Manures for Organic Crop Production


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Manures for Organic Crop Production

  1. 1. Manures for Organic Crop Production SOIL SYSTEMS GUIDE Abstract: Livestock manures are an important resource in sustainable and organic crop production. This publication addresses the problems and challenges of using both raw and composted manures and discusses some of the solutions. It also deals with guano, a similar material.By George Kuepper Table of ContentsNCAT Agriculture Specialist Introduction ..................................................... 1March 2003 Raw Manure Use: Problems & Solutions ...... .2 Contamination ................................................. 2Introduction Produce Quality Concerns ............................... 3 Fertility Imbalances ......................................... 3 Livestock manure is traditionally a key fer-tilizer in organic and sustainable soil manage- Weed Problems ................................................ 4ment. It is most effectively used in combination Pollution .......................................................... 4with other sustainable practices. These includecrop rotation, cover cropping, green manuring, Composted Manures ........................................ 5liming, and the addition of other natural or bio- About Guano ................................................... 6logically friendly fertilizers and amendments. In organic production, manure is commonly Field-applying Manures & Composts ............. 7applied to the field in either a raw (fresh or dried) Summary ......................................................... 9or composted state. This publication addressesthe advantages and constraints of using manure References ...................................................... 9in either form, but with particular focus on raw Recommended Resources .......................... 10manure; it does not discussthe specific circumstancesand challenges associatedwith handling and applyingslurry manure. There are clear restric-tions on the use of raw ma-nure in organic farming.These restrictions are de-tailed in the National Or-ganic Program (NOP)Regulations, which consti-tute the federal standard fororganic production. Detailswill be discussed later inthis publication.ATTRA is the national sustainable agriculture information service operated by the National Centerfor Appropriate Technology, through a grant from the Rural Business-Cooperative Service, U.S.Department of Agriculture. These organizations do not recommend or endorse products,companies, or individuals. NCAT has offices in Fayetteville, Arkansas (P.O. Box 3657, Fayetteville,AR 72702), Butte, Montana, and Davis, California.
  2. 2. sible, avoid manuring after planting. Fall spread- ing is advised.Raw Manure Use: •Do not use dog, cat, or pig manures (fresh or composted). These species share many para- Problems & Solutions sites with humans. •Wash all produce from manured fields thor- oughly before use. Persons especially suscep- Raw manure is an excellent resource for or- tible to food-borne illnesses (children, the eld-ganic crop production. It supplies nutrients and erly, those with compromised immune systems,organic matter, stimulating the biological pro- etc.) should avoid uncooked produce.cesses in the soil that help to build fertility. Still, In February 2000, the issue of manure use ona number of cautions and restrictions are in or- organic farms was highlighted on the televisionder, based on concerns about produce quality, news program 20/20. The segment suggested thatfood contamination, soil fertility imbalances, fertilization with livestock manures made or-weed problems, and pollution hazards. ganic foods more dangerous than other food products in the marketplace (4). The show’s pro-Contamination ducers arranged for a sampling of various or- ganic and nonorganic vegetables from store shelves and tested for the presence of E. coli. The Some manures may contain contaminants samples of both organic and nonorganic producesuch as residual hormones, antibiotics, pesticides, were generally free of serious contamination.disease organisms, and other undesirable sub- The exceptions were bagged sprouts andstances. Since many of these can be eliminated mesclun salad mix. Of these, more E. coli con-through high- tamination wastemperature observed on thea e r o b i c organic