Organic Standards for Livestock Production: Excerpts of USDA's National Organic Program Regulations


Published on

Organic Standards for Livestock Production: Excerpts of USDA's National Organic Program Regulations

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Organic Standards for Livestock Production: Excerpts of USDA's National Organic Program Regulations

  1. 1. A project of the National Center for Appropriate Technology 1-800-346-9140 • www.attra.ncat.orgOrganic Standards for Livestock ProductionExcerpts of USDA’s National Organic Program RegulationsBy Ann H. Baier, NCAT This collection of standards from the USDA’s National Organic Program (NOP) provides the reader withAgriculture Specialist key standards relevant to certified organic livestock production. Two similar publications are availableJune 2010 [revised per from ATTRA for crop production (all ruminant livestock producers must produce pasture) and handlingAmendment(s) of organic products.published February 17,2010, in 75 FR 7192,Effective date(s): Organic Standards are subject to revision or amendment. Please check the National Organic ProgramJune 17, 2010] (NOP) website for the most current version of the Rule. From the National Organic Program (NOP)© 2010 NCAT homepage, go to NOP Regulations, then click on Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (eCFR) (Standards). The link to the standards is currently as noted below, but is subject to change when revisions are made to the NOP website. 9e7d25ecfa362e2f3e22d5c34f6&rgn=div5&view=text&node=7: by Please see the text box above for instructions forcertified operations ........2 Introduction finding the link.Organic productionand handling This publication contains verbatim excerpts ofsystem plan .......................2 Organic standards are set forth under the selected organic standards of standards relevantOrigin of livestock ...........3 to organic livestock producers. It is intended to United States Department of Agriculture’sLivestock feed...................4 provide a handy reference to USDA’s National (USDA) Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFRLivestock health care Organic Program (NOP) Final Rule. Standards Part 205. The 7 refers to Title 7: Agriculture—practice standard ............5 relevant to production of organic crops, and one of 50 areas within the Code of Federal Reg-Livestock livingconditions. .........................5 handling of organic agricultural products may ulations (CFR), and Part 205 is the NationalPasture practice be found in two separate ATTRA publications. Organic Program (NOP). The Organic Foodsstandard .............................7 Production Act (OFPA), passed by congress in While this publication contains most of the keyTemporary variances .......7 1990, required creation of USDA’s National standards that directly address livestock pro-Synthetic Organic Program (NOP) to set consistent, uni- duction, it is not a complete collection of all thesubstances form national standards for the productionallowed................................8 standards with which livestock producers must comply. For instance, all producers of rumi- and handling of organic agricultural products.Nonsyntheticsubstances nant livestock must also manage pasture, and so The NOP oversees mandatory certification ofprohibited. ...................... 10 must also follow crop production standards as production and handling of all products to beTerms defined ................ 10 they apply to pasture and other livestock feed marketed or represented as organic within the produced on farm. Many livestock producers United States. also do some handling activities, such as cool- Producers who wish to market their products ing and storage of milk, washing and packing ofThe National Sustainable eggs or slaughter of meat animals. Please review as USDA Certified Organic must meet NOPAgriculture Information Service,ATTRA (, the organic standards in their entirety and check standards and have their operation certified bywas developed and is managedby the National Center for with an organic certifying agent (certifier) to be a USDA-accredited organic certifying agent orAppropriate Technology (NCAT).The project is funded through sure that you are aware of and familiar with all certifier. You can choose your certifier, and filla cooperative agreement with the regulations that apply to your type of opera- out their application and organic system planthe United States Departmentof Agriculture’s Rural Business- tion. Complete standards for organic crop pro- forms for organic production and handlingCooperative Service. Visit theNCAT website ( duction, livestock production or handling of agri- activities. Details of this process are describedsarc_current.php) formore information on cultural products, as well as requirements for the in ATTR A’s publication entitled Organicour other sustainable inspection process and management of certify- Certification Process, andenergy projects. ing agents, can be found on the USDA website. attra-pub/organic_certification.html
  2. 2. Subpart A—Definitions This is one of three ATTRA publications that excerpt USDA National Organic Program Regulations (Standards): • § 205.2 Terms defined. (Selected terms relevant to livestock production) 1) Organic Standards for Crop Production § 205.103 Recordkeeping by 2) Organic Standards for Livestock Production certified operations. 3) Organic Standards for Handling (Processing) (a) A certified operation must maintain records concerning the production, harvesting, and handling of agricultural products that are or The following sections of PART 205 of that are intended to be sold, labeled, or rep- the National Organic Program are resented as “100 percent organic,” “organic,” excerpted below: or “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).” Subpart B—Applicability (b) Such records must: • § 205.103 Recordkeeping by certified (1) Be adapted to the particular business that operations the certified operation is conducting; • § 205.201 Organic production and (2) Fully disclose all activities and transac- handling system plan tions of the certified operation in suffi- cient detail as to be readily understood Subpart C—Organic Production and and audited; Handling Requirements (3) Be maintained for not less than 5 years • § 205.236 Origin of livestock. beyond their creation; and (4) Be sufficient to demonstrate