Bison Production


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Bison Production

  1. 1. BISON PRODUCTION LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION GUIDE By Lance E. Gegner NCAT Agriculture Specialist APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER FOR RURAL AREAS December 2001 Interest in raising bison as alternative live-stock has increased dramatically in recent years.Bison meat has nutritional advantages for thehealth-conscious consumer. Research (1) hasestablished that bison meat contains 25–30%more protein than beef because it has less fatmarbling. Bison is lower in calories, fat, and cho-lesterol than beef, pork, or skinless chicken (2).Bison meat is usually prepared like beef, but bi-son has a quicker cooking time and can easily beovercooked. The American bison is a member of theBovidae family of ruminants. The misnomer“buffalo” stems from early naturalists’ compari-sons of the bison to the African or Asian buffalo.The bison population was just about destroyedin the late 1800s by a government-sanctionedcampaign of extermination (intended to starvethe “Indians”), but thanks to private efforts by TABLE OF CONTENTSindividuals the animal was saved from extinc-tion. There are approximately 350,000 bison in Regulations for Bison Production ............. 1North America today (3). Health Issues ........................................... 2 This publication takes a look at bison pro- Bison Meat Inspection and Processing .... 2duction and marketing practices. While not at- Getting Started ......................................... 4tempting to be comprehensive, it focuses on a Marketing ................................................. 6number of areas that potential and current bi- Grass or Grain? ....................................... 7son producers need to consider. It also attempts Direct Marketing ....................................... 8to show some of the diversity of philosophies Pasturing Bison ........................................ 9and practices currently being evaluated in the Fencing .................................................. 11bison industry. Handling and Transporting Bison ........... 11 Sources of Further Information .............. 13 REGULATIONS FOR BISON PRODUCTION References ............................................. 13 Further Resources ................................. 14 Before considering or starting a bison opera- Websites ............................................. 14tion, the farmer or rancher needs to know the Video ................................................... 16rules and regulations in their state. Each state Books .................................................. 16has different requirements. Most state Depart- Magazines ........................................... 16ments of Agriculture regulate bison raised in Appendix ................................................ 17their states, but in several states the Wildlife De-partment is in charge of regulations. It is best toATTRA is the national sustainable agriculture information center operated by the National Center for AppropriateTechnology under a grant from the Rural Business-Cooperative Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Theseorganizations do not recommend or endorse products, companies, or individuals. ATTRA is located in theOzark Mountains at the University of Arkansas in Fayetteville (P.O. Box 3657, Fayetteville, AR 72702). ATTRAstaff members prefer to receive requests for information about sustainable agriculture via the toll-free number800-346-9140.
  2. 2. check with your State Veterinarian for specific Brucellosis has been eradicated in most of theinformation on who to work with in your state. United States except for several major sources inThe State Veterinarian’s phone number and some free-living elk and bison in the Greatergeneral state health requirements can be obtained Yellowstone Area and adjacent land. In a veryfrom your local veterinarian, or found in “Ap- controversial proposal, the National Park Servicependix D” at the National Bison Association’s has set a goal of eliminating brucellosis in bisonwebsite < and elk in the Yellowstone area by 2010. Thegtss_rules.asp>. Park Service’s efforts, along with the State of Transporting bison across state lines requires Montana’s policy of killing any bison that strayhealth certificates, testing, and in some cases vac- from the park area, have resulted in severe re-cinations. You should consult with your veteri- duction of the U.S. bison herd at Yellowstone.narian or your state veterinary office for rules andrequirements on interstate transport of bison. BISON MEAT INSPECTION AND PROCESSING