samples. Itcomposting, was largely on thisthis practice is basis that the newsrecommended program chal-where low lev- lenged organicels of organic farming.contaminants The attack wasmay be present. embarrassing toCaution is ad- the organic indus-vised, however, try and forced itsas research has membership to un-demonstrated dertake a lot ofthat Salmonella “damage control,”and E. coli bacte- despite the factria appear to that the allegationssurvive the composting process much better than were contrived and based on poor science. Thepreviously thought (1). The possibility of trans- sampling was not statistically significant (i.e., themitting human diseases discourages the use of same sampling done today might produce thefresh manures (and even some composts) as pre- opposite result). The show failed to point outplant or sidedress fertilizers on vegetable crops— that the specific test used does not distinguishespecially crops that are commonly eaten raw (2). between pathogenic and benign forms of E. coli. Washington State University (3) suggests that Also ignored was the obvious fact that conven-growers: tional farmers use manure, too! Furthermore, the •Apply animal manures at least 60 days prior reporter failed to disclose the vested interests ofto harvest of any vegetable that will be eaten the individual bringing the charges (Denniswithout cooking. (Note: The NOP’s specific re- Avery of the Hudson Institute—a “think tank”quirements on the timing of manure applications heavily funded by conventional agriculture in-are discussed later in this publication.) If pos- terests), presenting him instead as a former offi-PAGE 2 //MANURES FOR ORGANIC CROP PRODUCTION
  3. 3. cial with the Agriculture Department (5). JohnStossel—the journalist responsible for the 20/20 Fertility Imbalancesreport—subsequently issued an apology and acorrection (6). Raw manure use has often been associated Unlike conventional farmers, who have only with imbalances in soil fertility. There are sev-safety guidelines regarding manure use, certified eral causal factors:organic farmers must follow stringent protocols. •Manure is often rich in specific nutrients likeRaw manure may NOT be applied to food crops phosphate or potash. While these nutrients arewithin 120 days of harvest where edible portions of great benefit to crops, repeated applicationshave soil contact (i.e., most vegetables, strawber- of manure can result in their building to detri-ries, etc.); it may NOT be applied to food crops mental levels. A good example is the overuse ofwithin 90 days of harvest where edible portions broiler litter in the mid-South, which has putdo not have soil contact (i.e., grain crops, most excessive phosphate in the soil and polluted sur-tree fruits). Such restrictions do not apply to feed face waters. Nutrient excesses also “tie up” otherand fiber crops (7). minerals. Excessive phosphate interferes with Organic substances are not the only contami- plant uptake of both copper and zinc; excessivenants found in livestock manures. Heavy met- potash can restrict boron, manganese, and evenals can be a problem, especially where industrial- magnesium (9).scale production systems are used. Concerns •Continual manure use tends to acidify soil.over heavy-metal and other chemical contami- As manure breaks down it releases various or-nation have dogged the use of poultry litter as ganic acids that assist in making soil mineralsan organically acceptable fertilizer in Arkansas, available—a benefit of manure that is often un-where it’s readily and cheaply available (8). This recognized. Over time, however, this processmatter is discussed in more detail under depletes the soil of calcium and causes pH levels“Composted Manures.” Heavy-metal contami- to fall below the optimum for most crops. Ma-nation is also a concern with composted sewage nures do supply some calcium, but not enoughsludge (biosolids)—a major reason for its being to counterbalance the tendency toward increasedprohibited from certified organic production. acidity (9). Possible exceptions include caged- Under federal organic standards, certifiers layer manure (when oyster-shell or similar cal-may require testing of manure or compost if there cium supplements are fed) and manure fromis reason to suspect high levels of contamination. dairy operations where barn lime is used. •When fresh manure containing largeProduce Quality Concerns amounts of nitrogen