compliance • § 205.237 Livestock feed. with the Act and the regulations in this part. • § 205.236 Origin of livestock. (c) The certified operation must make such records available for inspection and copying • § 205.237 Livestock feed. during normal business hours by authorized representatives of the Secretary, the applica- • § 205.238 Livestock health care practice ble State program’s governing State official, standard and the certifying agent. • § 205.239 Livestock living conditions § 205.201 Organic production and • § 205.290 Temporary variances handling system plan. (a) The producer or handler of a production • § 205.240 Pasture practice standard. or handling operation, except as exempt or excluded under §205.101, intending to sell, Subpart D—Labels, Labeling, and label, or represent agricultural products as Market Information “100 percent organic,” “organic,” or “made with organic (specified ingredients or food • § 205.300 Use of the term “organic” group(s))” must develop an organic produc- • § 205.301 Product composition tion or handling system plan that is agreed to by the producer or handler and an accred- Subpart G—Administrative ited certifying agent. An organic system plan The National List of Allowed and must meet the requirements set forth in this section for organic production or handling. Prohibited Substances An organic production or handling system • § 205.603 Non-synthetic substances plan must include: prohibited allowed for use in organic (1) A description of practices and proce- livestock production. dures to be performed and maintained, • § 205.604 Synthetic substances allowed including the frequency with which they for use in organic livestock production will be performed;Page 2 ATTRA Organic Standards for Livestock Production
  3. 3. (2) A list of each substance to be used as a year of organic management may production or handling input, indicating be consumed by the dairy animals its composition, source, location(s) where of the farm during the 12-month it will be used, and documentation of period immediately prior to the sale of commercial availability, as applicable; organic milk and milk products; and (3) A description of the monitoring prac- (ii) That, when an entire, distinct herd is tices and procedures to be performed and converted to organic production, the maintained, including the frequency with producer may, provided no milk pro- which they will be performed, to verify duced under this subparagraph enters that the plan is effectively implemented; the stream of commerce labeled as organic after June 9, 2007: (a) For (4) A description of the recordkeeping sys- the first 9 months of the year, pro- tem implemented to comply with the vide a minimum of 80-percent feed requirements established in §205.103; that is either organic or raised from (5) A description of the management prac- land included in the organic system tices and physical barriers established plan and managed in compliance to prevent commingling of organic and with organic crop requirements; and nonorganic products on a split operation (b) Provide feed in compliance with and to prevent contact of organic produc- §205.237 for the final 3 months. tion and handling operations and prod- ucts with prohibited substances; and (iii) Once an entire, distinct herd has been converted to organic produc- (6) Additional information deemed neces- tion, all dairy animals shall be under sary by the certifying agent to evaluate organic management from the last compliance with the regulations. third of gestation.(b) A producer may substitute a plan prepared (3) Breeder stock. Livestock used as breeder to meet the requirements of another Fed- stock may be brought from a nonorganic eral, State, or local government regulatory operation onto an organic operation at any program for the organic system plan: Pro- time: Provided, That, if such livestock are vided, That, the submitted plan meets all the gestating and the offspring are to be raised requirements of this subpart. as organic livestock, the breeder stock§ 205.236 Origin of livestock. must be brought onto the facility no later than the last third of gestation.(a) Livestock products that are to be sold, labeled, or represented as organic must be (b) The following are prohibited: from livestock under continuous organic (1) Livestock or edible livestock products that management from the last third of gestation are removed from an organic operation or hatching: Except, That: and subsequently managed on a nonor- (1) Poultry. Poultry or edible poultry products ganic operation may be not sold, labeled, must be from poultry that has been under or represented as organically produced. continuous organic management begin- (2) Breeder or dairy stock that has not been ning no later than the second day of life; under continuous organic management (2) Dairy animals. Milk or milk products since the last third of gestation may not must be from animals that have been be sold, labeled, or represented as organic under continuous organic management slaughter stock. beginning no later than 1 year prior to (c) The producer of an organic livestock opera- the production of the milk or milk prod- tion must maintain records sufficient to pre- ucts that are to be sold, labeled, or repre- serve the identity of all organically managed sented as organic, Except, animals and edible and nonedible ani- (i) That, crops and forage from land, mal products produced on the operation. included in the organic system plan [65 FR 80637, Dec. 21, 2000, as amended at of a dairy farm, that is in the third 71 FR 32807, June 7, 2006] ATTRA Page 3
