or the top 2 to 3 inches of soil, are grown as a companion crop for sugar are associated with peanut pod rot. Potas- cane, or as an optional cane fallow legume. sium also competes with calcium uptake at In addition to being a profitable extra crop, pegging, resulting in a high percentage of peanuts provide nitrogen and are resistant pops, or unfi lled shells. Any potash (K2O) to root knot nematodes that are blamed for is incorporated along with the preceding declining cane yields in lighter cane soils crop’s fertilizer, if possible, in order to allow (Peanut Company of Australia, 2006). enough time for potassium to move below the fruiting zone before pegging. Manganese deficiency may occur when soil pH exceeds 6.2. Again, careful soil moni- toring and soil and plant analysis are rec- ommended. The amount of boron recom- mended on a soil test report prevents hollow heart in peanuts. Boron can be applied as a pre-plant broadcast treatment along with other fertilizer applications, or as a foliar spray near blooming (Hardy et al., 2006). Rotations Rotations are critical in the fertility and Symptoms of root knot. Photo by Howard F. pest management of organic production Schwartz, Colorado State University, Bugwood.orgPage 6 ATTRA Peanuts: Organic Production
  7. 7. New techniques for managing migrating peanut pests By Rex Dufour, NCAT California Farmers who grow peanuts adjacent to cotton fields may want to plant sor- ghum between the peanuts and cot- ton. U.S. Department of Agriculture researcher Dr. Glynn Tillman found that rows of sorghum planted between cot- ton and peanut fields will act as a trap crop for stinkbugs that migrate out of the peanuts during harvest. Tillman’s Georgia project is part of a Conserva- tion Innovation Grant funded by the Natural Resources Conservation Ser- vice and managed by the National Cen- ter for Appropriate Technology. Growers should sow two plantings of sorghum several weeks apart. That This photo shows a sorghum trap crop with ripe brown seed heads. Yellow pheromone traps for helps pests find the stage of sorghum brown stink bug are placed in the first row of sorghum. Cotton is barely visible on the far side of that is most attractive during the entire the field in front of the trees. Peanuts are in the foreground. When peanuts are ready for harvest, the plants are turned upside down to allow the peanuts to dry. A few days later a combine comes cotton season. The sorghum also pro- through to remove the peanuts from the plant. In this photo, the peanuts are inverted. The four vides plenty of pollen for the minute rows adjacent to the sorghum are yet not turned. As the peanuts in this field are dug, stink bugs pirate bug, an egg predator of stink- will migrate from the plants into the adjacent sorghum, rather than into the cotton crop. Photo bugs. This combination of trap crop by Kristie Graham. and beneficial insect habitat can pro- tect cotton crops from damage by stinkbugs that are migrating from To achieve a similar effect, research- method that calls for sowing the entire harvested peanut fields. ers are experimenting with another sorghum planting in one day and then mowing half of the sorghum rows 70 to 80 days later. This technique mim- ics the two-plantings approach, but is easier to execute. The two stages of sorghum will provide beneficial and pest insects preferred habitats. For more information about this research, contact: Glynn Tillman, Research Entomologist 229-387-2375 Rex Dufour, NCAT California Regional Director 406-533-6650 Growing in this field are, from left to right: peanuts, the first planting of sorghum with nearly ripe grain, the second planting of sorghum with seed heads still green and cotton. Entomologist Glynn Tillman (center) and field scouts Brittany Giles (left) and Kristie Graham evaluate the sorghum for stink bug populations. Photo courtesy of USDA ATTRA Page 7
  8. 8. Organic integrated pest arthropods (insects and mites) and large soil-dwelling mammals like moles, ground management squirrels and gophers. Integrated pest management is a broad eco- logical approach to pest management using Photosynthesizers, the primary producers a variety of pest control techniques that tar- in this system, use the sun’s energy to con- get the entire pest complex of a crop eco- vert atmospheric carbon into sugars. Other system. Integrated management of pests organisms feed off these primary produc- ensures high-quality agricultural produc- ers. Dead organisms and their by-products tion in a sustainable, environmentally safe decompose and become the soil’s organicRelated ATTRA and economically sound manner (Bajwa and matter that stores nutrients and energy.publications Plants use these nutrients, preventing them Kogan, 2002.).Alternative Control of from accumulating in soil and water.Johnsongrass Soil health is based on soil biology, which is responsible for the cycling of nutrients. The life cycle of all these organisms improvesNematodes: The complex interaction of this biological the condition of soils by enhancing structure,Alternative Controls community is known as the soil food web. water infi ltration and holding capacity, andConservation Tillage The soil ecosystem is composed of bacte- aeration. This results in healthy plants thatCucumber Beetles: ria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes, algae, are more productive and resistant to pests.Organic andBiorational IPMFarmscaping to Soil solarizationEnhance Biological The technique known as solar-Control ization involves laying a clearField Bindweed plastic polyethylene tarp onControl Alternatives moist soil and letting the sun’s rays heat the soil. HeatFlame Weeding for trapped under the plasticAgronomic Crops raises the soil temperature andPrinciples of kills or debilitates pests. MostSustainable Weed research