and salts is applied to a crop, it can have the same effects as excessive applica- tions of soluble commercial fertilizers—it can It has long been acknowledged that improper burn seedling roots, reduce immunity to pests,use of raw manure can adversely affect the qual- and shorten produce shelf life. Excessive salin-ity of raw vegetable crops such as potatoes, cu- ity is often associated with heavy applications ofcumbers, squash, turnips, cauliflower, cabbage, feedlot manure in regions where little leachingbroccoli, and kale. As it breaks down in the soil, naturally occurs—as in most western states (10).manure releases chemical compounds such as For example, growers in southwestern states likeskatole, indole, and other phenols. When ab- Arizona are advised to apply gypsum and leachsorbed by the growing plants, these compounds the soil with about 4 inches of irrigation watercan impart off-flavors and odors to the vegetables following incorporation of dairy or feedlot ma-(9). For this reason, raw manure should not be nures (11).directly applied to vegetable crops; it should in- To avoid manure-induced imbalances, con-stead be spread on cover crops planted the pre- tinually monitor soil fertility, using appropriatevious season. In the Ozark region, for example, soil tests. Then apply lime or other supplemen-poultry manure is sometimes used to fertilize tary fertilizers and amendments to ensure soilwinter cover crops that will be incorporated balance, or restrict application levels if needed.ahead of spring vegetable planting. A soil audit that measures cation base saturation //MANURES FOR ORGANIC CROP PRODUCTION PAGE 3
  4. 4. is strongly advised. If this service is not provided nure contains weed seed, often from beddingthrough your state’s Cooperative Extension Ser- materials like small-grain straw and old hay.vice, use of a private lab is suggested (see the High-temperature aerobic composting canATTRA publication Alternative Soil Testing Labo- greatly reduce the number of viable weed seedsratories for a listing). (12). In many cases, however, the lush growth Understanding the soil’s needs is only part of weeds that follows manuring does not resultof the equation. You must also know the nutri- from weed seeds in the manure but from theent content of the manure you’re applying. Stan- stimulating effect manure has on seeds alreadydard fertilizer values (such as those shown in present in the soil (as demonstrated throughTable 1) should be used only for crude approxi- studies at Auburn University using broiler lit-mations. The precise nutrient content of any ter) (13). The flush of weeds may result frommanure is dependent not only on livestock spe- enhanced biological activity, the presence of or-cies, but also on the ration fed, the kind of bed- ganic acids, an excess of nitrates, or some otherding used, amount of liquid added, and the kind change in the fertility status of the soil. Depend-of capture and handling system employed. Also, ing on the weed species that emerge, the prob-some traditional assumptions about manure lem may be related to the sort of fertility imbal-composition may need to be updated. Because ances described above. Excesses of potash andof the abundance of sulfur in rations, manure has nitrogen in particular can encourage weeds (9).long been recognized as a good source of sulfur. Monitor the nutrient contents of soil and manureHowever, less sulfur is applied to crops in con- and spread manure evenly to reduce the inci-temporary high-analysis fertilizers, and atmo- dence of weed problems.spheric deposition has been decreased by pollu-tion controls. Sulfur deficiencies are appearingin many soils, and levels in manure may also be Pollutiondiminished (9). It is advisable to test manure asyou would test the soil, in order to assess its fer- When the nutrients in raw or compostedtilizer value. manure are eroded or leached from farm fields Cooperative Extension is an excellent source or holding areas, they present a potential pollu-of guides to manure use. These are often tailored tion problem, in addition to being a resource lostto the region and provide useful information not to the farmer. Leached into groundwater, ni-mentioned in more general publications. trates from manure and fertilizers have been TABLE 1 Approximate NPK Values of Various Animal Manures* Animal % nitrogen % phosphoric acid % potash Dairy cow 0.57 0.23 0.62 Beef steer 0.73 0.48 0.55 Horse 0.70 0.25 0.77 Swine 0.49 0.34 0.47 Sheep/goat 1.44 0.50 1.21 Rabbit 2.40 1.40 0.60 Chicken 1.00 0.80 0.39 * Adapted from: Anon. 1998. Fertilizer values of some manures. Countryside & Small Stock Journal. September-October. p. 75Weed Problems linked to a number of human health problems. Flushed into surface waters, nutrients can cause eutrophication of ponds, lakes, and streams. Use of raw manures has often been associ- Excess nitrates from farms and feedlots in theated with increased weed problems. Some ma- Mississippi Basin are deemed the primary causePAGE 4 //MANURES FOR ORGANIC CROP PRODUCTION