  4. 4. § 205.237 Livestock feed. entire grazing season for the geographical (a) The producer of an organic livestock opera- region, which shall be not less than 120 tion must provide livestock with a total feed days per calendar year. Due to weather, ration composed of agricultural products, season, and/or climate, the grazing season including pasture and forage, that are organ- may or may not be continuous. ically produced and handled by operations (2) Provide pasture of a sufficient quality certified to the NOP, except as provided in and quantity to graze throughout the §205.236(a)(2)(i), except, that, synthetic sub- grazing season and to provide all rumi- stances allowed under §205.603 and non- nants under the organic system plan with synthetic substances not prohibited under an average of not less than 30 percent §205.604 may be used as feed additives and of their dry matter intake from grazing feed supplements, Provided, That, all agricul- throughout the grazing season: Except, tural ingredients included in the ingredients That, list, for such additives and supplements, shall (i) Ruminant animals denied pasture have been produced and handled organically. in accordance with §205.239(b) (b) The producer of an organic operation must not: (1) through (8), and §205.239(c)(1) through (3), shall be provided with an (1) Use animal drugs, including hormones, average of not less than 30 percent of to promote growth; their dry matter intake from grazing (2) Provide feed supplements or additives in throughout the periods that they are amounts above those needed for adequate on pasture during the grazing season; nutrition and health maintenance for the (ii) Breeding bulls shall be exempt from species at its specific stage of life; the 30 percent dry matter intake from grazing requirement of this sec- (3) Feed plastic pellets for roughage; tion and management on pasture (4) Feed formulas containing urea or requirement of §205.239(c)(2); Pro- manure; vided, That, any animal maintained under this exemption shall not be (5) Feed mammalian or poultry slaughter sold, labeled, used, or represented as by-products to mammals or poultry; organic slaughter stock. (6) Use feed, feed additives, and feed supple- (d) Ruminant livestock producers shall: ments in violation of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; (1) Describe the total feed ration for each type and class of animal. The description (7) Provide feed or forage to which any anti- must include: biotic including ionophores has been (i) All feed produced on-farm; added; or (ii) All feed purchased from off-farm (8) Prevent, withhold, restrain, or otherwise sources; restrict ruminant animals from actively obtaining feed grazed from pasture during (iii) The percentage of each feed type, the grazing season, except for conditions as including pasture, in the total ration; described under §205.239(b) and (c). and (iv) A list of all feed supplements and (c) During the grazing season, producers shall: additives. (1) Provide not more than an average of (2) Document the amount of each type of 70 percent of a ruminant’s dry matter feed actually fed to each type and class of demand from dry matter fed (dry mat- animal. ter fed does not include dry matter grazed from residual forage or vegetation rooted (3) Document changes that are made to all in pasture). This shall be calculated as an rations throughout the year in response average over the entire grazing season for to seasonal grazing changes. each type and class of animal. Ruminant (4) Provide the method for calculating dry animals must be grazed throughout the matter demand and dry matter intake.Page 4 ATTRA Organic Standards for Livestock Production
  5. 5. § 205.238 Livestock health care practice not allowed under §205.603, or anystandard. substance that contains a nonsynthetic(a) The producer must establish and maintain substance prohibited in §205.604; preventive livestock health care practices, (2) Administer any animal drug, other than including: vaccinations, in the absence of illness; (1) Selection of species and types of livestock (3) Administer hormones for growth with regard to suitability for site-specific promotion; conditions and resistance to prevalent diseases and parasites; (4) Administer synthetic parasiticides on a routine basis; (2) Provision of a feed ration sufficient to meet nutritional requirements, includ- (5) Administer synthetic parasiticides to ing vitamins, minerals, protein and/or slaughter stock; amino acids, fatty acids, energy sources, (6) Administer animal drugs in violation of and fiber (ruminants); the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (3) Establishment of appropriate housing, Act; or pasture conditions, and sanitation prac- (7) Withhold medical treatment from a sick tices to minimize the occurrence and animal in an effort to preserve its organic spread of diseases and parasites; status. All appropriate medications must (4) Provision of conditions which allow for be used to restore an animal to health exercise, freedom of movement, and when methods acceptable to organic reduction of stress appropriate to the spe- production fail. Livestock treated with cies; a prohibited substance must be clearly identified and shall not be sold, labeled, (5) Performance of physical alterations as or represented as organically produced. needed to promote the animal’s welfare and in a manner that minimizes pain § 205.239 Livestock living conditions. and stress; and (a) The producer of an organic livestock opera- (6) Administration of vaccines and other vet- tion must establish and maintain year-round erinary biologics. livestock living conditions which accom- modate the health and natural behavior of(b) When preventive practices and veterinary animals, including: biologics are inadequate to prevent sickness, a producer may administer synthetic medi- (1) Year-round access for all animals to the cations: Provided, Th at, such medications outdoors, shade, shelter, exercise areas, are allowed under §205.603. Parasiticides fresh air, clean water for drinking, and allowed under §205.603 may be used on: direct sunlight, suitable to the species, its stage of life, the climate, and the envi- (1) Breeder stock, when used prior to the last ronment: Except, that, animals may be third of gestation but not during lactation temporarily denied access to the outdoors for progeny that are to be sold, labeled, or in accordance with §205.239(b) and (c). represented as organically produced; and Yards, feeding pads, and feedlots may be (2) Dairy stock, when used a minimum of used to provide ruminants with access 90 days prior to the production of milk to the outdoors during the non-grazing or milk products that are to be sold, season and supplemental feeding dur- labeled, or represented as organic. ing the grazing season. Yards, feeding pads, and feedlots shall be large enough(c) The producer of an organic livestock opera- to allow all ruminant livestock occupy- tion must not: ing the yard, feeding pad, or feedlot to (1) Sell, label, or represent as organic any ani- feed simultaneously without crowding mal or edible product derived from any and without competition for food. Con- animal treated with antibiotics, any sub- tinuous total confinement of any animal stance that contains a synthetic substance indoors is prohibited. Continuous ATTRA Page 5
