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Greenhouse IPM: Sustainable Thrips Control


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Greenhouse IPM: Sustainable Thrips Control

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Greenhouse IPM: Sustainable Thrips Control

  1. 1. 800-346-9140 GREENHOUSE IPM: SUSTAINABLE THRIPS CONTROL PEST MANAGEMENT TECHNICAL NOTESAppr i e Technol Tr opr at ogy ansf f Rur Ar er or al eas ATTRA is the national sustainable agriculture information center funded by the USDA’s Rural Business -- Cooperative Service. Abstract: This publication summarizes IPM for greenhouse thrips on both vegetable and ornamental crops. Monitoring, biological controls, biorational pesticides, and insect growth regulators are discussed. Supplemental tables include information on the newest biopesticides and biological control organisms. By Lane Greer and Steve Diver NCAT Agriculture SpecialistsThrips are one of the most difficult pests to July 2000control in greenhouses. Thrips are tiny insectsthat reproduce rapidly, congregate in tight placesthat make pesticide coverage difficult, and feedwith rasping-piercing-sucking mouth parts,resulting in deformation of flowers and leaves.Tolerance of thrips on floriculture crops isparticularly low. In addition, when the Westernflower thrips feed on plants infected with thetomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) or impatiensnecrotic spot virus (INSV), the insect vectorsthese diseases to other plants in the greenhouse.Once plants are infected, it is too late to doanything except dispose of diseased plants.Thus, the best way to prevent virus infection is tocontrol thrips. Whats Inside Biology and Identification ......................................................................................... 2 Crop Scouting and Trapping ..................................................................................... 2 Sanitation .............................................................................................................. 3 Screening............................................................................................................... 4 Cultural Controls ..................................................................................................... 4 Biological Control ................................................................................................... 4 Biorational Pesticides ............................................................................................... 5 Insect Growth Regulators......................................................................................... 7 Summary and Further Resources .............................................................................. 8 References ............................................................................................................. 8 Further Reading ...................................................................................................... 9 Specialists in Thrips Control ................................................................................... 10 Biological Control Suppliers .................................................................................... 10 Appendix I: Monitoring and Scouting Techniques ...................................................... 13 Appendix II: Beneficial Organisms........................................................................... 14 Appendix III: Biorational Pesticides ......................................................................... 16 ATTRA // GREENHOUSE IPM: SUSTAINABLE THRIPS CONTROL Page 1
  2. 2. Table 1. Main Species of Thrips in Greenhouses Common Name Species Name Greenhouse thrips Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis Banded greenhouse thrips Hercinothrips femoralis Flower thrips Frankliniella tritici Western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis Onion or tobacco thrips Thrips tabaci Table 2. Life Cycle of Adult Thrips Stage Duration of Temperatures Between 68° and 98° F Egg 2–4 days 1st instar 1–2 days 2nd instar 2–4 days Pre-pupal 1–2 day Pupal 1–3 days Adult 30–45 daysBiology and Identification Crop Scouting and TrappingThere are at least 6,000 species of thrips in the To detect early infestations, a crop scoutingworld. A few of the main species of thrips known program that includes both sticky trap cards andto injure greenhouse crops are summarized in visual inspection is critical. Scouting should beTable 1 above. done once a week, and more often when an infestation is detected. Regular scouting is alsoIt is important to understand the life cycle and necessary to monitor the efficacy of controlbehavior of thrips in order to develop an effective measures. A hand lens is a useful tool to detectcontrol strategy. Knowledge about the weak link live thrips as well as signs of thrips activity—e.g.,in a pest’s life cycle can help in choosing the most black feces and silvery, flecked