  5. 5. of the Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone—a hypoxic fertile soil. In stable humus, there is practically(oxygen deprived) area about the size of New no free ammonia or soluble nitrate, but a largeJersey that now threatens the shrimp, fishing, and amount of nitrogen is tied up as proteins, aminorecreational industries off the Louisiana and acids, and other biological components. OtherTexas coasts (14). nutrients are stabilized in compost as well. The manner in which manure is collected and Composting livestock manure reduces manystored prior to field use affects the stabilization of the drawbacks associated with raw manureand conservation of valuable nutrients and or- use. Good compost is a “safe” fertilizer. Low inganic matter. Composting is one means of good soluble salts, it doesn’t “burn” plants. It’s alsomanure handling and is discussed in more de- less likely to cause nutrient imbalances. It cantail below. safely be applied directly to growing vegetable Reducing manure run-off and leaching losses crops. Many commercially available organic fer-from fields is a matter of both volume and tim- tilizers are based on composted animal manuresing. Manure application far in excess of crop supplemented with rock powders, plant by-prod-needs greatly increases the chances of nutrient ucts like alfalfa meal, and additional animal by-loss, especially in high-rainfall areas. Manure products like blood, bone, and feather meals.spread on bare, frozen orerodible ground is sub- The quality of compost depends on theject to run-off, especially where heavy winter feedstuffs used to make it. Unless it is supple-rains are common. Under some conditions, how- mented in some way, composted broiler litter—ever, winter-applied manure can actually slow though more stable than raw litter—will be abun-run-off and erosion losses from fields, likely by dant in phosphates and low in calcium. Contin-acting as a light organic mulch (15). ued applications may lead to imbalanced soil Sheet-composting manure (tilling it into the conditions in the long term, as with some rawsoil shortly after spreading) or applying it to manures. Soil and compost testing to monitorgrowing cover crops are two advisable means of nutrient levels is strongly advised.conserving manure nutrients. Grass cover crops, While composting can degrade many organicsuch as rye and ryegrass, are especially good as contaminants, it cannot eliminate heavy metals.“catch crops”—cover crops grown to absorb In fact, composting concentrates metals, makingsoluble nutrients from the soil profile to prevent the contaminated compost, pound for pound,them from leaching. (All cover crops function more potentially hazardous than the manure itas catch crops to a greater or lesser degree.) It is was created from. Broiler litter and broiler-littera sound strategy, therefore, to apply manure to composts have been restricted from certified or-growing catch crops or just prior to planting ganic production in the mid-South largely for thisthem. reason. Arsenic—once used in chicken feed as Note that both sheet composting and apply- an appetite stimulant and antibiotic—was a par-ing to cover crops have trade-offs. Sheet ticular concern. Since the precise compositioncomposting improves the capture of ammonia of commercial livestock feeds is proprietary in-nitrogen from manure, but requires tillage, which formation, arsenic may still be an additive in for-leaves the soil bare and vulnerable to erosion and mulations in some regions (16).leaching losses. Surface-applying to cover crops A more recent concern is the inclusion of(with no soil-incorporation) eliminates most additional copper in poultry diets and its accu-leaching and erosion losses but increases ammo- mulation in the