worldwide concen-Management for trates on hot and arid areas,Croplands but anywhere with hot sum- mers has the potential to usePursuing this system. Soil pasteuriza-Conservation Tillage tion usually takes four to sixSystems for Organic weeks, but the amount of Plant pathologist Daniel Chellemi (left) and organic grower Kevin O’ DareCrop Production time depends on factors such inspect the progress of a soil solarization treatment. Photo by Randall Smith, as rain, wind, day length, soil courtesy of USDA ARS.Sustainable texture and the quality of theManagement of Soil- Before solarization, the land inches of soil, and best control polyethylene tarp. Ultravio-borne Plant Diseases where the crop will be seeded is generally obtained down to let-protected plastic is recom- or transplanted must be pre- 6 inches.Thistle Control mended so that the tarp can pared for planting. GrowersAlternatives be removed and re-used. Special caution: Drip tape must must shape beds, install dripThrips Management Certain types of organic mat- tape and level fields. This prep- be buried at least 1 inch deepAlternatives in the ter can be added to the soil for aration is necessary to avoid to avoid damage from theField bio-fumigation. Compost and stirring up the soil after solar- sun’s rays. In experiments when residues from brassica crops ization. Stirring would bring researchers placed tape on the such as broccoli and mustard fresh pest organisms to the surface of the bed and then cov- show this bio-fumigant effect. soil surface. Depending on the ered the tape with the clear plas- When heated in the solarization outside temperature, sunlight tic, the magnifying effect of the process, some brassica crops density and the type of pests, sun on the water droplets that release volatile compounds soil solarization can provide condensed on the plastic dam- that are toxic to many pests. good pest control in 8 to 10 aged the drip tape.Page 8 ATTRA Peanuts: Organic Production
  9. 9. The North Carolina Peanut Project: Insects On-farm research on pesticide Using biological and cultural insect con- alternatives in peanut production and trols for peanuts involves understanding methods of implementation the ecology of agricultural systems. Plant- A multi-partner project to make North Carolina ing large expanses of a single, susceptible peanut production more environmentally benign crop, or monocropping, encourages pest and improve peanut profitability started in 1995, problems. A diverse farmscape involving when it became evident that the USDA’s pea- nut program was likely to change dramatically many types of plants and animals consid- in the next decade. A strong support network erably diminishes the likelihood of severe and some funding were provided to individual insect pest outbreaks. farmers trying new approaches. Ten key goals for more sustainable, less chemical-dependent Farmers must create production methods production came out of this project and set the that complement natural systems. The use groundwork for future organic production: of beneficial insect habitats along crop field 1) Convince producers that bottom-line return borders increases the presence of benefi- was more important in the long run than cial insects (Grez and Prado, 2000; White gross yield. et al., 1995; Bugg, 1993). These habitats 2) Improve soil fertility by utilizing cover, catch, provide shelter, food (pollen and nectar) relay and green manure crops, as well as and act as refuges that attract the natural composts and slow-release rock fertiliz- enemies of pests. ers to increase crop health and vigor and reduce the effects of weeds and pests. When farmers release beneficial insects, 3) Reduce soil erosion through a variety of these field-edge habitats will encourage the conservation measures. beneficial insects to stay and continue their 4) Implement a site-specific, biologically based life cycles. This helps reduce pest popula- whole-farm integrated pest management tions. Some pests may also inhabit the field- plan through beneficials enhancement, edge habitats. These habitats should be crop rotation and resistant cultivars as the first choice before using least-toxic, target- monitored along with the crop. For additional specific pesticides. information, request ATTRA’s publication 5) Scout frequently to improve an operator’s Farmscaping to Enhance Biological Control. ability to respond promptly and efficiently to pest problems. Caterpillar pests 6) Provide long-term habitat for beneficials through skip rows, field border manage- Corn earworm, fall armyworm, velvetbean ment, relay cropping, reduction of broad- caterpillar, green cloverleaf worm, Euro- spectrum pesticide usage and other pean corn borer, redneck peanut worm, management techniques. saltmarsh caterpillar, soybean looper and 7) Add market value to all crops in the rota- cutworms are some of the caterpillar pests tion to increase the producers’ share of retail that attack peanuts. Caterpillars have many through market premiums for specific prac- natural enemies that help keep their popula- tices, niche markets and additional post-har- tions at low levels. Ground beetles, spiders, vest handling and packaging. damsel bugs, minute pirate bugs, assas- 8) Lengthen and improve crop rotations to sin bugs, bigeyed bugs and lacewing lar- provide cost-effective prevention against a wide range of pests, diseases and weed vae attack caterpillars. The parasitic wasps problems. Trichogramma, Copidosom, Apanteles, Dia- 9) Develop and use a range of options for pest degma and Hyposoter sting and parasitize control intervention including biological eggs and larvae. control of weeds and insects, flame weed- ing and innovative cultivation equipment. Some of these organisms are available com- 10) Increase cultivar pest resistance through mercially or may occur naturally in the selective breeding, plant spacing and seed- environment. For information on suppli- ing rates (Marlow, 1998). ers of beneficial insects, visit the Suppliers of Beneficial Organisms in North ATTRA Page 9