EATThe health certificate must conform to the regu-lations of the state to which the bison are going. Three major food-safety acts regulate the U.S.Always check with the destination’s State Vet- food supply. These are the Federal Food, Drug,erinarian for the current requirements. and Cosmetic Act; the Federal Meat Inspection Act; and the Poultry Products Inspection Act. HEALTH ISSUES EALTH The Agriculture Marking Act of 1946 (voluntary reimbursable inspection) allows the USDA/Food Parasite control in bison is important. Check Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) to inspect exoticwith a veterinarian who likes working with bi- animals (5). Most of the U.S. food safety pro-son to get recommendations for a vaccinating, grams are risk-based to ensure that the public isdeworming, and health-maintenance schedule protected from health risks of unsafe foods. Riskfor the bison herd. Before anyone (new or estab- assessment is used in estimating the magnitudelished bison producer) buys a bison, they should of the problem faced, and in determining thecheck out the seller’s herd and ask informed appropriate risk-management response. How-questions. It is important to learn as much as ever, FSIS regulations governing the slaughterpossible about bison (and bison diseases) before and processing of exotic animals do not requiretrying to buy them. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Outbreaks of tuberculosis in bison, deer, and (HACCP) or a risk assessment (5).elk on game ranches in Canada and the United Under the Federal Food, Drug, and CosmeticStates have raised concerns about infectious dis- Act, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)eases being transmitted to conventional livestock. protects consumers against impure, unsafe, andBison are very disease-resistant; however, they fraudulently labeled food. The FDA has inspec-are susceptible to many bacterial and viral dis- tion authority over any food in interstate com-eases, as well as parasites, that occur in cattle and merce, unless the product is regulated by theother livestock species. Some of these diseases USDA/FSIS. The regulations require FDA in-are brucellosis, tuberculosis, anthrax, hemor- spection of facilities and processes involved inrhagic septicemia, malignant catarrhal fever slaughtering and processing of food. The FDA(MCF), as well as many others (4). requires that all food come from an “approved Recent publicity has increased awareness of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD, or Mad Deer or Elk diseases) among the general public. CWD has occurred in several Western states’ wild populations of deer and elk, as well as on some elk farms in at least five states and Canada. Bison and cattle have never been reported to have CWD; however, some consumers may have heard misinformation and be concerned about CWD crossing from elk to bison or cattle. The bison producer will need to be aware of CWD and prepared to address these concerns.PAGE 2 //BISON PRODUCTION
  3. 3. source and process,” meaning that the facility However, the USDA/FSIS does have a vol-where the bison was slaughtered and the slaugh- untary inspection program for producers whoter process—not the bison itself—must be in- wish to have their bison inspected. The bisonspected and approved. Most commonly, the ap- producer must pay for the voluntary FSIS inspec-proved source is a licensed food establishment, tion. This usually costs about $40 per hour. Ina federally inspected meat plant, or a state-in- 1991, FSIS determined that it had no legal basisspected meat plant (6). to require labeling “NOT FOR SALE” on non- The USDA/FSIS is responsible for inspection inspected bison as is required for beef and otherof meat, poultry, processed meats, and poultry “amenable” species (5). However, many meatproducts in interstate and foreign commerce buyers may demand that the bison they purchaseunder the Federal Meat Inspection Act and the be federally inspected, because they are familiarPoultry Products Inspection Act. FSIS inspectors with the federal requirements for other meats (5).examine each animal before and after slaughter At present, the FSIS is considering the addi-for visible defects that can affect safety and qual- tion of bison, elk, deer, and other species to theity of meat and poultry products. The Meat In- list of animals requiring USDA inspection. Anyspection Act and FSIS regulations require ante- new requirements would have to be passed bymortem and post-mortem inspection of each ani- Congress and signed by the president. Themal and daily inspection of processing facilities USDA’s concept paper, “Extending USDA’s In-by FSIS inspectors. FDA