areas on leaves.appropriate control strategy. Table 2 summarizes Lightly blowing on blossoms and growing pointsthe life cycle of adult thrips. aids in visual inspection as it causes thrips to become mobile, apparently because of the carbonAs an aid to managing thrips species infesting dioxide contained in exhalation.your greenhouse, you may want to obtainpositive identification. Because they areextremely small, the best way thrips can be Hot-pink sticky cards have been found to be theidentified is by a trained entomologist with the most attractive color for trapping thrips, thoughaid of a microscope. Plant diagnosis, or blue is often still used. Sticky traps should beidentification of insect and disease pests, is placed 1 to 2 inches above the crop canopy so thatusually available through the Cooperative the bottoms of the traps are just above the crop, atExtension Service. the rate of one or two per 1,000 square feet. ATTRA // GREENHOUSE IPM: SUSTAINABLE THRIPS CONTROL Page 2
  3. 3. The economic threshold, or number of thrips Dr. Wayne Allen, research pathologist withfound on each trap in relation to crop injury, is Agriculture Canada, provided these additionalnot yet available for every greenhouse crop. A points on use of sticky cards and indicator plantsthreshold level of 20 WFT/trap/week was (5):figured to be appropriate for chysanthemums inSwitzerland (1). In contrast, a greenhouse in • Indicator plants are not intended as aNew Mexico initiates pesticide application when substitute for sticky cards, but rather they’rejust 5 thrips/trap/week are detected, and an additional component to an effectivechrysanthemums make up 80% of its crop mix monitoring system.(2). When biological control organisms are used • While sticky cards monitor only flight activityto control thrips, they should be released as soon and relative population of thrips, indicatoras the first adult thrips have been trapped. plants monitor feeding activity and the presence of virus-carrying thrips near thoseCertain plants are especially appealing to thrips plants.and can be used as “biological indicators” to • Studies show that attraction to indicatordetect the presence of thrips in the greenhouse. plants can be significantly increased if hotMajestic, Blue Magic, and Calypso petunias are pink or blue insect-monitoring cards, withoutrecognized as thrips indicators because they will adhesive, are attached to the petunia pots. Inexhibit viral symptoms of TSWV within just a addition to increased attractiveness to thrips,few days after feeding. Fortunately, the virus the colored cards serve as location markers,remains localized in the plants and does not and reminders that the plants should bebecome systemic, so that spread of this disease examined frequently.from infected petunias to other plants in thegreenhouse is not a problem. Symptoms of See Appendix I for a summary of monitoring andthrips-vectored TSWV on petunias include a scouting techniques for greenhouse insects.distinct brown rim at the feeding site within threeto four days after feeding. This is followed by alocalized circular lesion in about a week. Flowers Sanitationshould be removed from the petunias todiscourage adult thrips from feeding on theflowers instead of the foliage, because viral Sanitation is key for controlling pests inlesions will not show up on flowers (3). greenhouses. The goal of sanitation is to eliminate all possible sources of the pest. WeedsLeanne Pundt, Extension Greenhouse IPM inside and near the outside of the greenhouse canspecialist with the University of Connecticut, harbor pests. Its best to pull weeds inside theprovided the following suggestions on effective greenhouse rather than spray them, since insectsintegration of sticky cards and indicator plants may survive the spray and migrate onto crops.(4): Bag all weeds and dispose of them outside the greenhouse.• Place sticky cards throughout your operation to detect where thrips are located and to In addition, a 10–30 foot vegetation-free zone monitor their numbers. around the outside perimeter of the• Place indicator plants among crops at bench greenhouse—especially near vents and or floor level. One plant every 20 to 30 feet openings—can provide a dramatic decrease in seems to work well. pests. A heavy-duty geotextile weed barrier (e.g.,• Place incoming plant material with indicator DeWitt Sunbelt® Weed Barrier) covered with plants and isolate for at least three to four bark mulch or gravel can provide a pleasant days to allow thrips scars to develop and vegetation-free zone, and eliminate the need for show viral lesions. herbicides. ATTRA // GREENHOUSE IPM: SUSTAINABLE THRIPS CONTROL Page 3