  10. 10. Web site at applications. Caterpillars in the early ben_supp/ben_sup2.htm stages of development (first and second instars) are more susceptible to Bt. Older Biopesticides, or microbial controls, con- sist of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), insect- and bigger worms are more difficult to kill. consuming fungi and viruses. Bt is a Entrust, from Dow Agrosciences, is naturally occurring bacterium that pro- derived from the soil organism Saccha- duces a toxin that causes paralysis of a ropolyspora spinosa. It is OMRI-approvedT caterpillar’s digestive tract. A caterpillar and registered for control of armyworm, he benefi- may continue to live for some hours after corn earworm, loopers and other cater- cial popu- ingestion, but will not continue to feed. pillar pests on peanuts. Spod-X LC and lation may Bt strains are available in a number Gemstar LC from Certis USA are nuclearoften keep the pest of commercial products under various polyhedrosis virus products available com-under the economic trade names. The following products are mercially and are OMRI-approved for thethreshold, which is approved for organic production by the control of armyworm and corn earworm, Organic Materials Review Institute: Pro- respectively, on peanuts. Other naturallythe level below eco- long from Cillus Technology Inc., Britz occurring granulosis viruses and nuclearnomic injury to the polyhedrosis viruses sometimes occur in BT Dust from Britz Fertilizers Inc., DiPelcrop. An application and Xantari from Valent Biosciences, high-density caterpillar populations.of a broad-spec- and Agree, Deliver and Javelin from Cer- Beauveria bassiana, an insect-eating fun-trum insecticide may tis USA. Additional information may be gus, infects caterpillars if humidity anddamage both the obtained at ATTRA’s Ecological Pest Management Database at temperature are adequate. Commer-pest and beneficial attra-pub/biorationals/biorationals_main_ cial products include Naturalis L, Myco-insect populations. srch.php trol and Botanigard. Botanical insecti- cides, including neem products such as Bt degrades rapidly in sunlight and Agroneem and Neemix, act as repellents, requires careful timing or repeated appli- antifeedants and insect growth regulators. cations. Caterpillars must ingest Bt in Pyrethrum and rotenone-based products sufficient amounts for the biopesticide to are broad spectrum and will kill benefi - be effective. Growers must understand cial insects as well as pests, so monitor- the feeding habits of these pests to use ing is important. proper formulations and optimal timing of Growers must also consider beneficialOrganically accepted materials to combat caterpillars insect populations when a pest population is present. The beneficial population may Biopesticides Commercial products often keep the pest under the economicBacillus thuringiensis Agree, Deliver, Javelin, Dipel, threshold, which is the level below eco- Xantari, Prolong, Britz BT Dust nomic injury to the crop. An application ofSpinosad Entrust a broad-spectrum insecticide may damage both the pest and beneficial insect popula-Viruses Spod-X, Gemstar tions, and other minor pests may become aBeauveria bassiana Mycotrol, Naturalis, Botanigard big problem. This is known as a secondary pest outbreak. Botanical insecticides Commercial productsNeem Neemix, Argoneem, Azadirect Other management practices to reduce cat- erpillar infestation include using floatingPyrethrin Pyganic row covers over a young crop to excludePyrethrin + Diatomaceous Earth Diatect V egg-laying females, nocturnal overhead Repellents Commercial products sprinkler irrigation, pheromone misters or emitters to disrupt mating and pepper,Garlic Cropguard, Garlic Barrier garlic and herbal repellents.Page 10 ATTRA Peanuts: Organic Production
  11. 11. Southern corn rootworm products approved for organic production are registered for the control of thrips.Southern corn rootworms are the subterra-nean larvae or grubs of cucumber beetles.The adult cucumber beetle lays eggs at the Spider mitesbase of the peanut plants and then the lar- Spider mites, Tetranychus, a re t inyvae move through the soil, feeding on the arachnids (related to spiders, ticks andpods. Organic approaches to managing this scorpions) that live in colonies. Spiderpest include population monitoring, cultural mites spin webs and feed under plantpractices, trap crops, baits, sticky traps, leaves. They have modified mouth partspredatory organisms and organic insecti- that pierce the cells of the leaf to con-cides and protectants. For detailed informa- sume its contents. Yellow spots appear ontion check the ATTRA publication Cucum- the leaf’s upper surface when the feedingber Beetles: Organic and Biorational IPM. is moderate. If the infestation is severe, mites can cause defoliation, stunting andThree-cornered alfalfa hoppers reduced yields.The three-cornered alfalfa hopper, Spissisti- Insect predators of spider mites include Dlus festinus, is a major pest in the South. It minute pirate bugs, damsel bugs, bigeyed iseasesis a piercing and sucking triangular-shaped bugs, some midges, lacewing larvae, dusty- in plantsgreen insect that feeds on stems and leaves. wings, spider mite destroyers, lady beetles, occurIt is also found on vegetables, soybeans, sixspotted thrips and western flower thrips.other legumes, grasses, small grains, sun- Other mites that prey on spider mites are when a pathogenflowers, tomatoes and weeds. On peanuts, it Amblyseius, Galendromus, Metaseiulus and is present, the hostgirdles the stem during feeding, causing a