regulations do not re- spection Program to Non-Amenable/Exotic Spe-quire this intensity of inspection. FDA may in- cies,” presented at a public meeting October 31—spect facilities and processes once per year (5). November 1, 2000, is available at <http:// The Federal Meat Inspection Act defines spe- the kinds of animals that must be slaugh- papers/species.htm>.tered and processed under FSIS inspection. FSIS A provision of the Federal Meat Inspectioninspection is required for all cattle, sheep, swine, Act permits states to have a cooperative agree-goats, ratites, and equines. Many animals, in- ment with USDA/FSIS, whereby more than halfcluding bison, are not mentioned in the Meat the states have mandatory meat inspection pro-Inspection Act. Bison are therefore “non-ame- grams that equal the federal standards. The fed-nable” (not covered or answerable) under the eral law limits state-inspected “amenable” ani-Federal Meat Inspection Act and are exempt from mals to intrastate commerce. Several states man-FSIS requirements for meat inspection for intra- date inspection of bison and other non-amenablestate, interstate, and foreign trade (5). species under their state meat inspection acts. To illustrate the differences among states in regulating bison inspections and sales, here’s a sampling of four states’ rules (from the National Bison Association’s discussion group, Novem- ber 2001). • Kansas and Missouri both provide for state inspections. While Kansas makes bison inspec- tion mandatory and pays for it rather than charging the producer, Missouri does not require inspection and charges $20 per bison. This means that while uninspected bison can be brought into Missouri and sold, the same uninspected bison could not be sold in Kansas. • Colorado State Health Department policy states that meat products sold into commerce must be from an “approved source.” This has been interpreted to mean that all meat sold into commerce in Colorado, excepting sale of carcasses, has to be USDA-inspected. • In Ohio, bison are considered a “voluntary” inspected species. While the Ohio Department of Agriculture does not require inspection of bison for private or retail sales in Ohio, the state’s health department does require that meat sold in retail stores come from inspected sources. Ohio provides free inspection for bison in their state-certified processing facilities, and because it is state-inspected, the bison meat can be shipped interstate. //BISON PRODUCTION PAGE 3
  4. 4. However, because bison meat is non-amenable, Arshad Hussain with the USDA/FSIS Inspection“state-inspected bison meat is eligible for sale in & Enforcement Standards Development Staff atall states, including states with state inspection (202) 720–3219.programs” (6). However, it is important to re-member that even if federal law does not require GETTING STARTEDbison to be inspected under the Federal Meat In-spection Act, local or state health codes may pro- Before starting a bison enterprise, it is advis-hibit the sale of non-inspected game meat includ- able to visit as many existing bison operations asing bison in restaurants and other markets. For possible, to pick up as many ideas and optionsa listing of all the state officials in the Coopera- as you can. Your bison operation will not be ex-tive Meat and Poultry Inspection Programs and actly like anyone else’s, but getting varied in-for additional information about state inspection sights and opinions from others will help in de-programs, go to < signing for your particular needs.OFO/hrds/STATE/stateoff.htm>. Carol Klein, of Oakcreek Buffalo Ranch in When food products are manufactured with Missouri, says that management philosophiesbison as the sole meat ingredient, the product is and practices vary widely within the bison in-under the jurisdiction of FDA (7). If the buyer or dustry. She explains:consumer wants USDA/FSIS inspection of 100% Management practices range across a broadbison products, the meat for these products needs field: one producer may dehorn all his buffalo,to be processed under the voluntary federal in- feed grain, wean babies, rotational graze, usespection program. These 100% bison products only young bulls, and remove bulls from thedo not bear the round FSIS mark of inspection; herd in the fall. Another producer may run hisinstead they bear a triangular voluntary-federal- herd in family groups using older bulls, whichinspection mark (5). are always with the herd, naturally wean babies, Bison or other non-amenable meat from an not dehorn, and grass feed only. Each producerapproved source may be used in an amenable meat should look at these management practices andfood or poultry