  4. 4. Plant debris from previous crops can also be a Cultural Controlssource of both immature and adult pests. Cleanup all debris from previous crops and dispose of One option to consider is a fallow period ininfested plants, or any infested growth. Ideally, summer. To perform this operation successfully,the greenhouse should be thoroughly cleaned the grower should first remove all plants, then alland left empty for one week prior to beginning weeds, and then heat the greenhouse (eitherthe next crop. This enables removal of all pest artificially or naturally) until soil temperaturesstages, and starves any remaining adults. reach 60°F. This temperature should beClosing up the greenhouse when it is empty in maintained for three weeks. During this time,summer will increase the temperature and help any thrips eggs will hatch and the nymphs willeradicate pests. starve for lack of food. Depending on fuel source and heating systems, the fallow period treatmentInside the greenhouse, a clean stock program could cost from five to fifteen cents per squareshould be in place. This includes temporary foot, with floor heating being the least costlyquarantine and inspection of all plants upon system.arrival from other greenhouses, and regularmonitoring of stock plants used for propagation. This strategy has worked for Western flowerIf a separate section of the greenhouse can’t be thrips. Researchers found that an air temperaturededicated to this purpose, flag all incoming of 104° F with a relative humidity of 10% wasplants. All new plant material should be sufficient to kill WFT (an environment that wasthoroughly inspected (with a 10X hand lens) for fatal to plants within 4 days). However, whenthe presence of pests to ensure that no infested sufficient water was made available to keepplants are introduced into the greenhouse. plants alive in the greenhouse (whether weeds orWorkers in the greenhouse should avoid wearing crop plants), mortality of WFT was only 50% (8).yellow clothing, since many pests are attracted tothis color and may hitch a ride on the fabric from Another recommended strategy for controllingone greenhouse to the next. thrips is to remove all flowers and buds, if not crucial to the crop. The flowers and buds should be put into plastic bags, sealed, and disposed ofScreening outside the greenhouse.In the spring, adult thrips migrate from hostplants and relocate to new host plants. Though Plants that Repel Thripsthrips are not strong fliers, they are easily borneby the wind, which facilitates their movement. A large greenhouse grower in The NetherlandsPrevention of airborne entry of thrips into found that garlic plants are an effective way togreenhouses can be greatly aided with the use of repel thrips. He uses three potted garlic plants foran insect screen. Growers in New York, North every 30 square feet of bench area (9).Carolina, and Florida estimated a 30–70%reduction in pest problems after installation ofinsect screening (6). Biological ControlThrips are so tiny and elusive, that the brand of Biological control of greenhouse thrips can beinsect screening you choose can make a big achieved through release of biocontrol agentsdifference in how well it excludes thrips. In 1995, such as predatory mites, lady beetles, and soil-researchers from North Carolina reported that 27 dwelling mites. See Appendix II for a detailedtypes of insect screens were evaluated for thrips summary of beneficial organisms used inexclusion. Only 3 brands (FlyBarr®, BugBed®, greenhouse IPM. Please note that thrips areNo-Thrips®) were effective in preventing the listed as target pests for each product in the table.entry of thrips into greenhouses (7). A list of suppliers is also provided. ATTRA // GREENHOUSE IPM: SUSTAINABLE THRIPS CONTROL Page 4
  5. 5. Certain crops are better adapted to biological • Adult pirate bugs (Orius) consume 5–20control of thrips than others. Greenhouse thrips (all stages) per day. They can survivevegetables, bedding plants, and tropical on pollen in the absence of prey. Both adultshouseplants are better adapted to biological and nymphs are predacious. Orius is the onlycontrol than are floriculture crops. Thrips predator that attacks thrips in tight places likepreferentially feed on flowers and leaves and flower buds. Since Orius is a strong flyer, itcause little or no damage to fruits themselves. moves easily throughout the greenhouse.Thus, while fruit-bearing vegetable crops liketomatoes, cucumbers, and peppers are well • Soil-dwelling predacious mites (Hypoaspsis)suited to low populations of prey food (i.e., attack thrips in their pre-pupal and pupalthrips), tolerance in floriculture crops is greatly stages when they inhabit the soil or growingreduced because feeding results in cosmetic medium. Hypoaspis mites are usually appliedinjury on the marketable portion of the crop. only once per crop or season.When TSWV or INSV are present, tolerance is nilin either case. • Thripobius semiluteus is a parasitoid of greenhouse thrips nymphs.A recent study showed that beneficial insects cancontrol Western flower thrips on bedding plants,even though bedding plants have such a short Biorational Pesticidesturnaround time (10). Treatments consisted ofBotaniGard™ (a Beauveria bassiana-based While