Phytoseiulus. Insecticidal soaps, narrow is susceptible andscab-like appearance. range oils, neem-based products such as the environment is Trilogy and sulfur are acceptable miti-Natural enemies include the bigeyed bug favorable. cides in organic production. Check with aand damsel bug. The bigeyed bug has been certifier regarding specific products. Cul-observed causing the highest mortality, tural controls include keeping dust downabout 90 to 100 percent of the first and sec- along roads that border peanut fields. Thisond nymphal stages, while the damsel bug is usually done by reducing traffic alongattacked all nymphal stages of the three-cor- those roads, watering down the roads ornered alfalfa hoppers (Medal et al., 1995). planting dust barriers such as corn or sun-The kaolin clay product Surround is listed as flowers between the field and the approved product to repel this pest. Other insects that can be a problem in pea-Thrips nut production are aphids and whitefl ies. If these organisms are causing a problem inAlthough not a problem in Western pea- organic peanut production, contact ATTRAnut-producing regions, thrips control is for more information on how to manageessential in the Southeast since the insect these pests.spreads Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus. Forcontrol strategies, see the ATTRA pub-lication Thrips Management Alternatives Diseasesin the Field. Thrips control options were Diseases in plants occur when a pathogenfield-tested by peanut farmers in the North is present, the host is susceptible and theCarolina Peanut Project. As a result, 31 environment is favorable for the disease toNorth Carolina growers substituted scout- develop. Altering any one of these threeing-based control for blanket control on factors may prevent the disease from occur-3,728 acres, significantly reducing pesti- ring. Organisms responsible for plant dis-cide use, increasing profits and maintaining eases include fungi, bacteria, nematodesyields (Marlow, 1998). Neem and spinosad and viruses. If these organisms are present, ATTRA Page 11
  12. 12. manipulating the environment and making A study at Auburn University explored the host less susceptible helps sustainably potential for biological control of early manage diseases on peanuts. leafspot in peanuts using the bacteria Bacil- lus cereus and chiton as foliar amendments Once again, soil health and management is (Kokalis-Burelle et al., 1992). Cultural the key for successful control of plant dis- practices such as resistant varieties and eases. Soil with adequate organic matter crop rotation may alleviate the disease, as can house uncountable numbers of organ- could foliar inoculation of microorganisms isms such as beneficial bacteria, fungi, with compost teas or commercial products nematodes, protozoa, arthropods and earth- that include Bacillus subtilis bacteria, like worms that deter harmful bacteria, fungi, Serenade. Copper and bicarbonate fungi- nematodes and arthropods from attacking cides may also help. plants. These beneficial organisms also help create a healthy plant that is able to resist pest attack. For more information, see the Pod rots ATTRA publication Sustainable Manage- Pythium myriotylum, Rhizoctonia solani and ment of Soil-Borne Plant Diseases. Sclerotium rolfsii are all capable of causingS pod rots, which occur in every peanut-grow- oil health ing area. Pod rots, unlike Southern blight, and manage- Blackhull do not exhibit above-ground symptoms. ment is the Blackhull, a disease caused by the fungus Occasional pulling of plants throughout thekey for successful Theilaviopsis basicola, affects the pods and field, especially during pod maturation, iscontrol of plant mostly attacks susceptible Spanish peanut the only way to detect pod rots. Manures, varieties in the West. Conditions that favor compost and green manure crops willdiseases. disease development are alkaline soils, poor increase the organic matter of the soil and drainage, low temperatures late in the sea- increase microorganisms that constitute the son, heavy soils and a crop rotation with sus- soil food web. This increase in organisms ceptible crops like cotton or alfalfa. Careful helps deter plant pathogens through compe- choice of planting location and appropriate tition and antagonism and reduces disease crop rotations, as well as early planting, are incidences in plants. Arbuscular mycorrhi- important for organic production. zal fungi may also provide some protection from these pod rots. Verticillium and Fusarium wilts Wilts can be a problem in New Mexico. Loss Southern blight (stem rot) can be kept to a minimum if a farmer knows The disease is caused by the fungus Scle- the disease or cultivation history of a field rotium rolfsii. The fungus spreads from and peanuts are not planted following cot- infected plants to adjacent ones. Control ton or vegetable plants (including potatoes) methods in organic production include the in the crop rotation. The arbuscular mycor- use of a deep covering of crop residue, rhizal fungus Glomus mosseae protects pea- flat cultivation to avoid pulling soil and nut pods from infection by Fusarium solani trash toward the plants and crop rotation (Abdalla and Abdel-Fattah, 2000). Com- with grain sorghum to reduce the number mercial products include Mycorise, Activa- of infectious sclerotia. The fungus Tricho- tor BioVam, Mycor and Tag Team. derma harzianum, the active ingredient in products such as PlantShield, RootShield and T-22 HC, inhibited mycelial growth Leaf spot and germination of sclerotia in vitro. Rainfall or irrigation followed by high Under screen house conditions, the fun- humidity during the growing season can gus reduced the incidence of the disease by contribute to Cercospora leaf spot and web 33 percent compared to untreated control blotch (Phoma arachidicola). peanuts (Khonga et al., 1998).Page 12 ATTRA Peanuts: Organic Production