excreted manure. While coppernia losses to the atmosphere. More details on is an essential plant nutrient, an excessive levelthese trade-offs will be provided below in the in the soil is toxic. This concern is most relevantsection “Field-applying Manures & Composts.” to organic horticultural producers, who often apply significant amounts of copper as fungicidesComposted Manures and bactericides, increasing the hazard of buildup in the soil. Whenever you import large amounts of either composted or raw manure onto An effective composting process converts the farm, it is wise to inquire about the feedinganimal wastes, bedding, and other raw products practices at the source or have the material tested.into humus—the relatively stable, nutrient-rich, The NOP has put no specific restrictions onand chemically active organic fraction found in when farmers can apply composted manure to //MANURES FOR ORGANIC CROP PRODUCTION PAGE 5
  6. 6. crops; however, it is very specific about manure cies of bats and seabirds. It has a long history ofcomposting procedures. According to the NOP use as an agricultural fertilizer. It was appar-Regulations, compost must meet the following ently highly prized by native Peruvians well be-criteria: fore the Spanish conquest. Before the develop- •An initial carbon : nitrogen ratio of between ment of chemical fertilizers, there was U.S. Gov-25:1 and 40:1 must exist for the blend of materi- ernment support for entrepreneurs who discov-als in the “pile”; and ered and developed guano deposits (19, 20). •Temperatures between 131° F and 170° F The nutrient content of commercial guanomust be sustained for three days using an in-ves- products can vary considerably based on the dietsel or static aerated pile system; or of the birds or bats. Seabirds subsist largely on •Temperatures between 131° F and 170° F fish; depending on the species, bats may thrivemust be sustained for 15 days using a windrow largely on insects or on fruits. Another majorcomposting system, during which period the factor is the age of the source deposit. Guanomaterials must be turned a minimum of five products may be fresh, semi-fossilized, or fossil-times (17). ized (21). A quick check of several commercial The National Organic Standards Board—the products provided the range of analyses shownadvisory body to the NOP—has recommended in Table 2.a more flexible interpretation of the compost As a nutrient source, guano is considered torules, but this has not yet been incorporated into be moderately available, as are most manuresthe legislation (18). (24). One source (20) suggests that guanos are ATTRA offers information on various rich in “bioremediation microbes” that assist incomposting methods in cleaning up soil toxins. Ifthe publications On-Farm true, this would make guanoComposting Resource List, an excellent amendment toVermicomposting, and Bio- use when transitioning fromdynamic Farming & Com- conventional to more sustain-post Preparation. We can able production systems.also provide information ATTRA, however, has not re-on the more exacting pro- viewed the documentation tocesses of controlled micro- substantiate this claim.bial composting (also Guano is advertised as be-known as CMC or Luebke ing quite safe and non-burn-composting). ing to plants; “foolproof” is the term sometimes em-About Guano ployed. There does not ap- pear to be any evidence to the contrary. There is, however, Guano is the dried ex- one serious human illness WWW.CLIPART.COM crement of various spe- connected with guano. His- toplasmosis, caused by the TABLE 2 NPK Analysis by Guano Type f u n g u s Histoplasm Guano Type/Product NPK Analysis Source capsulatum, pro- duces symptoms Desert Bat 8-4-1 Home Harvest (15) similar to influ- Dry-Bar Cave Bat 3-10-1 “ “ enza in mild Fossilized Sea Bird 1-10-1 “ “ cases, or pneu- Pelletized Peruvian Sea Bird 12-12-2.5 “ “ monia when se- Old Thyme Sea Bird 13-8-2 “ “ vere. In persons Jamaican Bat 1-10-0 Bloomington Whse. (22) Peruvian Seabird 11-13-3 with compro- Jamaican Bat 3-8-1 Nitron Industries (23) mised immune systems, histo-PAGE 6 //MAUNURES FOR ORGANIC CROP PRODUCTION