the practices of inspection, sanitation,product) applied at 1 lb./acre, Neoseiulus physical exclusion, and biological control will gocucumeris mites applied weekly at a rate of 12,000 a long way towards managing thrips, there maymites per 3,000 sq. ft. of growing area, and a still be instances when pesticides are necessary.combination of the two. Plants treated with B. Biorational pesticides—also known as least-toxicbassiana had between .16 and .5 thrips/plant, or “soft” pesticides—are emphasized inwhile plants treated with predatory mites had a biologically intensive IPM programs and bymaximum of .15 thrips/plant. The untreated growers depending on organic pest managementcontrol plants had .75 to 1.25 thrips per plant. (OPM) as part of certified organic production.Notes on biological control of thrips: Thrips control can still be difficult even with the use of biorational pesticides. During much of• Release of biocontrol agents should begin as their life cycle thrips exist as eggs, as pupae in the soon as thrips are detected on sticky traps, or soil, or as extremely mobile adults. Once thrips even before detection, as part of a planned infest a crop, the adult females begin feeding and biocontrol release program on sensitive crops. laying their eggs. Thrips usually concentrate on rapidly growing tissues such as young leaves,• Adult female predatory mites (Neoseiulus) flowers and terminal buds. This affinity for tight consume from 1 to 10 young thrips per day places makes thorough coverage with a pesticide and have a 30-day lifespan. They can also difficult. Just prior to pupation, the larvae move survive on pollen and spider mites in the down the plant to pupate in the soil or leaf litter. absence of thrips. Repeat applications of They are most vulnerable just after hatching and predators must be made to establish a 1:2 before pupation. ratio of predators to prey. Neoseiulus attacks first instar (very young) thrips only and does Dr. Richard Lindquist (11), entomologist at Ohio not move long distances from where it is first State University, demonstrated biorational placed. They are most often applied in small control of flower thrips with either: a) M-Pede® piles at the base of plants, or in paper bags. insecticidal soap mixed with an emulsified crop Usually, a small hole is made in the bag, and oil, or b) weekly applications of neem seed oil mites move out of the bag slowly. (NSO) for four straight weeks. He also found ATTRA // GREENHOUSE IPM: SUSTAINABLE THRIPS CONTROL Page 5
  6. 6. that the fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (PFR), • Neem extracts (trade names Azatin™,the predatory mite Neoseiulus cucumeris, and an Neemazad™, and Neemix™ ) preventazadirachtin insecticide (neem) could be used development of flower thrips in the earlyalone or in combination for control of WFT in larval stages, but have no effect on adults.greenhouses (12). Repeat applications are most effective.New Research with Thrips: • In 1999, Dr. Dan Gilrein of Cornell Extension tested several biopesticides for their effect on• In laboratory trials and caged rose trials, Western flower thrips, including Avid Beauveria bassiana sprays killed up to 82% of (contains abamectin), Conserve (spinosad), the thrips on rose foliage (13). Mortality Sanmite (the synthetic chemical pyridaben), increased along with humidity. Oil BotaniGard (Beauveria bassiana), a formulations of B. bassiana worked more combination of BotaniGard +Azatin (neem) + quickly than wettable powders. M-Pede (insecticidal soap), and Alsa (a garlic• BotaniGard™ and Naturalis-O™, both of product) (17). Although Conserve performed which use Beauveria bassiana, have been best, other treatments also provided control. effective on a schedule of three to five The table below is excerpted from an article applications at three to five-day intervals. in the September, 1999 issue of GMPro. The addition of Azatin™ (a neem product) may increase effectiveness (14). • Researchers at Ohio State University are currently testing combinations of B. bassiana• Dr. Richard Lindquist at Ohio State with the biorationals Azatin, Adept (an insect University found that four applications of growth regulator), Conserve, Fulex SO-2000, Naturalis-O™ over a period of 15 days Hot Pepper Wax, Garlic Barrier, yeast extract, controlled thrips well on gerbera (15). and white sugar (18). So far, they have• In another study, Lindquist found that shown that spray mixes combining B. bassiana Conserve® (a new biopesticide formulated with Adept, sugar, yeast extract or Azatin from the soil-inhabiting actinomycete produce higher levels of infection and Saccharopolyspora spinosa) was significantly mortality in Western flower thrips. better than Orthene™ at controlling Western Specifically, white sugar at a rate of 1 lb./100 flower thrips (16). Plants treated with gallons and yeast extract at a rate of 0.25% Conserve also had higher numbers of wt/volume increased mortality by about 20 beneficial insects and mites—such as minute percent, presumably due to their ability to pirate bugs, predatory mites, and green induce feeding. The opposite was true for lacewing larvae. plants treated with Hot Pepper Wax, an Table 3. Control of Western flower thrips on Chrysanthemum Linda after four weekly applications (17). Treatment Thrips/plant Flower damage* Avid 19.3 0.6 Conserve 3.6 0.6 Sanmite 17.3 0.8 BotaniGard ES 51.4 3 BotaniGard + Azatin + M-Pede 25.2 2.6 Alsa drench 4x rate 43 2.7 Alsa drench 1x rate 43.4 3 Water (control) 47.9 3.7 *Flower damage was based on a 0–5 scale, 0 = no damage and 5 = all flowers entirely brown. ATTRA // GREENHOUSE IPM: SUSTAINABLE THRIPS CONTROL Page 6