  13. 13. Sclerotinia blight NematodesSclerotinia blight (Sclerotinia minor) occurs There are many types of nematodes in parts of Oklahoma, Texas and North Most are beneficial, but a few are pea-Carolina. Resistant cultivars such as Olin, a nut pests. Nematodes that attack peanutsSpanish variety, and Tamrun OL 01, a Run- include the root knot nematodes, Meloido-ner type developed by the USDA Agricul- gyne arenaria; M. hapla; M. javanica, lesionture Research Service at Stillwater, Okla., nematode Pratylenchus brachyurus, ringshow promise in resisting sclerotinia blight nematode Criconemella and sting nema-(Pons, 2006). Research in North Caro- todes Belonolaimus longicaudatus.lina showed that pruning peanut canopiesto alter microclimate or enhance fungicidepenetration reduced disease and increasedyield when Sclerotinia minor damage limitedyields (Bailey and Brune, 1997). Good san-itation practices such as thorough cleaningand washing of peanut production equip-ment prior to entering an unaffected regionare advised.Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV)TSWV is best controlled by new, resistantvarieties that are superseding old standbyssome growers still prefer, such as GeorgiaGreen, Southern Runner ViruGard, Gregory Scanning electron micrograph of the anterior ends of two male root knot nema-and VC-2. The newest varieties are Georgia todes. Photo by Jonathan D. Eisenback, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Bugwood.org02C and Georgia 01R, as well as Tift Run-ner (Culbreath, 2004).TSWV was severe in the Southeast in 2004, In sustainable production systems, growersbut speculation that it may be cyclical has can manage nematodes by crop rotation,no scientific basis. Thrips transmit TSVW resistant varieties and cultural practices.from plant to plant throughout the winter Where nematode infestations are heavy,season since TSVW overwinters on weed sampling and laboratory analysis can bespecies. Researchers believe weather may used to determine the length of rotationshave an effect on TSWV severity (Hollis, and the non-host crops to use.2005; Mandal et al., 2002). Eventually a living soil will keep harm- ful nematodes and soil borne fungi underCylindrocladium black root rot control (Yancy, 1994). Crop rotation is a(CBR) good strategy, but it is important to iden-Long rotations and knowledge of field his- tify the type of nematode in a field andtory are the best controls in attempting rotate with a crop that is not an alternateorganic peanut production in humid regions host for that nematode. Check with seedof the United States. Avoid rotation with suppliers to identify varieties resistant toother hosts such as soybeans, alfalfa, clo- the nematodes present in fields. Culturalvers, beans and cowpeas. Cylindrocladium practices include cover cropping withproduces microsclerotia, which are persis- plants that are antagonistic to nematodestent in the soil for many years. Non-hosts such as rapeseed or marigolds, controllinginclude corn, cotton, sorghum and pasture weeds, incorporating chicken litter and(bermuda or bahiagrass). In heavily infested other manures and solarization. For moresoils, rotation for at least five years without information, see the ATTRA publicationhosts is recommended. Nematodes: Alternative ATTRA Page 13
  14. 14. Weeds to deal with weeds. In no-till research con- Weed control in organic systems, espe- ducted in Georgia in the 1990s by Dr. Sha- cially in peanut production, relies heavily rad Phatak, researchers found that peanuts on crop rotations, cover crops and cultiva- yielded well when planted into rye and Crim- tion. Of these, cultivation is the most criti- son clover. In follow-up research, the Crim- cal to reduce weeds in an established pea- son clover was flail mowed and C-11-2-39, nut stand. For cultivation to be successful, a a fast-spreading, quick-shading and disease- straight, well-made bed, as well as straight resistant peanut variety, performed very well seeding lines in a conventional diamond when planted into the clover. However, even pattern, are necessary for cultivating imple- with superior varieties, researchers had to ments to remove the most weeds while leav- hand weed two times. (Culbreath, 2005). ing the crop undisturbed. Strip-tillage systems reduce most insect Cultivation implements will cut, bury or turn pest injury. However, burrower bugs over most young weeds, leaving the crop (Heteroptera: Cydnidae) caused major eco- undisturbed while reducing competition. nomic injury to peanuts in some conserva- Hoeing between plants eliminates weeds in tion tillage systems under drought stress the planting row. For more information on (Chapin and Thomas, 2005). Conservation weed control, read ATTRA’s publications tillage or strip tillage reduced the incidence Principles of Sustainable Weed Management of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus in peanuts for Croplands, Alternative Control of Johnson- by 42 percent when compared to peanuts grass, Thistle Control Alternatives and Field grown using conventional tillage. This is Bindweed Control Alternatives. significant because there is no single effec- tive control measure for spotted wilt of pea- nuts. As a result, the University of Georgia Conservation tillage Cooperative Extension Service added con- Conservation tillage or strip tillage in pea- servation tillage to its Tomato Spotted Wilt nuts increased in the Southeast due to the Risk Index (Johnson et. al., 2001). rise in fuel costs and the potential for conser- vation tillage to reduce labor costs, reduce For more information on conservation tillage, soil erosion, increase soil quality and reduce read the ATTRA publications Conservation disease pressure. Conservation tillage also Tillage and Pursuing Conservation Tillage works in other crops such as corn, cotton and Systems for Organic Crop Production. soybean (Wright et al., 2002). Flame weeding and other thermal devices In conventional strip tillage, herbicides are can reduce broadleaf weeds, but grasses a major tool to control weeds. For organic still need to be mechanically removed. For a production, farmers must use other methods list of thermal devices and suppliers, see theThis Georgia farmer planted crimson clover as a cover crop, killed it, then strip tilled peanuts into it. This system attracts many beneficials,improves the soil, provides low-cost nitrogen, reduces soil erosion and conserves soil moisture. Photos by Rex Dufour.Page 14 ATTRA Peanuts: Organic Production