  6. 6. confinement of ruminants in yards, feed- (8) 4–H, Future Farmers of America and ing pads, and feedlots is prohibited. other youth projects, for no more than one week prior to a fair or other dem- (2) For all ruminants, management on pas- onstration, through the event and up to ture and daily grazing throughout the 24 hours after the animals have arrived grazing season(s) to meet the require- home at the conclusion of the event. ments of §205.237, except as provided These animals must have been main- for in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this tained under continuous organic man- section. agement, including organic feed, during (3) Appropriate clean, dry bedding. When the extent of their allowed confinement roughages are used as bedding, they shall for the event. have been organically produced in accor- (c) The producer of an organic livestock opera- dance with this part by an operation tion may, in addition to the times permitted certified under this part, except as pro- under §205.239(b), temporarily deny a rumi- vided in §205.236(a)(2)(i), and, if appli- nant animal pasture or outdoor access under cable, organically handled by operations the following conditions: certified to the NOP. (1) One week at the end of a lactation for dry (5) The use of yards, feeding pads, feedlots off (for denial of access to pasture only), and laneways that shall be well-drained, three weeks prior to parturition (birth- kept in good condition (including fre- ing), parturition, and up to one week quent removal of wastes), and managed after parturition; to prevent runoff of wastes and contami- nated waters to adjoining or nearby sur- (2) In the case of newborn dairy cattle for up face water and across property boundaries. to six months, after which they must be on pasture during the grazing season and (b) The producer of an organic livestock opera- may no longer be individually housed: tion may provide temporary confinement or Provided, That, an animal shall not be shelter for an animal because of: confined or tethered in a way that pre- (2) The animal’s stage of life: Except, that vents the animal from lying down, stand- lactation is not a stage of life that would ing up, fully extending its limbs, and exempt ruminants from any of the man- moving about freely; dates set forth in this regulation; (3) In the case of fiber bearing animals, for (3) Conditions under which the health, short periods for shearing; and safety, or well-being of the animal could (4) In the case of dairy animals, for short be jeopardized; periods daily for milking. Milking must (4) Risk to soil or water quality; be scheduled in a manner to ensure sufficient grazing time to provide each (5) Preventive healthcare procedures or for animal with an average of at least 30 per- the treatment of illness or injury (neither cent DMI from grazing throughout the the various life stages nor lactation is an grazing season. Milking frequencies or illness or injury); duration practices cannot be used to (6) Sorting or shipping animals and livestock deny dairy animals pasture. sales: Provided, that, the animals shall be (d) Ruminant slaughter stock, typically grain maintained under continuous organic finished, shall be maintained on pasture management, including organic feed, for each day that the finishing period corre- throughout the extent of their allowed sponds with the grazing season for the geo- confinement; graphical location: Except, that, yards, feed- (7) Breeding: Except, that, bred animals ing pads, or feedlots may be used to provide shall not be denied access to the outdoors finish feeding rations. During the finishing and, once bred, ruminants shall not be period, ruminant slaughter stock shall be denied access to pasture during the grazing exempt from the minimum 30 percent DMI season; or requirement from grazing. Yards, feedingPage 6 ATTRA Organic Standards for Livestock Production
  7. 7. pads, or feedlots used to provide finish feed- cooperation with a Federal, State, or local ing rations shall be large enough to allow conservation office: Provided, that, the sub- all ruminant slaughter stock occupying the mitted plan addresses all of the requirements yard, feeding pad, or feed lot to feed simulta- of §205.240(c)(1) through (8). When a change neously without crowding and without com- to an approved pasture plan is contemplated, petition for food. The finishing period shall which may affect the operation’s compliance not exceed one-fi fth (1/5) of the animal’s with the Act or the regulations in this part, total life or 120 days, whichever is shorter. the producer shall seek the certifying agent’s agreement on the change prior to implementa-(e) The producer of an organic livestock opera- tion. The pasture plan shall include a descrip- tion must manage manure in a manner that tion of the: does not contribute to contamination of crops, soil, or water by plant nutrients, heavy (1) Types of pasture provided to ensure that metals, or pathogenic organisms and opti- the feed requirements of §205.237 are mizes recycling of nutrients and must man- being met. age pastures and other outdoor access areas (2) Cultural and management practices to in a manner that does not put soil or water be used to ensure pasture of a sufficient quality at risk. quality and quantity is available to graze§ 205.240 Pasture practice standard. throughout the grazing season and to provide all ruminants under the organicThe producer of an organic livestock operation system plan, except exempted classesmust, for all ruminant livestock on the opera- identified in §205.239(c)(1) through (3),tion, demonstrate through auditable records in with an average of not less than 30 per-the organic system plan, a functioning manage- cent of their dry matter intake from graz-ment plan for pasture. ing throughout the grazing season.