  7. 7. insect repellent and antifeedant. BotaniGard hormones, so that insects never enter the + Azatin showed excellent results: "Inclusion reproductive stage of development; 2) they can of Azatin at 1/10 or 1/4 the recommended interfere with the production of chitin, which rate led to a 50 and 100% increase, makes up the shell of most insects; or 3) they can respectively, in infection and mortality" (18). interfere with the molting process.Biorational pesticides for greenhouse pests are IGRs usually work through ingestion, so goodsummarized in Appendix III. Please note that spray coverage is essential. They generally don’tthrips are listed as target pests for each product in affect non-target species—such as humans, birds,the table. fish, or other vertebrates. For most IGRs there are minimal re-entry restrictions. IGRs typically takeInsect Growth Regulators several days to have an effect on pest populations. Because IGRs do not affect matureInsect growth regulators (IGRs) are another least- insects, adult beneficials released into thetoxic pesticide control option for pests. IGRs greenhouse after an IGR application are not likelytypically kill insects by disrupting their to be affected. Use of IGRs is generallydevelopment. They have a complex mode of prohibited by organic certification organizationsaction that precludes insects from rapidly because the products are synthetic.developing resistance. IGRs can work in one of IGRs can sometimes be used in conjunction withseveral ways: 1) they can mimic juvenile biological control efforts and may provideTable 4. Selected Insect Growth Regulators Brand Name Supplier Active against: Adept Uniroyal Chemicals Not specifically labeled for thrips, but does seem to be effective when used in combination with B. bassiana Azatin Hydro-Gardens, Olympic whiteflies, leafminers, thrips, Horticultural Products mealybugs, fungus gnats, aphids, cabbage loopers, diamondback moths, armyworms Neemazad Thermo Trilogy whiteflies, leafminers, thrips, mealybugs, fungus gnats, aphids, cabbage loopers, diamondback moths, armyworms Neemix Thermo Trilogy whiteflies, leafminers, thrips, mealybugs, fungus gnats, aphids, loopers, diamondback moths, armyworms, cabbage loopers Precision Novartis thrips, whiteflies, fungus gnats Preclude Whitmire Micro-Gen whiteflies, thrips, scales, aphids ATTRA // GREENHOUSE IPM: SUSTAINABLE THRIPS CONTROL Page 7
  8. 8. growers with a “safety net” should beneficials Referencesfail to keep the pests below economicallydamaging levels. The table below lists some 1) Parella, Michael P. 1995. Thripswell-known insect growth regulators. management guide — Part 1: Prevention and control. GrowerTalks. April. p. 30, 32, 34, 36, 38.Summary and Further Resources 2) Aylsworth, Jean. 1994. Taking care ofGreenhouse thrips are tiny insects, but they number one. Greenhouse Grower.demand serious attention on the part of the February. p. 52, 54, 56.greenhouse grower. Integrated pest managementoffers a sustainable approach for dealing with 3) Anon. 1993. Indicator plants give TSWVgreenhouse thrips, and safer pest control warning signs. Greenhouse Manager.products facilitate the adoption of least-toxic March. p. 70.control measures that dovetail very nicely withthe IPM philosophy. 4) Pundt, Leanne, John Sanderson, and Margery Daughtrey. 1992. Petunias areFor an overview of greenhouse IPM, please see your tip-off for TSWV. GrowerTalks.the complementary ATTRA publication Integrated November. p. 69, 71–72.Pest Management for Greenhouse Crops. It containsan extensive listing of resources and publications 5) Allen, Wayne R. 1991. Get the jump onon greenhouse IPM which support many of the thrips and TSWV. Greenhouse Grower.concepts and practices outlined in this July. p. 78, 80, 82.publication on greenhouse thrips. 6) Gill, S.A. and D.S. Ross. 1994. InsectIn the Resources sections below, growers are microscreening: Its time has come.provided with a list of key articles on thrips; Greenhouse Grower. May. p. 77–82.contacts for IPM specialists in thrips control;biological control suppliers; and tables that 7) Grossman, Joel. 1996. Conference notes:summarize monitoring and scouting techniques, Screening out greenhouse pests. Thebiocontrol agents, and biorational pesticides that IPM Practitioner. September. p. to control thrips. 8) Anon. 1992. Informed sources. Greenhouse Manager. August. p. 12. 9) Shipp, J.L. and T.J. Gillespie. 1993. Influence of temperature and water vapor pressureRelated Attra Materials deficit on survival of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). EnvironmentalOrganic Greenhouse Vegetable Production Entomology. August. p. 726–732.Integrated Pest Management of Greenhouse CropsGreenhouse IPM: Sustainable Aphid Control 10) Gill, Stanton et al. 2000. Biological thripsGreenhouse IPM: Sustainable Whitefly Control control on bedding. GrowerTalks. February. p. 84–86. ATTRA // GREENHOUSE IPM: SUSTAINABLE THRIPS CONTROL Page 8