food product that bears the decide for himself, which works for his own farmUSDA mark of inspection (circular mark) (7). The and philosophy. (8)approved sources include: 1) slaughter inspec- The investment in fencing is fairly substan-tion under provisions of the Agricultural Mar- tial compared to some livestock enterprises.keting Act; 2) an approved state inspection pro- However, the stock and handling facilities aregram; or 3) a foreign inspection program under comparable in cost to other livestock operations.control of FDA. Amendable meat food products Bison farming is considered a high-risk enter-contain more than 3% raw meat or at least 30% prise by most banks and other agencies. A largefat from U.S.-inspected and passed cattle, sheep, owner investment is usually needed to obtain aswine, or goats; amenable poultry food products loan.contain at least 2% cooked U.S.-passed poultryfrom an amenable species (chickens, turkeys,ducks, geese, ratites, guineas, or squabs) with nobone or skin included. In other words, such aproduct can contain well over 90% bison meatand bear the appropriate circular FSIS inspectionlegend since the amenable meat content quali-fies for mandatory inspection. Refer to Code ofFederal Regulations, Title 9, Volume 2, Part 312,Section 312.2, and Part 381, Section 381.96 (5). If you have questions or comments pertain-ing to the USDA or FDA regulations, contact theFDA Industry Activities Staff at (202) 205–5251;Robert Post with the USDA/FSIS Labeling andConsumer Protection Staff at (202) 205–0623; orPAGE 4 //BISON PRODUCTION
  5. 5. The Texas Bison Company’s website answers some frequently-asked questions for people interested in bison. They recommend starting with bison calves: Start small and start with calves! This is the best advice I got, and I’m passing it on. I guarantee that you will have lessons to learn if you have never worked bison before, and adult bison will not be forgiving. With calves you can get in with them and they will get used to you. Maybe eat out of your hand. They will learn not to fear you and like you, and as they will end up the oldest in your herd, the others will learn from them. I would do this all over again. The more time you spend with them the better. However, there will be a time when you have too many animals to go in the pasture with them, or as they grow up they may start to challenge you. Specifically the bulls. And don’t even think of approaching a cow and a calf! Besides, if you buy an adult animal, it may have been a cull, and it could’ve been due to a bad temperament: (I once bought an adult female bison and ended up with stitches because I had to dive through a barbed wire fence or risk being gored). As the herd grows and you become experienced, then you may take a risk on buying adult animals. My herd once went through an open gate and roamed 3 miles. After I found them I shook the range cube bucket and my head female led the herd all the way home. That’s because she knew me since she was a calf, and since I started out with only 3 calves. I had spent a LOT of time with them in the pasture. Now they are teaching the rest of the herd. Expect that at some time your herd may get out. How would you get them back! I suggest adding a gate to every side of your perimeter fencing. Even if it is a fence line shared with your neighbor. It will make it a lot easier to get your bison back home. (9) While the beginner’s investment in land, cording to a Saskatchewan publication, “It is be-stock, and materials can be significant, the yearly lieved that bison eat less because of a lower meta-maintenance costs of an established herd can be bolic level, especially during the winter. How-low. A producer probably needs at least 75–100 ever, for the novice, the stocking rate should behead to provide a minimum return for a farm considered equal to that of a beef cow. As thefamily. Herds in Canada average 61 head of bi- producer develops experience, the stocking rateson (10). The article “A Beginner’s Primer...Tips should be adjusted” (10). In northern latitudes,on Bison Marketing and Management,” pub- additional land can be used to grow hay for win-lished in the Stockman Grass Farmer, notes that ter stockpiling, to supplement winter pasture for-for social reasons, a herd of no fewer than 12 to ages.15 animals should be established. With fewer Some very detailed bison production budgetsanimals there is a tendency for the individuals to have been published by the Saskatchewan Agri-escape, looking for the rest of the herd (11). Hobby culture and Food Ministry and by the Albertaor entertainment farmers may try to raise only one Agriculture, Food, and Rural Development