  15. 15. Appendix section. For more information on can produce aflatoxin, a natural toxin.flame weeding, read the ATTRA publication Aflatoxin can mean financial losses forFlame Weeding for Agronomic Crops. peanut growers. The Peanut Advisory Board in Atlanta, Ga.,Irrigation estimated that aflatoxin contamination costsPeanut seedlings develop tap and lateral the nation’s peanut growers $25 millionroots quickly. Seedlings need 20 to 30 annually. The Food and Drug Administra-inches of water per season. Daily water use tion prohibits grain and fi nished productsis about 0.25 inches per day and 0.4 inches with 20 parts per billion or more of afla-if the weather is extremely hot (Baker et al., toxin from being sold for human or animal2000). The Peanut Company of Australia consumption. One part per billion is equiv-estimates peanuts use at 24 to 28 inches alent to less than one drop in 10,000 gal-per season (2006). lons. Many states and export markets are setting stricter tolerance levels.Water availability is a limiting factor inWestern peanut production. Jimbo Gris- Until recently, the only methods for control- ling preharvest aflatoxin contamination in Asom of Gaines County, Texas, the winnerof the 2004 Farm Press Peanut Profitabil- peanuts were expensive irrigation or early flatoxinity Award, suggests a low-energy precision harvest, which reduces quality and yield. contamina-application system to ease the effects of A mutant strain of A. parasiticus was devel- tion costsevaporation. Grissom aims to lose as little oped to treat soils and drive out virulent the nation’s peanutwater as possible to evaporation. His modi- strains (USDA/ARS, 1992). growers $25 millionfied LEPA system uses hoses, usually set annually.about 80 inches apart, that dangle from a Harvesting and post harvestmain center-pivot irrigation pipe to either handlingdrag along rows or spray water just above Organic handling is a complex issue. Ifthe peanut canopy. True LEPA systems, irri- organic peanuts are processed on-farm ingation experts say, employ drag hoses that any way, a second certification as a handlerdribble water along alternate rows. Gris- or processor may be required. For a moresom’s system uses wobbler nozzles to apply detailed explanation, see NCAT’s Organicwater just above the peanuts. Ground water Crops Workbook.availability from the aquifer that underliesWest Texas is declining (Smith, 2004). Jim Riddle of the University of Minnesota, the former chair of the National OrganicPeanut growers in Randolph County, Ga., Standards Board, published some post-use center-pivot systems to combat sporadic harvest tips for organic field crop produc-drought in the Southeast (Smith, 2004). ers. These include the following (adaptedDrought has become more prevalent in for peanuts):recent years, increasing the need to installfarm irrigation systems. • Know the equipment. Know what the equipment is used for. This includesIn humid Florida, poor irrigation manage- rented and borrowed equipment andment can cause white mold and pod rots, equipment used by custom opera-leading to lower yields than without irriga- tors. Know how to clean all piecestion (Whitty, 2006). of equipment, including planters,Drought stress constitutes a serious threat combines, wagons, trucks and otherfor peanut production because of the danger equipment. Clean equipment priorof aflatoxin. This problem commonly occurs to use in organic fields and keepin the last days before harvest, when pea- records to document equipmentnuts under drought stress are most suscepti- cleaning activities.ble. When fungi such as Aspergillus parasiti- • Know crop storage. Carefullycus and A. flavus infect peanuts, the fungi inspect storage units prior to ATTRA Page 15
  16. 16. Thoroughly clean bins, dryers, and testing protocols. Communicate cleaners and other storage units. with buyers and organic certifying • Know the truckers. Carefully agents if any problems arise. inspect and clean trucks and trail- ers prior to loading. Make sure that Summary transport units, including over- Strategies for successful production of seas shipping containers, are free organic peanuts will differ by U.S. region. of foreign matter. Keep records to Organic peanuts now come from New Mex- document trucks, including clean ico, Arizona and West Texas, where pest transportation affidavits and bills and disease pressures are much less than of lading. in the Southeast, where conventional pro- • Know the farm’s records. Docu- duction historically occurrs. Integrated pest ment efforts to minimize contami- management strategies are apt to be more nation. With good records, farmers successful in Western states, including will have a better chance of limit- California, than east of Interstate 35, about ing losses, identifying causes of 98 degrees west longitude. problems and determining liability. Development of pest- and disease-resistant Valid records of organic yields and varieties is crucial to any organic peanut sales may help establish claims for production on a scale comparable to that of losses should contamination or co- conventional production in the Southeast. mingling occur. Recent research in the Southeast focused on • Know the buyers. Know the contract development of pest-resistant peanut varieties specifications the organic crop is for alternative fuel, rather than varieties for grown under. Know buyers’ sampling organic production of an edible crop. Wasp – Ladybird parasite of beetle – lepidoptera. aphid predator. Tachinid fly – parasite of stinkbugs. Planting milkweed along a field margin supplies nectar and pollen for a wide range of beneficial insects that provide free pest control. Photos by Rex Dufour.Page 16 ATTRA Peanuts: Organic Production