  9. 9. 11) Dr. Richard Lindquist Cloyd, Raymond. 1997. Western flower thrips: Department of Entomology OARDC Biological controls can be effective if you know Wooster, OH 44691 what, when & how to use them. Greenhouse 330-263-3736 Management & Production. April. p. 28–30.12) Grossman, Joel. 1997. Conference Notes. Cloyd, Raymond A., Michael Brownbridge and The IPM Practitioner. September. p. 13. Clifford S. Sadof. 1998. Greenhouse biological control of Western flower thrips. The IPM13) Murphy, B.C. et al. 1998. Fungal Practitioner. August. p. 1–9. pathogen controls thrips in greenhouse flowers. California Agriculture. May– Gill, Stanton. 1994. Thrips management and June. p. 32–36. biological control. GrowerTalks. October. p. 36– 40.14) Sanderson, John. 1999. Thrips tips. GrowerTalks. July. p. 128. Gilrein, Dan. 1999. Control thrips from the start. GMPro. January. p. 72–74.15) Gilrein, Dan. 1999. Control thrips from the start. Greenhouse Management and Hsu, Cynthia, and Willam Quarles. 1995. Production. January. p. 72–74. Greenhouse IPM for Western flower thrips. The IPM Practitioner. April. p. 1–11.16) Lindquist, Richard K. 1999. Evaluation of Conserve® for Western flower thrips Parella, Michael. 1995. Thrips management control. Ohio Florists Association guide — Part 1: Prevention and control. Bulletin. March. p. 8. GrowerTalks. April. p. 30, 32, 34, 36, 38.17) Gilrein, Dan. 1999. Tips on controlling Parella, Michael P. 1995. Thrips management western flower thrips populations. guide — Part II: Proper identification. GMPro. September. p. 81–82. GrowerTalks. July. p. 82, 84, 86, 88, 91–92, 94.18) Brownbridge, Michael, Margaret Skinner, Robb, Karen. 1996. Expand your thrips control and Bruce L. Parker. 2000. Enhancing the arsenal, Part 2. Greenhouse Management & activity of insect-killing fungi for floral Production. June. p. 58, 60. IPM. Ohio Florists Association Bulletin. January. p. 14–16. Sanderson, John P. 1997. Thrips in the greenhouse. Greenhouse IPM Update. Oct. 23. p. 1–2.Further Reading Sclar, D. Casey. 2000. An overview of WesternCasey, Christine. 1997. Biological control of flower thrips management: Insecticide sprays.poinsettia pests. Greenhouse IPM Update. July Northeast Greenhouse IPM Notes. May. p. 1–3.31. p. 1–3. Willmott, James. 1998. Thrips control inCasey, Christine. 1997. Biological control of vegetable transplants. Northeast Greenhousethrips in retail greenhouses. Greenhouse IPM IPM Notes. February. p. 1–2.Update. August 14. p. 1–2.Casey, Christine. 1997. Use of temperature andmoisture extremes to manage Western flowerthrips in greenhouses. Greenhouse IPM Update.February 13. p. 1–2. ATTRA // GREENHOUSE IPM: SUSTAINABLE THRIPS CONTROL Page 9
  10. 10. Specialists in Thrips Control ARBICO Inc. PO Box 4247Dr. Richard Lindquist Tucson, AZ 85738Department of Entomology 800-827-2847OARDC 520-825-2038 faxWooster, OH 44691 Email: arbico@aol.com330-263-3736 http://www.arbico.comDr. Michael Parrella Beneficial InsectaryDepartment of Entomology 14751 Oak Run Rd.University of California Oak Run, CA 96069Davis, CA 95616 800-477-3715530-752-0479 530-472-3523 fax Email: bi@insectary.comCarol Glenister, President http://www.insectary.comIPM Laboratories, Inc.Main Street BioLogic Co.Locke, NY 13092 PO Box 177315-497-2063 Willow Hill, PA 17271 717-349-2789/2922 Email: pyealber@epix.netListserver Caltec Agri-Marketing Services 1420 F St.Thripsnet is an Internet mailing list maintained Modesto, CA 95354by Dr. Margaret Skinner at the University of 209-575-1295Vermont. There are over 300 participants on the 209-575-0366 faxlist. To subscribe, contact: Dr. Margaret Skinner Dow AgroSciences University of Vermont 9330 Zionsville Rd. Entomology Research Laboratory Indianapolis, IN 46268 PO Box 53400 800-258-3033 Burlington, VT 05405 317-337-7374 fax 802-656-5440 Email: Florikan ESA Corp. 1523 Edger PlaceBiological Control Suppliers Sarasota, FL 34240 800-322-8666A-1 Unique Insect Control 941-377-3633 fax5504 Sperry Dr. Email: buglady@aol.comCitrus Heights, CA 95621916-961-7945 The Green Spot, Ltd.916-967-7082 fax 93 Priest Rd.Email: Nottingham, NH 03290 603-942-8925 603-942-8932 603-942-5027 voice mail Email: ATTRA // GREENHOUSE IPM: SUSTAINABLE THRIPS CONTROL Page 10