(a) Pasture must be managed as a crop in full (3) Grazing season for the livestock opera- compliance with §205.202, 205.203(d) and tion’s regional location. (e), 205.204, and 205.206(b) through (f ). Land used for the production of annual crops (4) Location and size of pastures, including for ruminant grazing must be managed in full maps giving each pasture its own compliance with §205.202 through 205.206. identification. Irrigation shall be used, as needed, to promote (5) The types of grazing methods to be used pasture growth when the operation has irriga- in the pasture system. tion available for use on pasture. (6) Location and types of fences, except for(b) Producers must provide pasture in com- temporary fences, and the location and pliance with §205.239(a)(2) and man- source of shade and the location and age pasture to comply with the require- source of water. ments of: §205.237(c)(2), to annually provide a minimum of 30 percent (7) Soil fertility and seeding systems. of a rumina nt’s dr y matter inta ke (8) Erosion control and protection of natural (DMI), on average, over the course wetlands and riparian areas practices. of the grazing season(s); §205.238(a)(3), to minimize the occurrence and spread of § 205.290 Temporary variances. diseases and parasites; and §205.239(e) Temporary variances from the requirements in to refrain from putting soil or water qual- §205.203 through 205.207, 205.236 through ity at risk. 205.240 and 205.270 through 205.272 may be(c) A pasture plan must be included in the pro- established by the Administrator for the follow- ducer’s organic system plan, and be updated ing reasons: annually in accordance with §205.406(a). The (1) Natural disasters declared by the producer may resubmit the previous year’s Secretary; pasture plan when no change has occurred in the plan. The pasture plan may consist (2) Damage caused by drought, wind, of a pasture/rangeland plan developed in flood, excessive moisture, hail, tornado, ATTRA Page 7
  8. 8. earthquake, fire, or other business (1) Alcohols. interruption; and (i) Ethanol-disinfectant and sanitizer (3) Practices used for the purpose of con- only, prohibited as a feed additive. ducting research or trials of techniques, varieties, or ingredients used in organic (ii) Isopropanol-disinfectant only. production or handling. (2) Aspirin-approved for health care use to (b) A State organic program’s governing State reduce inflammation. official or certifying agent may recommend (3) Atropine (CAS #–51–55–8)—federal in writing to the Administrator that a tem- law restricts this drug to use by or on the lawful porary variance from a standard set forth in written or oral order of a licensed veterinarian, subpart C of this part for organic produc- in full compliance with the AMDUCA and 21 tion or handling operations be established: CFR part 530 of the Food and Drug Adminis- Provided, Th at, such variance is based on tration regulations. Also, for use under 7 CFR one or more of the reasons listed in para- part 205, the NOP requires: graph (a) of this section. (i) Use by or on the lawful written order (c) The Administrator will provide written of a licensed veterinarian; and notification to certifying agents upon establishment of a temporary variance (ii) A meat withdrawal period of at least applicable to the certifying agent’s certi- 56 days after administering to live- fied production or handling operations stock intended for slaughter; and a and specify the period of time it shall milk discard period of at least 12 days remain in effect, subject to extension as after administering to dairy animals. the Administrator deems necessary. (4) Biologics—Vaccines. (d) A certif ying agent, upon notif ication from the Administrator of the estab- (5) Butorphanol (CAS #–42408–82–2)— lishment of a temporary variance, must federal law restricts this drug to use by notify each production or handling oper- or on the lawful written or oral order of ation it certifies to which the temporary a licensed veterinarian, in full compli- variance applies. ance with the AMDUCA and 21 CFR part 530 of the Food and Drug Adminis- (e) Temporary variances will not be granted for tration regulations. Also, for use under 7 any practice, material, or procedure prohib- CFR Part 205, the NOP requires: ited under §205.105. (i) Use by or on the lawful written order Subpart G—Administrative of a licensed veterinarian; and The National List of Allowed and (ii) A meat withdrawal period of at least Prohibited Substances 42 days after administering to live- § 205.603 Synthetic substances allowed stock intended for slaughter; and a for use in organic livestock production. milk discard period of at least 8 days In accordance with restrictions specified in this after administering to dairy animals. section the following synthetic substances may (6) Chlorhexidine—Allowed for surgical be used in organic livestock production: procedures conducted by a veterinarian. (a) As disinfectants, sanitizer, and medical Allowed for use as a teat dip when alter- treatments as applicable. native germicidal agents and/or physical barriers have lost their effectiveness. Please note: The National List is subject to change as a result of legal (7) Chlorine materials—disinfecting and actions, petitions to add or remove materials or technical corrections. sanitizing facilities and equipment. Please go to the National Organic Program (NOP) website for the Residual chlorine levels in the water shall most current version of the National List. not exceed the maximum residual dis- standards/FullRegTextOnly.html infectant limit under the Safe Drinking Water Act.Page 8 ATTRA Organic Standards for Livestock Production
  9. 9. (i) Calcium hypochlorite. must not be used during the lactation period for breeding stock. (ii) Chlorine dioxide. (19) Peroxyacetic/peracetic acid (CAS #–79– (iii) Sodium hypochlorite. 