  7. 7. plasmosis can produce complications leading to would likely be corn. While the small-grain cropdeath (25, 26, 27). shown here would respond positively to manure, Accumulations of both bird and bat guano it is a relatively low-value crop and therefore re-can contain the Histoplasm spores, as can manure sides at the bottom of the pecking order whenfrom old poultry houses. The problems are most manure resources are in short supply.severe in piles that have aged for two or more The circumstances are a bit more complexyears, as the fungus has additional time to pro- with vegetable crops. According to experiencedliferate and produce spores. In a fresh state, bat market gardener and author Eliot Coleman (28),guano is more hazardous than bird guano be- crops like squash, corn, peas, and beans do bestcause infected bats can “shed” the organism and when manure is spread and incorporated justrapidly inoculate the manure (27). prior to planting. The same holds true for leafy It appears that those who spend time in caves, greens, though only well-composted manureand those who harvest and package guano, are should be used. Cabbages, tomatoes, potatoesat the greatest risk of infection. Cases of infec- and root crops, on the other hand, tend to dotion through later handling are apparently not better when the ground has been manured thecommon, though if they have occurred, they may previous year. Obviously, crop rotations thatwell have been misdiagnosed as influenza or a feature non-manured crops following manuredsimilar ailment. crops would be ideal. Infections come about when dust and other To achieve maximum recovery of the nutri-aerosols bearing the fungal spores are inhaled. ents in spread manure, sheet composting—plow-Therefore respirators and masks are recom- ing or otherwise incorporating the manure intomended when handling guanos. Also, clothing the soil as soon as possible after spreading—isshould be removed carefully afterwards to avoid the best option. Research has shown that solidinhaling accumulated dusts. If possible, wet raw manure will lose about 21% of its nitrogendown the pile of dried guano to reduce dust (25, to the atmosphere if spread and left for four days;26, 27). prompt soil incorporation reduces that loss to At the present time, the NOP regulations treat only 5% (10).guano as raw, uncomposted manure. It is there- However, since excessive tillage is discour-fore subject to the same 90- and 120-day applica- aged in sustainable systems, options for sheettion restrictions. It is relatively safe but rather composting may be limited on some farms. Theexpensive for organic production. Its use is best next-best option appears to be spreading ontojustified on high-value crops. growing cover crops. This reduces the chances of loss through surface erosion and cuts leach-Field-applying Manures ing significantly. However, it does little to con- trol ammonia losses to the atmosphere. & Composts FIGURE 1When... The 90- and 120-day restrictions on manureapplication are mainly intended to prevent foodcontamination with manure pathogens. Beyondthese timing constraints, however, additionalagronomic considerations are involved in sched-uling manure applications. Generally, manures and composts have theirstrongest effect on a crop or cover crop if appliedjust in advance of planting. Growers of agro-nomic crops commonly apply them to the mostnitrogen-hungry and responsive crops. Inmidwestern organic rotations (see Figure 1), thisPAGE 7 //MAUNURES FOR ORGANIC CROP PRODUCTION
  8. 8. TABLE 3 Field Calibration of Manure & Compost Spreaders •Condition of chains, gears, and sprockets. It is You will need: common knowledge among Begin by weighing and recording • Scale (capable of accurate farmers that manure spread- the weight of the plastic sheet and measurement in 1-2 lb. units) ers only break down with a bucket. Next, spread the sheet over • 10’x10 plastic sheet full load. Naturally, it is the the ground in the path of the • 5-gallon bucket floor chain—buried under spreader and drive over it as you • Spreader load of manure or compost the manure—that is the first unload at normal speed. Carefully item to go. fold the sheet in on itself to capture the spread manure or compost •Condition of the floor. and place back into the Pounds of manure or Tons of manure or Acids and moisture in ma- bucket. compost captured by compost applied nure corrode and rot metal Weigh the bucket, sheet, and a 10’x10 sheet per acre and wood flooring long be- captured material. Subtract the fore the sides decay. Some weight of the bucket and sheet 8 1.74 manufacturers now make to find how much manure was 10 2.18 models featuring a plastic captured. The