  11. 11. Harmony Farm Supply Mycogen Crop Protection3244 Hwy. 116 No. F 5501 Oberlin Dr.Sebastopol, CA 95472 San Diego, CA 92121707-823-9125 800-745-7476707-823-1734 fax 619-453-0613 faxEmail: http://www.mycogen.com Mycotech Corp.Hot Pepper Wax, Inc. PO Box 4109305 Third St. Butte, MT 59702Greenville, PA 16125 800-383-4310888-667-3785 406-782-9912 fax724-646-2302 fax Email: mycotech@montana.comEmail: lindag@hotpepperwax.com Natural Pest Controls 8864 Little Creek Dr.Hydro-Gardens, Inc. Orangeville, CA 95662PO Box 25845 916-726-0855Colorado Springs, CO 80936 916-726-0855 fax800-634-6362 http://www.natural-pest-control.com800-634-6362 faxEmail: Nature’s Control PO Box 35 Medford, OR 97501International Technology Services Inc. 541-899-8318PO Box 19227 541-899-9121 faxBoulder, CO 80308303-473-9141 Olympic Horticultural Products303-473-9143 fax PO Box 1885 Bradenton, FL 34206IPM Laboratories 800-659-6745PO Box 300 888-647-4329 faxMain St. Email: olympic@hortnet.comLocke, NY 13092 fax Plant Health CareEmail: 440 William Pitt Way Pittsburg, PA 15238Koppert Biological Systems 800-421-90512856 Main St. South http://www.planthealthcare.comAnn Arbor, MI 48103734-998-5589 Praxis734-998-5557 fax 2723 116th Ave. Allegan, MI 49010M&R Durango, Inc. 616-673-2793PO Box 886 616-673-2793 faxBayfield, CO 81122 Email: praxis@datawise.net970-259-3521970-259-3857 fax ATTRA // GREENHOUSE IPM: SUSTAINABLE THRIPS CONTROL Page 11
  12. 12. Rincon-Vitova Insectaries, Inc. Thermo Trilogy Corp.PO Box 1555 9145 Guilford Rd., Ste. 175Ventura, CA 93002 Columbia, MD 21046800-248-2847 800-847-5620805-643-6267 fax 301-604-7015 faxEmail: Whitmire Micro-GenSePRO Corp. 3568 Tree Court Ind. Blvd.11550 N. Meridian St., Suite 180 St. Louis, MO 63122Carmel, IN 46032 800-777-8570800-419-7779 314-225-3739 fax317-580-8290 fax http://www.wmmg.comEmail: rogers@sepro.com By Lane Greer and Steve DiverSoil Technologies Corp. NCAT Agriculture Specialists2103 185th St.Fairfield, IA 52556 July 2000800-221-7645515-472-6189 faxEmail: The electronic version of Greenhouse IPM: Thrips Control is located at: html The ATTRA Project is operated by the National Center for Appropriate Technology under a grant from the Rural Business-Cooperative Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. These organizations do not recommend or endorse products, companies, or individuals. ATTRA is located in the Ozark Mountains at the University of Arkansas in Fayetteville at P.O. Box 3657, Fayetteville, AR 72702. ATTRA staff members prefer to receive requests for information about sustainable agriculture via the toll-free number 800-346-9140. ATTRA // GREENHOUSE IPM: SUSTAINABLE THRIPS CONTROL Page 12
  13. 13. Appendix I: Monitoring and Scouting Techniques for Thrips (and Other Greenhouse Pests) Plant Shore Fungus Leaf- Mealy- Broad Spider Soft Armored White- Cater- Aphids Bugs Flies Gnats Miners bugs Mites Mites Scales Scales Slugs Thrips flies pillarsScouting:Inspect underside of leaf X X X X X X X XInspect upper surface for stippling/small white spots X XInspect new growth or terminal for feeding X X X XTap flowers over whitesurface & look for movement X X XWhite or brown spotson flowers XDark area on buds that arejust opening XObserve for:Small black spots onleaves (fecal drops) X XChlorotic (yellow) spotson upper leaf surface X X X X XBuds fail to open or unevenopening of flowers X ATTRA // GREENHOUSE IPM: SUSTAINABLE THRIPS CONTROL Page 13
  14. 14. Appendix II: Beneficial Organisms used in Greenhouses Organism Supplier Pests Controlled Application/CommentsChrysopa carnea Natural Pest Controls, aphids, caterpillars, 1 lacewing/5–30 aphids; 1000 eggs/200 sq. ft. Apply every 1–3(predator) Beneficial Insectary, mealybugs, scales, weeks as needed. May arrive as eggs, immatures, or adults. Caltec, Arbico, A-1 spider mites, thrips, Unique Insect Control, whiteflies Praxis, Rincon-Vitova, Hydro-GardensChrysoperla rufilabris Arbico, Beneficial see above(predator) Insectary, IPM Labs., A-1 Unique Insect Control, Nature’s Control, Praxis, Rincon-VitovaChrysoperla spp. M&R Durango, see above(predator) Florikan, Green SpotColeomegilla imaculata Arbico aphids, caterpillars, 1/sq. ft.; shipped as larvae and eggs.(pink ladybird beetle) mites, scales, thrips, whitefliesDeraeocoris brevis Green Spot aphids, whiteflies,(predator) thripsHeterorhabditis bacteriophora M&R Durango, fungus gnats, crown Application rate varies; 1 million/3000 sq. ft. is suggested.(beneficial nematode) Aribco, BioLogic, borers, thrips, cut- Nematodes need a moist environment to survive and move Hydro-Gardens, worms, grubs, Jap. through soil. Apply in evening directly into growing medium. Harmony Farm Supply, beetles, black Plant Health Care, vine weevil Green Spot ATTRA // GREENHOUSE IPM: SUSTAINABLE THRIPS CONTROL Page 14