21–0)—for sanitizing facility and pro- (8) Electrolytes—without antibiotics. cessing equipment. (9) Flunixin (CAS #–38677–85–9)—in (20) Phosphoric acid—allowed as an equip- accordance with approved labeling; ment cleaner, Provided , That, no direct except that for use under 7 CFR part contact with organically managed live- 205, the NOP requires a withdrawal stock or land occurs. period of at least two-times that required by the FDA. (21) Poloxalene (CAS #–9003–11–6)—for use under 7 CFR part 205, the NOP (10) Furosemide (CAS #–54 –31–9)— requires that poloxalene only be used in accordance with approved label- for the emergency treatment of bloat. ing; except that for use under 7 CFR part 205, the NOP requires a with- (22) Tolazoline (CAS #–59–98–3)—fed- drawal period of at least two-times that eral law restricts this drug to use by or required that required by the FDA. on the lawful written or oral order of a licensed veterinarian, in full compliance (11) Glucose. with the AMDUCA and 21 CFR part (12) Glycerine—Allowed as a livestock teat 530 of the Food and Drug Administra- dip, must be produced through the tion regulations. Also, for use under 7 hydrolysis of fats or oils. CFR part 205, the NOP requires: (13) Hydrogen peroxide. (i) Use by or on the lawful written order of a licensed veterinarian; (14) Iodine. (ii) Use only to reverse the effects of (15) Magnesium hydroxide (CAS #–1309– sedation and analgesia caused by 42–8)—federal law restricts this drug Xylazine; and to use by or on the lawful written or oral order of a licensed veterinarian, in (iii) A meat withdrawal period of at least full compliance with the AMDUCA 8 days after administering to live- and 21 CFR part 530 of the Food and stock intended for slaughter; and a Drug Administration regulations. Also, milk discard period of at least 4 days for use under 7 CFR part 205, the NOP after administering to dairy animals. requires use by or on the lawful written order of a licensed veterinarian. (23) Xylazine (CAS #–7361–61–7)—fed- eral law restricts this drug to use by or (16) Magnesium sulfate. on the lawful written or oral order of a (17) Oxytocin—use in postparturition ther- licensed veterinarian, in full compliance apeutic applications. with the AMDUCA and 21 CFR part 530 of the Food and Drug Administra- (18) Paraciticides. Ivermectin—prohibited in tion regulations. Also, for use under 7 slaughter stock, allowed in emergency CFR part 205, the NOP requires: treatment for dairy and breeder stock when organic system plan-approved (i) Use by or on the lawful written order preventive management does not pre- of a licensed veterinarian; vent infestation. Milk or milk products (ii) The existence of an emergency; and from a treated animal cannot be labeled as provided for in subpart D of this (iii) A meat withdrawal period of at least part for 90 days following treatment. In 8 days after administering to live- breeder stock, treatment cannot occur stock intended for slaughter; and a during the last third of gestation if the milk discard period of at least 4 days progeny will be sold as organic and after administering to dairy ATTRA Page 9
  10. 10. (b) As topical treatment, external parasiticide or Generally Recognized As Safe; Approved by local anesthetic as applicable. the FDA as a food additive; or Included in the FDA review and approval of a New Animal (1) Copper sulfate. Drug Application or New Drug Application. (2) Iodine. (g)–(z) [Reserved] (3) Lidocaine—as a local anesthetic. Use [72 FR 70484, Dec. 12, 2007, as amended at requires a withdrawal period of 90 days 73 FR 54059, Sept. 18, 2008] after administering to livestock intended for slaughter and 7 days after administer- § 205.604 Nonsynthetic substances ing to dairy animals. prohibited for use in organic livestock production. (4) Lime, hydrated—as an external pest con- trol, not permitted to cauterize physical The following nonsynthetic substances may not alterations or deodorize animal wastes. be used in organic livestock production: (5) Mineral oil—for topical use and as a (a) Strychnine. lubricant. (b)–(z) [Reserved] (6) Procaine—as a local anesthetic, use requires a withdrawal period of 90 days Subpart A—Definitions after administering to livestock intended § 205.2 Terms defined. [Selected terms for slaughter and 7 days after administer- relevant to livestock production] ing to dairy animals. Agricultural product. Any agricultural com- (7) Sucrose oc t a noate e ster s (C A S modity or product, whether raw or processed, #s– 42922–74–7; 58064– 47– 4)—in including any commodity or product derived accordance with approved labeling. from livestock, that is marketed in the United (c) As feed supplements—None. States for human or livestock consumption. (d) As feed additives. AMDUCA. The Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act of 1994 (Pub. L. 103–396). (1) DL–Methionine, DL–Methionine— hydroxy analog, and DL–Methionine— Animal drug. Any drug as defined in section 201 hydroxy analog calcium (CAS #–59–51– of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 8; 63–68–3; 348–67–4)—for use only in as amended (21 U.S.C. 321), that is intended for organic poultry production until October use in livestock, including any drug intended for 1, 2010. use in livestock feed but not including such live- stock feed. (2) Trace minerals, used for enrichment or fortification when FDA approved. Audit trail. Documentation that is sufficient to determine the source, transfer of ownership, (3) Vitamins, used for enrichment or fortifi- and transportation of any agricultural product cation when FDA approved. labeled as “100 percent organic,” the organic (e) As synthetic inert ingredients as classified ingredients of any agricultural product labeled by the Environmental Protection Agency as “organic” or “made with organic (specified (EPA), for use with nonsynthetic substances ingredients)” or the organic ingredients of any or synthetic substances listed in this section agricultural product containing less than 70 per- and used as an active pesticide ingredient in cent organic ingredients identified as organic in accordance with any limitations on the use of an ingredients statement. such substances. Biologics. All viruses, serums, toxins, and anal- (1) EPA List 4—Inerts of Minimal Concern. ogous products of natural or synthetic origin, such as diagnostics, antitoxins, vaccines, live (2) [Reserved] microorganisms, killed microorganisms, and the (f) Excipients, only for use in the manufacture antigenic or immunizing components of micro- of drugs used to treat organic livestock when organisms intended for use in the diagnosis, the excipient is: Identified by the FDA as treatment, or prevention of diseases of animals.Page 10 ATTRA Organic Standards for Livestock Production