amount of 12 2.61 floor that is highly resistant 14 3.05 to deterioration. Millcreek manure or compost applied per 16 3.48 Manufacturing (30) sells sev- acre can be estimated using 18 3.92 eral with flooring made from the figures provided. The 20 4.36 recycled milk jugs (31). exercise should be repeated 22 4.79 several times and the results averaged to increase accuracy. •Condition of paddles. Paddles are designed to shred and break up wads of manure and bed- ding materials. They also provide some lateral spreading. Since this is rather crude technology, How... the resulting distribution is generally less even One of the weakest links in the use of ma- than desired (32).nure as a fertilizer appears to be the actual pro-cess of field spreading. According to some re- •Power drive. Box spreaders are either pow-searchers, the conventional box spreader is an ered through the tractor PTO or ground-driven.“engineering anachronism”—an outdated piece PTO-driven spreaders have more flexibility andof equipment designed principally to dispose can also be used to create windrows forof a waste product, not to manage a nutrient composting.resource. Many machines are built to “dump” Box manure spreaders are poor compostas much material as possible in a short time and spreaders—especially when well-made granularare difficult to calibrate if you want to distrib- composts are used. Well-made compost is fine,ute manure accurately and according to crop relatively flowable, and is better handled withneeds (29). (Instructions for calibrating com- spreaders suited to broadcasting lime and bulkpost and manure spreaders are provided in granular fertilizer. This equipment is much easierTable 3.) Still, the basic box spreader is the only to calibrate and provides a more uniform distri-technology available and affordable to most bution of material (32).farmers. Application rate recommendations for guano Characteristics to consider when purchas- are usually provided by the supplier. These ratesing a spreader (used or new) include: appear somewhat lower than those for otherPAGE 8 //MANURES FOR ORGANIC CROP PRODUCTION
  9. 9. Discusses Organic Produce Report. ABCdried manures (21). As the cost of guano is rela- News 20/20. Aug 11. <http://tively high compared to livestock manures, much application rates are advised. Apparently, 2020_000811_stossel_apology.html>.there is also some use of guano as a base for fer-tilizer “tea.” 7) U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2000. Section 205.203(c)(1). National Organic Program Fi-Summary nal Rule. < nop2000/final%20Rule/nopfinal.pdf>. Both raw and composted manures are useful 8) Troop, Don. 1989. Is chicken litter really or-in organic crop production. Used properly, with ganic? Ozark Cooperative Warehouse Mar-attention to balancing soil fertility, manures can ket News (Fayetteville, AR). November. p.supplant all or most needs for purchased fertil- 12.izer, especially when combined with a whole-system fertility plan that includes crop rotation 9) Kinsey, Neal. 1994. Manure: The good, theand cover cropping with nitrogen-fixing le- bad, the ugly & how it works with your soil.gumes. Acres USA. October. p. 8, 10, 11, 13. The grower needs to monitor nutrients in thesoil via soil testing, and learn the characteristics 10) Huhnke, Raymond L. 1982. Land Applica-of the manure and/or compost to be used. The tion of Livestock Manure. OSU Extensiongrower should adjust the rates and select addi- Facts No. 1710. Oklahoma State University,tional fertilizers and amendments accordingly. Stillwater, OK. 4 p. 11) Abbott, J.L. 1977. Manure in the Home Gar- den. Publication Q66. University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ. 2 p.References 12) Eghball, Bahman, and Gary W. Lesoing. 2000. Viability of weed seeds following ma- nure windrow composting. Compost Science1) Anon. 1997. Agriculture issues that affect & Utilization. Winter. p. 46–53. our health. S.W. Organic Gardener. May. p. 3. 13) Williams, Greg, and Pat Williams. 1994. No viable weed seeds in broiler litter. HortIdeas.2) Pederson, Laura. 1998. Prevent pathogens. March. p. 28. American Agriculturist. May. p. 26. 14) CAST. 1999. Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone is3) Williams, Greg, and Pat Williams. 1994. largest in Western Hemisphere. Council for Manure: Is it safe for your garden? HortIdeas. Agricultural Science and Technology, Ames, February. p. 23. IA. June 18. < pubs/hypo_nr.htm>.4) Stossel, John. 2000. How good is organic food? ABC News 20/20. February 4. 15) Young, R.A., and R.F. Holt. 1977. Winter- applied manure: Effects on annual runoff,5) Rodale, Maria. 2000. Will the real Dennis erosion, and nutrient movement. Journal of Avery please sit down? Organic Gardening. Soil and Water Conservation. September- May-June. p. 2. October. p. 219–222.6) Stossel, John. 2000. An Apology: John Stossel 16) Haapala, JJ. 1997. Risks of chicken manure //MANURES FOR ORGANIC CROP PRODUCTION PAGE 9