  15. 15. Organism Supplier Pests Controlled Application/CommentsHypoaspis miles Florikan, Harmony thrips 100–300/sq. meter(predator) Farm Supply, Green SpotNeoseiulus spp. or Amblyseius spp. (predatory mites):N. barkeri IPM Laboratories, broad mites, thrips 10–30/plant per week. ArbicoN. cucumeris Arbico, Natural Pest thrips, mites Humidity should be 70–90%, temp. 50–85°F. Controls, Nature’s Introduce at first sign of pests. Control, Intl. Technology Services, Florikan, IPM Labs., Harmony Farm Supply, Hydro-Gardens, Rincon- Vitova, Green SpotN. cucumeris and N. barkeri Hydro-Gardens thrips, aphids, mites 1 predator/sq. ft.; humidity should be moderate, temp. 70°F. Establish population early. Repeat every month during periods of warm, dry weather.Orius insidiosus Florikan, IPM aphids, caterpillars, 1/10 sq. ft. (preventive), 1 every 2 sq. ft. when pests(minute pirate bug) Labs., Harmony Farm thrips, whiteflies, are present. Temperature should be 70-90°F. Orius are(predator) Supply, Arbico, mites dormant September–April. Re-apply every 2-3 weeks. Hydro-Gardens, Very susceptible to pesticides. Works well in Praxis, Koppert, combination with Neoseiulus cucumeris. Intl. Tech. Services, Green SpotSteinernema spp. Hydro-Gardens, cutworms, thrips, 1 million/3000 sq. ft.; temperature should be above 55°F.(beneficial nematodes) Nature’s Control white grubs, shore Apply in evening, directly to growing media. Water in flies, fungus gnats, etc. after application. Needs moist environment to thrive.Steinernema spp.and Florikan, Green see aboveHeterorhabditis spp. SpotThripobius semiluteus Arbico, Nature’s thrips(parasite) Control ATTRA // GREENHOUSE IPM: SUSTAINABLE THRIPS CONTROL Page 15
  16. 16. Appendix III: Biorational PesticidesAzadirachtin – extract of neem seed; IGR that works through contact or ingestion Brand Name Supplier Pests Controlled REI Application/Comments Azatin Green Spot aphids, caterpillars, fungus 4 hours Apply when pests first appear. gnats, leafhoppers, leafminers, Western flower thrips, whiteflies, psyllids Neemazad Thermo aphids, caterpillars, thrips, 12 hours Cannot be applied through irrigation. Low Trilogy greenhouse whitefly, leafminers, rate can be used as a preventative. sweetpotato whitefly, psyllids, leafhoppersBeauveria bassiana – fungus that works through contact; exposure to non-target insects should be avoided Brand Name Supplier Pests Controlled REI Application/Comments Naturalis-O SePro aphids, caterpillars, mites, 4 hours Apply when insects first appear and repeat psyllids, thrips, whiteflies every 7–10 days. Need good spray coverage. Not compatible with other fungicides. BotaniGard Mycotech giant whitefly, green peach 12 hours See above. aphid, black vine weevil, other aphids and whiteflies, thrips, leafhoppers, psyllids, white grubsGarlic extracts Brand Name Supplier Pests Controlled REI Application/Comments Garlic Gard Soil Technologies repels thrips and other insects Garlic Barrier Green Spot see above 4 hours Use late in the day. Can be mixed with fish oil or horticultural oil. Do not use in combination with bumblebees or honeybees. ATTRA // GREENHOUSE IPM: SUSTAINABLE THRIPS CONTROL Page 16
  17. 17. Horticultural oil – includes dormant and summer superior oils Brand Name Supplier Pests Controlled REI Application/Comments All Seasons Green Spot aphids, mealybugs, scales, 4 hours Use on sunny days to promote rapid drying thrips, whiteflies, spider and decrease chance of phytotoxicity. Not mites compatible with beneficials.Hot pepper wax – contains capsaicin, paraffin, and mineral oil Brand Name Supplier Pests Controlled REI Application/Comments Hot Pepper Green Spot aphids, loopers, beet army- 4 hours Also contains herbal essential oils. Not Wax worms, mites, whiteflies, compatible with beneficials. thrips, mealybugs, etc. Hot Pepper Hot Pepper see above Wax Wax, Inc.Insecticidal soap – contains potassium salts of fatty acids Brand Name Supplier Pests Controlled REI Application/Comments M-Pede Mycogen aphids, mealybugs, scales, 12 hours Phytoxicity is often a concern, esp. after thrips, whiteflies, spider repeated applications. Mites Safer Green Spot see above 4 hours See above. Insecticidal soap Olympic see above ATTRA // GREENHOUSE IPM: SUSTAINABLE THRIPS CONTROL Page 17
  18. 18. Neem oil – multi-purpose organic insecticide/fungicide/miticide; kills eggs, larval and adult stages of insects Brand Name Supplier Pests Controlled REI Application/Comments Trilogy 90EC Thermo greenhouse whitefly, silver- 4 hours Apply at first signs of damage. Repeat every Trilogy leaf whitefly, sweetpotato 7–10 days as needed. whitefly, thrips, whiteflies, leafminers, aphids, mites, psyllids, San Jose scale, scale, spider mites, downy mildew, powdery mildew, Alternaria, Botrytis, etc. Triact 90EC Thermo see above 4 hours For ornamental crops only. TrilogyPaecilomyces fumosoroseus (PFR) – expected to become available in 1999; controls whiteflies, Western flower thrips, and spider mitesSaccharopolyspora spinosa – soil-inhabiting actinomycete Brand Name Supplier Pests Controlled REI Application/Comments Conserve Dow Agro caterpillars, leafminers, Sciences thrips ATTRA // GREENHOUSE IPM: SUSTAINABLE THRIPS CONTROL Page 18