  11. 11. Breeder stock. Female livestock whose offspring an in-vessel or static aerated pile system mustmay be incorporated into an organic operation maintain the composting materials at a tem-at the time of their birth. perature between 131 °F and 170 °F for 3 days. Producers using a windrow system must main-Buffer zone. An area located between a certified tain the composting materials at a temperatureproduction operation or portion of a production between 131 °F and 170 °F for 15 days, duringoperation and an adjacent land area that is not which time, the materials must be turned a min-maintained under organic management. A buffer imum of five must be sufficient in size or other features(e.g., windbreaks or a diversion ditch) to prevent Crop. Pastures, cover crops, green manure crops,the possibility of unintended contact by prohib- catch crops, or any plant or part of a plantited substances applied to adjacent land areas intended to be marketed as an agricultural prod-with an area that is part of a certified operation. uct, fed to livestock, or used in the field to man-Certified operation. A crop or livestock produc- age nutrients and soil fertility.tion, wild-crop harvesting or handling operation, Disease vectors. Plants or animals that harbor oror portion of such operation that is certified by an transmit disease organisms or pathogens whichaccredited certifying agent as utilizing a system of may attack crops or production or handling as described bythe Act and the regulations in this part. Dry lot. A fenced area that may be covered with concrete, but that has little or no vegetative cover.Certifying agent. Any entity accredited by theSecretary as a certifying agent for the purpose Dry matter. The amount of a feedstuff remain-of certifying a production or handling operation ing after all the free moisture is evaporated a certified production or handling operation. Dry matter demand. The expected dry matterClaims. Oral, written, implied, or symbolic rep- intake for a class of animal.resentations, statements, or advertising or other Dry matter intake. Total pounds of all feed,forms of communication presented to the pub- devoid of all moisture, consumed by a class oflic or buyers of agricultural products that relate animals over a given period of the organic certification process or the term,“100 percent organic,” “organic,” or “made with Excipients. Any ingredients that are intentionallyorganic (specified ingredients or food group(s)),” added to livestock medications but do not exertor, in the case of agricultural products contain- therapeutic or diagnostic effects at the intendeding less than 70 percent organic ingredients, the dosage, although they may act to improve prod-term, “organic,” on the ingredients panel. uct delivery (e.g., enhancing absorption or con- trolling release of the drug substance). ExamplesClass of animal. A group of livestock that shares of such ingredients include fi llers, extenders,a similar stage of life or production. The classes diluents, wetting agents, solvents, emulsifiers,of animals are those that are commonly listed preservatives, flavors, absorption enhancers, sus-on feed labels. tained-release matrices, and coloring agents.Commingling. Physical contact between unpack- Excluded methods. A variety of methods used toaged organically produced and nonorganically genetically modify organisms or influence theirproduced agricultural products during produc- growth and development by means that are nottion, processing, transportation, storage or han- possible under natural conditions or processesdling, other than during the manufacture of a and are not considered compatible with organicmultiingredient product containing both types production. Such methods include cell fusion,of ingredients. microencapsulation and macroencapsulation, andCompost. The product of a managed process recombinant DNA technology (including genethrough which microorganisms break down plant deletion, gene doubling, introducing a foreignand animal materials into more available forms gene, and changing the positions of genes whensuitable for application to the soil. Compost must achieved by recombinant DNA technology). Suchbe produced through a process that combines methods do not include the use of traditionalplant and animal materials with an initial C:N breeding, conjugation, fermentation, hybridiza-ratio of between 25:1 and 40:1. Producers using tion, in vitro fertilization, or tissue ATTRA Page 11
  12. 12. Feed. Edible materials which are consumed by livestock. Production yields or growth rates of livestock for their nutritional value. Feed may livestock lower than the maximum achievable be concentrates (grains) or roughages (hay, do not qualify as physical harm. silage, fodder). The term, “feed,” encompasses Label. A display of written, printed, or graphic all agricultural commodities, including pasture material on the immediate container of an agri- ingested by livestock for nutritional purposes. cultural product or any such material affi xed Feed additive. A substance added to feed in to any agricultural product or affixed to a bulk micro quantities to fulfill a specific nutritional container containing an agricultural product, need; i.e., essential nutrients in the form of except for package liners or a display of written, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. printed, or graphic material which contains only information about the weight of the product. Feedlot. A dry lot for the controlled feeding of livestock. Livestock. Any cattle, sheep, goats, swine, poul- try, or equine animals used for food or in the Feed supplement. A combination of feed nutri- production of food, fiber, feed, or other agricul- ents added to livestock feed to improve the tural-based consumer products; wild or domes- nutrient balance or performance of the total ticated game; or other nonplant life, except such ration and intended to be: term shall not include aquatic animals for the (1) Diluted with other feeds when fed to production of food, fiber, feed, or other agricul- livestock; tural-based consumer products. (2) Offered free choice with other parts of the ration if separately available; or Manure. Feces, urine, other excrement, and bed- (3) Further diluted and mixed to produce ding produced by livestock that has not been a complete feed. composted. Forage. Vegetative material in a fresh, dried, or Market information. Any written, printed, audio- ensiled state (pasture, hay, or silage), which is fed visual, or graphic information, including adver- to livestock. tising, pamphlets, flyers, catalogues, posters, and signs, distributed, broadcast, or made available Graze. (1) The consumption of standing or resid- outside of retail outlets that are used to assist in ual forage by livestock. (2) To put livestock to the sale or promotion of a product. feed on standing or residual forage. National List. A list of allowed and prohibited Grazing