Min-or two, but small numbers are not recommended. istry. It should be remembered that dollar The number of pasture acres required for the amounts are stated in fluctuating Canadian dol-herd depends to some extent on the productive lars (about 67 cents to the U.S. dollar at the timecapabilities of the land and the length of the graz- of this writing). The budget in the Saskatchewaning season. A good rule of thumb is to calculate publication Bison Production – Economic and Pro-how many beef cows could efficiently be run on duction Information for Saskatchewan Producers canyour property. This will apply to bison as well, be viewed at < bison will not need as much winter- livestock/bison/production_information/supplement feed or hay as the beef animals. Ac- fmb398.asp>. The Alberta budget publications //BISON PRODUCTION PAGE 5
  6. 6. Bison Profit$ – Alberta 20 Cow Start-up Bison En-terprise; Bison Profit$ – Alberta 50 Cow Start-up Headquartered in New Rockford, NorthBison Enterprise; Bison Profits – Profit Planning Dakota, the North American Bison Co-Tools for a 100 Cow Established Bison Enterprise; and operative has the nation’s first packingBison Profits – Profit Planning Tools for Assessing plant devoted solely to bison. The plantthe Profitability of Investing in Bison Cows can be is processing more than 10,000 bison aviewed at < year; the products are sold in Europe and400/freedex.html#special>. the United States. The Cooperative’s These budgets were created to aid in evalu- policy has been to pay their members aating various bison enterprises. They present a set price of $2.38 per pound for theirworkable combination of inputs that will pro- number-one-grade animals. However,duce a given output. This combination of inputs marketing the product has been a big-probably doesn’t represent any given farm, and ger challenge than anticipated. In Julythe actual costs of inputs are likely different for of 2001, they had over a year’s supply ofevery farm. While there may be hundreds of unsold frozen meat (all shrink-wrappedcombinations of feed, health, labor, and other and blast-frozen, and able to be kept atinputs, the budgets only give one combination. least four years). The Cooperative an-Different production practices, such as improved ticipates that increased sales in the fu-pasture yield and quality, as well as various mar- ture will reduce the carryover supply ofketing opportunities, can cause the producer’s frozen meat. Others see the large in-actual budget to be quite different from these. ventory as a serious problem, with co-op members having to either wait as long MARKETING as 17 months to get their deferred cash payments for their animals after the meat Opportunities for marketing bison include: is sold, or take the meat themselves in• Sale of bison meat lieu of the cash payment (13).• Live sales of males and females for breeding• Sale of bison skulls, hides, leather products, and so on• Tourism While some bison farmers “niche-market” di- For producers exploring the possibility ofrectly to consumers or restaurants, others sell to forming a marketing cooperative, the best sourcethe few existing wholesale marketing outlets. of information is USDA’s Rural Business and Co-Still others are working with existing farm-mar- operative Development Service (RBCDS) (12).keting cooperatives. Beginning bison farmers The RBCDS helps farmers and rural residentsneed to realize that bison marketing opportuni- form cooperative businesses and improve theties are fairly new and not readily available in operations of existing cooperatives. They pro-many locations. One of the biggest obstacles to vide technical assistance, conduct cooperative-farmers who want to produce bison in most ar- related research, and provide informationaleas of the U.S. is this lack of an organized mar- products to promote public understanding ofket. There are few established national or re- cooperatives. The USDA Rural Business andgional marketing and distribution systems; how- Cooperative Service Development website is atever, several state or regional bison associations < set up marketing channels or cooperatives. csdir.htm>.Direct marketing of meat and other products is Other obstacles to bison marketing, which arean option, depending on the efforts and initia- diminishing as the industry grows, are:tive of the producer. Producers taking this routewill need to develop a marketing plan. Devel- • Lack of standards for grading meatoping new niche markets for bison can take a • The small size of the bison industrylarge amount of the producer’s time and energy, • Insufficient amounts of bison regularly avail-and requires good “people skills” and a business able for marketingplan.PAGE 6 //BISON PRODUCTION