  10. 10. as fertilizer. In Good Tilth. June. p. 10, 12. Newsletter.March.<http:// U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2000. Sec- mar97txt.htm>. tion 205.203(c)(2). National Organic Program Final Rule. < 28) Coleman, Eliot. 1995. The New Organic nop/nop2000/final%20Rule/nopfinal.pdf>. Grower. Chelsea Green Publishing Co., White River Junction, VT. p. 54.18) Anon. 2002. Compost controversy. Acres U.S.A. June. p. 20. 29) Gutknecht, Kurt. 1997. Examining manure myths and misconceptions. Wisconsin Ag-19) Anon. No date. Guano. Encarta Encyclope- riculturist. September. p. 10–12. dia. <>. 30) Millcreek Manufacturing Co., 261720) Keleher, Sara. No date. Guano: Bats’ gift to Stumptown Road, Bird In Hand, PA 17505. gardeners. < Tel: 800-311-1323. Fax: 717-556-0279. <http:/ batsmag/v14n1-7.html>. />.21) Anon. 2000. Guano—the 100% natural or- 31) Byczynski, Lynn. 1998. Find the right ma- ganic soil amendment. Home Harvest Gar- nure spreader for your farm scale and bud- den Supply, Inc., 3712 Eastern Ave., Balti- get. Growing for Market. August. p. 6–7. more, MD 21224. Tel: 410-327-8403/ <http:/ />. 32) Canales, Eugene. 1997. Spreading soil22) Bloomington Wholesale Garden Supply Tel: amendments. Biodynamics. May–June. p. 800-316-1306 <>. 18–19.23) Nitron Industries P.O. Box 1447, Fayetteville, AR 72702 Tel: 800-835-0123 Website: <>.24) Anon. No date. Guidelines for Organic Fer- tilization. Cooperative Extension, University Recommended Resources of Vermont, Burlington, VT. <http:// The August 2000 issue of Acres USA features four handout.html>. articles on bats and guano: * Bat Guano & Its Fertilizing Value,25) Greenhall, Arthur. 1982. Housebat Manage- by William Albrecht ment. Resource Management Publication * Advice on Fertilization—The Uniqueness 143. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Con- of Guano, by Malcolm Beck densed version found at: BCM’s Bat Central. * Bats, IPM & Guano, by Lorie Evans < * The Bounty of Bats, by Chris Walters Batcentral/eviction/health.html>. The March 2002 issue of Acres USA includes the26) Smith, Garry K. 1994. Are you exposing following article: yourself to histoplasmosis? Australian * Manure Management, by Robert Gerard Caver. No. 36. p. 6–8. Reprinted at <http://>. Back issues of Acres USA are available from: Acres USA27) Anon. 1997. Bird and bat guano = histoplas- P.O. Box 91299 mosis risk. Nebraska Veterinary Extension Austin, TX 78709PAGE 10 //MANURES FOR ORGANIC CROP PRODUCTION
  11. 11. Tel: 512-892-4400 Fax: 512-892-4448 E-mail: magazine.htmAnon. 2001. Fair price for neighbor’s manure? New England Farmer. November. p. LP.Anon. 2001. Manure Management in Organic Farming Systems. Soil Association. July. Available at website<http://>.Goldstien, Jerome. 1998. Composting for Ma- nure Management. JG Press, Emmaus, PA. 77 p. Available for $39 postage paid from: Biocycle 419 State Ave. Emmaus, PA 18049 Tel: 610-967-4135 E-mail: Books.htmlMiles, Carol, Tanya Cheeke, and Tamera Flores. 1999. From End to Beginning: A Manure Resource Guide for Farmers and Gardeners in Western Washington. King County Agri- cultural Commission, Seattle, WA. 25 p. <>.Miller, Laura. 2000. Basics of manure manage- ment. Small Farm Today. July. p. 28-30.Organic Trade Association. No date. Manure Use and Agricultural Practices. Organic Trade Association, Greenfield, MA. <http:/ />.Patriquin, David G. 2000. Reducing risks from E. coli 0157 on the organic farm. Canadian Organic Growers. < efgsummer2000.htm>.Pederson, Laura. 1998. Prevent pathogens. American Agriculturist. May. p. 26. //MANURES FOR ORGANIC CROP PRODUCTION PAGE 11
  12. 12. By George KuepperNCAT Agriculture SpecialistEdited by David Zodrow andPaul WilliamsFormatted by Ashley Hill The electronic version of Manures for Organic Crop Production is located at: HTML PDF 12 //MANURES FOR ORGANIC CROP PRODUCTION