season. The period of time when pasture substances as provided for in the Act. is available for grazing, due to natural precipi- tation or irrigation. Grazing season dates may Natural resources of the operation. The physical, vary because of mid-summer heat/humidity, sig- hydrological, and biological features of a pro- nificant precipitation events, floods, hurricanes, duction operation, including soil, water, wet- droughts or winter weather events. Grazing sea- lands, woodlands, and wildlife. son may be extended by the grazing of residual Nonsynthetic (natural). A substance that is forage as agreed in the operation’s organic sys- derived from mineral, plant, or animal mat- tem plan. Due to weather, season, or climate, ter and does not undergo a synthetic process as the grazing season may or may not be continu- defined in section 6502(21) of the Act (7 U.S.C. ous. Grazing season may range from 120 days 6502(21)). For the purposes of this part, non- to 365 days, but not less than 120 days per year. synthetic is used as a synonym for natural as the Handler. Any person engaged in the business of term is used in the Act. handling agricultural products, including pro- Organic. A labeling term that refers to an agri- ducers who handle crops or livestock of their cultural product produced in accordance with own production, except such term shall not the Act and the regulations in this part. include final retailers of agricultural products that do not process agricultural products. Organic matter. The remains, residues, or waste products of any organism. Inclement weather. Weather that is violent, or characterized by temperatures (high or low), Organic production. A production system that is or characterized by excessive precipitation that managed in accordance with the Act and reg- can cause physical harm to a given species of ulations in this part to respond to site-specificPage 12 ATTRA Organic Standards for Livestock Production
  13. 13. conditions by integrating cultural, biological, Residual forage. Forage cut and left to lie, or wind-and mechanical practices that foster cycling of rowed and left to lie, in place in the pasture.resources, promote ecological balance, and con- Routine use of parasiticide. The regular, planned,serve biodiversity. or periodic use of parasiticides.Organic system plan. A plan of management of anorganic production or handling operation that Secretary. The Secretary of Agriculture or a rep-has been agreed to by the producer or handler resentative to whom authority has been dele-and the certifying agent and that includes writ- gated to act in the Secretary’s stead.ten plans concerning all aspects of agricultural Shelter. Structures such as barns, sheds, or wind-production or handling described in the Act and breaks; or natural areas such as woods, tree lines,the regulations in subpart C of this part. large hedge rows, or geographic land features,Pasture. Land used for livestock grazing that is that are designed or selected to provide physicalmanaged to provide feed value and maintain or protection or housing to all animals.improve soil, water, and vegetative resources. Slaughter stock. Any animal that is intended toPractice standard. The guidelines and require- be slaughtered for consumption by humans orments through which a production or handling other animals.operation implements a required component of Soil and water quality. Observable indicators ofits production or handling organic system plan. the physical, chemical, or biological conditionA practice standard includes a series of allowed of soil and water, including the presence of envi-and prohibited actions, materials, and conditions ronmental establish a minimum level performance forplanning, conducting, and maintaining a func- Split operation. An operation that produces ortion, such as livestock health care or facility pest handles both organic and nonorganic agricul-management, essential to an organic operation. tural products.Processing. Cooking, baking, curing, heating, Stage of life. A discrete time period in an ani-drying, mixing, grinding, churning, separating, mal’s life which requires specific managementextracting, slaughtering, cutting, fermenting, practices different than during other periodsdistilling, eviscerating, preserving, dehydrating, (e.g., poultry during feathering). Breeding,freezing, chilling, or otherwise manufacturing freshening, lactation and other recurring eventsand includes the packaging, canning, jarring, or are not a stage of life.otherwise enclosing food in a container. Synthetic. A substance that is formulated orProducer. A person who engages in the business manufactured by a chemical process or by aof growing or producing food, fiber, feed, and process that chemically changes a substanceother agricultural-based consumer products. extracted from naturally occurring plant, ani-Production lot number/identifier. Identification of mal, or mineral sources, except that such terma product based on the production sequence of shall not apply to substances created by natu-the product showing the date, time, and place rally occurring biological processes.of production used for quality control purposes. Temporary and Temporarily. Occurring for a lim-Prohibited substance. A substance the use of ited time only (e.g., overnight, throughout a storm,which in any aspect of organic production or during a period of illness, the period of timehandling is prohibited or not provided for in the specified by the Administrator when granting aAct or the regulations of this part. temporary variance), not permanent or lasting.Records. Any information in written, visual, or Yards/Feeding pad. An area for feeding, exercis-electronic form that documents the activities ing, and outdoor access for livestock during theundertaken by a producer, handler, or certifying non-grazing season and a high traffic area whereagent to comply with the Act and regulations in animals may receive supplemental feeding dur-this part. ing the grazing ATTRA Page 13
  14. 14. NotesPage 14 ATTRA Organic Standards for Livestock Production
  15. 15. ATTRA Page 15
  16. 16. Organic Standards for Livestock Production Excerpts of USDA’s National Organic Program Regulations By Ann H. Baier NCAT Agriculture Specialist © 2010 NCAT Holly Michels, Editor Amy Smith, Production This publication is available on the Web at: or IP334 Slot 331 Version 091510Page 16 ATTRA