  17. 17. References:Abdalla, M. E, and G. M. Abdel-Fattah. 2000. Culbreath, Leeann. 2005. Are they nuts? SouthernInfluence of the endomycorrhizal fungus Glomus researchers and farmers tackle organic peanuts. Themosseae on the development of peanut pod rot disease New Farm. Egypt. Mycorrhiza, Vol.10, No. 1. p. 29-35. peanuts/culbreath.shtml.American Peanut Council. 2002. About the Peanut Indus- Culbreath, Leeann. 2004. New variety may open waytry. Accessed April 2006. to grow organic peanuts. Georgia Faces. August. 1 p.cfm?, J. E., and P. D Brune. 1997. Effect of crop pruning Dawling, Pam. 2006. Peanuts: Grow your own protein.on Sclerotinia blight of peanut. Plant Disease 81:990-995. Growing for Market. p. 11-13.Bajwa, W. I., and M. Kogan. 2002. Compendium of Estes, Edmund, Tony Kleese, Laura Lauffer, DanielleIPM Definitions (CID)– What is IPM and how is it Treadwell and Rachel Burton. 1999. Organic peanutsdefined in the Worldwide Literature? IPPC Publication and organic pecans. An Overview of the NorthNo. 998, Integrated Plant Protection Center (IPPC), Carolina Organic Industry. p. 69, 107.Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR. p. 3., R.D., R.G. Taylor, and Floyd McAlister. 2000. Georgia Cooperative Extension. 1982. Growing Pea-Peanut Production Guide (revised). Guide H-648. Col- nuts in Georgia: A Package Approach. University oflege of Agriculture and Home Economics, New Mexico Georgia Extension, Athens, GA. p. 48.State University. p. 12. Goodrum, J.W. 1983. Peanut oil as an emergencyBrooks, Nora. 2005. U.S. Agricultural Trade diesel fuel. Paper presented at Summer Meeting ofUpdate—State Exports. July 8. Abstracted from the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,Economic Research Service, USDA. Table 1. p. 6 Bozeman, MT. p. 10. Goodrum, J.W. 1984. Fuel properties of peanut oilfau-bb/text/2005/fau10201.pdf. blends. Transactions of the ASAE. p. 1,257-1,262.Bugg, Robert. 1993. Habitat manipulation to enhance Grez, Audrey A. and Ernesto Prado. 2000. Effectsthe effectiveness of aphidophagous hover fl ies (Dip- of plant patch shape and surrounding vegetation ontera: Syrphidae). Sustainable Agriculture Technical the dynamics of predatory Coccinellids and their preyReviews. Vol. 5, No. 2. p. 13-15. Brevicoryne brassicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Envi-Chapin, J.W. and J. S. Thomas. 2005. Insect pest ronmental Entomology. Vol. 29, No. 6. p. 1,244-1, in strip-till peanut production. In W. Hall, Tim. 2003. News release: Check zinc levelsBusscher, J. Frederick, and S. Robinson (eds.) Proc. for new peanut fields. North Carolina Department ofSouthern Conservation Tillage Systems Conf., 27, Agriculture and Consumer Services. p. 1. www.ncagr.Florence, S. Carolina. June 27-29, 2005, Clemson com/paffairs/release/2003/5-03zinc.htmUniv. Pee Dee Res. Educ. Ctr., Florence, SC. p. 57. Calculation of Zn-I in terms of parts per million isAvailable at: from Tucker, M.R., and J. K. Messick, Micronutrients:Cole, Nancy. 2005. Peanut growing a tough row to 1996, 2005. When enough is enough. MediaNotes forhoe: Many gave up crop when bill ended quotas. North Carolina Growers. North Carolina DepartmentOctober 30, Arkansas Democrat-Gazette. Accessed of Agriculture and Consumer Services.from Environmental Working Group—EWG in the Hardy, D.H., M.R. Tucker and C.E. Stokes. 2006.Culbreath, Albert. 2004. Environmental Impact State- Crop fertilization based on North Carolina soil tests.ment: High Levels of Field Resistance to Tomato Spot- North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Con-ted Wilt Virus in New Peanut Breeding Lines. CAES, sumer Services, Agronomic Division, Raleigh. Note 3.Tifton, GA. p. 2. Fertilization of Field Crops. Peanuts. p. 4-5.viewstatement.cfm?stmtid=2576. ATTRA Page 17
  18. 18. Hollis, Paul L. 2005. Georgia combines peanut virus ARS), D.W. Gorbet (North Florida Research, U. FL),and fungal disease indexes. Southeast Farm Press. and J.W. Todd (U GA). 2002. Differential response of selected peanut (Arachis hypogaea) genotypes to012005-peanut-index/index.html. mechanical inoculation by Tomato spotted wilt virus.Hunter, Dan. 1999. Testimony: WTO Listening Plant Disease. Vol. 86, No. 9. p. 939-944.Session. USDA/FAS. Austin, TX. p. 3. Marlow, Scott and project staff. 1998. The Project: Farmer-Focused Innovation for Sustainable Hunter testified on behalf of the National Peanut Peanut Production. The Rural Advancement Founda- Growers Group. tion International–USA, Pittsboro, NC. p. 28.Johnson, W. C, III, T.B. Brenneman, S.H. Baker, A. Region 4 Strategic Agricultural Initiative X984615-W. Johnson, D.R. Sumner and B.J. Mullinix Jr. 2001. 98-0. Collaborators: North Carolina State University,Tillage and pest management considerations in a pea- Rural Advancement Foundation International (RAFI)-nut-cotton rotation in the southeastern coastal plain. USA, EPA, North Carolina Peanut Growers Associa-Agronomy Journal Vol. 93. p. 570-576. tion, Inc., and North Carolina peanut growers. Date of publication and ordering information provided atJohnson, W. Carroll, III, John Cardina and Benjamin Project results (thrips): p. 15.G. Mullinix, Jr. 1992. Crop and weed managementeffects on weed populations in a short-term corn-corn- Medal, J.D., A.J. Mueller, T.J. Kring, and E.E. Gbur,peanut rotation. Journal of Production Agriculture. Jr. 1995. Predation of Spissistilus Festinis (Homop-Vol. 5, No. 4. p. 566-570. tera: Membracidae) Nymphs by Hemipteran Preda- tors in the Presence of Alternative Prey. (University ofKhonga E.B., C.C. Kaunda and R.J. Hillocks. 1998. Arkansas, Agricultural Statistics Laboratory, Fayette-Biocontrol of Sclerotium rolfsii sacc. in peanuts (ara- ville, AR) Florida Entomologist. 1997. December. p.chis hypogaea l.) by Trichoderma harzianum rifai in 451–456. Malawi Journal of Science and Technology,Vol. 4. 1998. p. 51. NSF Center for IPM. 2005-2006. Non-chemical Insect Pest Control in Peanuts and Pecans Using Radio-Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy, Paul A. Backman, Rodrigo Frequency Energy. Y. Wang, O Fasina, H.Y. fadamiro.Rodriguez-Kabana and L. Daniel Ploper. 1992. Poten-tial for biological control of early leafspot of peanut Bacillus cereus and chitin as foliar amendments. fadamirolab/funding.htm.Biological Control. Vol. 2. p. 321-328. Nelson, Mack. 2005. Growing peanuts. Fort ValleyLedbetter, Kay and Russ Wallace. 2006. Organic State University (GA) Cooperative Extension. p. 2.crops require extra work for extra payoff. AgNews. 2. p. 3. North Carolina State University. 2005 (rev.). Cropstories/HORT/Feb0206a.htm. Profi le for Peanuts in North Carolina. p. 28.Libbin, J. 2001a. Peanuts, sprinkler-irrigated, bud- per acre costs and returns for a 960-acre farm Peanut Company of Australia. 2005. Peanut successwith above-average management, Blackwater Draw for Mackay canegrowers. Peanut Company of Austra-Area, Roosevelt County, NM. Table 8. p. 2. http:// lia. p. 3. Peanut Company of Australia. 2006. Irrigation Versus Dryland Cropping. Accessed July 2006.Libbin, J. 2001b. Peanuts, flood-irrigated, budgeted acre costs and returns for a 320-acre farm withabove-average management, Portales Valley, Roosevelt Personal communication. 2006. George KuepperCounty, 2001. Table 8. p. 2. (NCAT) re: Dr. Mark Boudreau, Hebert Green Agro-jlibbin/2001%20projected/roosevelt/portales%20valley% ecology, Asheville, NC.;20320%20acre%20flood/peanuts.htm., B., H.R. Pappu and A.K. Culbreath (Coastal Pons, Luis. 2006. To build a better peanut.Plains Exp. Sta., Tifton, GA); C.C. Holbrook (USDA Agricultural Research. April. p. 16-17.Page 18 ATTRA Peanuts: Organic Production
  19. 19. March 2006. Since then, the agency has completedPutnam, D.H., E.S. Oplinger, T.M. Teynor, E.A. harmonization with international HTS codes, consist-Okelke, K.A. Kelling and J.D. Doll. 1991. Peanut. ing of “Raw peanuts, 15 types” and 15 food categoriesAlternative Field Crops Manual. Minnesota Extension, involving peanuts. Peanuts are now aggregated withUniversity of Minnesota, University of Wisconsin— grains under code 2008110029, and with processedMadison. 8 p. vegetables under code 2008119000. This changeoverRAFI-USA. 1998. The Peanut Project: Farmer- to a new method of reporting made it cumbersome tofocused innovation for sustainable peanut production. determine simple export and re-export (after processing)The Rural Advancement Foundation International— totals for the U.S. peanut crop.USA, Pittsboro, NC. p. 28. Wedel, Jimmy. 2005. Peanuts: Organic Production.Russo, V.M. 1997. Yields of vegetables and peanut in Kansas Sustainable Agriculture Society Annualrotation plantings. HortScience. April. p. 209-212. Meeting, Feb. 18-19, Kansas State University.Silva, Beth. 1998. Perennial peanut profits: Could be yours? Producers of this tropical forage White, A.J., S.D. Wratten, N.A. Berry and U. Weig-legume crop can’t meet demand. AgVentures. Vol. 2, mann. 1995. Habitat manipulation to enhance biologi-No. 5. p. 37-40. cal control of Brassica pests by hover fl ies (Diptera:Skaggs, Rhonda. 2002. Press Release: 2002 Farm Syrphidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. 88,Bill Affects New Mexico’s Dairy, Peanut, Wool, Grain No. 5. p. 1,171-1,176.and Cotton Farmers. News Center, College of Agricul- Whitty, E.B. 2006. Basic Cultural Practices forture and Home Economics, New Mexico State Uni- Peanuts. University of Florida IFAS Extension. p. 7.versity. May 24. p. 3., Ron. 2004. Disease steps mark peanut produc- Williams, M.J. 2005. Perhaps you’ve heard of orchidtion differences. Southwest Farm Press.http://south hunters...but peanut hunters!. The Forage Leader. 10, No. 3. p. 14.Spearman, Tyron. 1999. Changing world of peanut Wright, D.L., J.J. Marois, J.R. Rich, R.K. Sprenkelexports. The Peanut Grower. June. p. 1. and E. B. Whitty. 2002. Conservation Tillage junestory1.html. Production. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sci- ences. University of Florida Extension. SS-AGR-185.Spearman, Tyron. 2006a. More questions than Accessed July 2006. as planting nears. The Peanut Grower. March.p. 2. Yancy, Cecil, Jr. 1994. Covers challenge cottonWatch.html. chemicals. The New Farm. February. p. 20.23.Spearman, Tyron. 2006b. The next three years— Yancy, Cecil H., Jr. 2000. Organic peanuts. TheMaybe different, maybe the same. The Peanut Peanut Farmer. July. 4 p.Grower. April. p. 1. 1993. Great-tasting peanuts? Try hairy! Further resource:Agricultural Research. December. p. 14. International Certification Services, Inc.USDA/ARS. 1992. Pitting fungus against fungus. doing business as Farm Verified OrganicAgricultural Research. May. p. 8-9. Customer Contact Information: ICS, Inc.USDA/ERS. 2002. Peanut consumption rebound- 301 5th Ave SEing amidst market uncertainties. Agriculture Outlook. Medina, ND 58467March. p. 2. 701-486-3578USDA/FAS. 2006. 701-486-3580 fax Note: Peanut export figures given in the text were abstracted from the USDA FAS statistical reports in ATTRA Page 19