  7. 7. information on grass-fed meats is available at GRASS OR GRAIN? <>. Finishing on pasture or by feeding a grain While some consumers will seek out pasture-ration in feedlots are both commonly practiced fed bison, others prefer the more consistent grain-in the bison industry. Both these methods of fin- fed flavors and white fat familiar to beef-loversishing for slaughter feature positive aspects that (as compared to the variable flavor and morecontribute to marketing strategies. Several years yellow fat found in grass-fed bison). To get theseago, researchers at Colorado State University grain-fed qualities, producers place young orconducted a taste test between grass-fed and yearling bison bulls in feedlots where they aregrain-fed bison meat. Consumers in the study fed a grain ration for a specific time before slaugh-showed no preference between grass-fed and tering. Grain finishing is receiving more empha-grain-fed in terms of tenderness and juiciness, sis because of the North American Bisonbut they preferred the taste of grain-fed bison 6 Cooperative’s requirement (15) that their mem-to 4 over grass-fed (3). Both methods will pro- bers place animals on a grain diet 100 days be-duce an acceptable-quality product for consum- fore slaughter. Information on grain-feedingers. practices and feedlot management of bison can A study conducted by North Dakota State be found in North Dakota’s Carrington Beef andUniversity showed the nutritional differences be- Bison Production Field Days Research studiestween grass-fed and grain-fed bison. The grass- (see Further Resources) and in the Saskatchewanfeed bison had Omega 6 to Omega 3 ratios of 4 to publication Bison Feedlot: Economic and Production1, whereas the grain-fed bison had ratios of 21 to Information, available at < (14). Grass-fed meat can be marketed to health- consumers interested in its more bal- specializ/bisonfeedlot.pdf> (it takes a long timeanced ratio of Omega 6 and Omega 3. Additional to load). Carol Klein of Oakcreek Buffalo Ranch comments: Probably the most controversial management practice in the bison industry today is whether or not to feed grain to bison. Following World War II, cattle producers began feeding excess grain to beef herds. As ranchers began raising bison, many of them followed the same practices being used to raise beef. But the animals are totally different. And even beef did not evolve eating grain—they are grazing animals. Now, producers have to decide for them- selves whether or not it makes good sense for them to grain feed their animals. Our cow- herd has not received any grain supplements for three years. They graze on a grass and clover (and weeds!) pasture, and their condition is so good that they simply do not need any supplemental feeding, only mineral and hay as required. To feed them grain would be the same as over-watering a houseplant; it would be detrimental to their well being and to our pocketbook. Feeding bulls before slaughter will speed the process of growing to slaughter size. This will be offset by the additional cost of the grain. It will affect the fat deposits in the animal, both in the amount and type of fat. Even with grain feeding, bison will have a more healthy, nutritious meat that is lower in fat. The nutrition of a grass fed animal is definitely superior. Is the tenderness or taste better in grain fed animals? Everyone has his or her own opinion on the subject. Unfortunately, it is one of the things we will have to decide for our- selves. Grain feeding is closely associated with feed lots, and therefore with antibiotics and growth hormones—and with [lowered] quality of life for the animals. At all costs, my opinion is that feedlot situations are best avoided. But I refuse to tell others how to run their farms, in hopes that they will let me operate mine as I see best. We can best influence other producers with our examples and success, and keep conflicts from injuring our industry. (8) //BISON PRODUCTION PAGE 7
  8. 8. nesota Main Street website. It has an Electronic DIRECT MARKETING Commerce Curriculum that provides informa- Direct marketing of meat and other products tion on: electronic commerce basics; finding busi-is dependent on the efforts and initiative of the ness information and services online; exploringproducer; developing a marketing plan is an es- E-commerce websites; creating your website;sential first step. For detailed information on promoting your website; Minnesota case stud-direct marketing and niche markets, request the ies; developing your Internet business plan; andATTRA publications Direct Marketing and Alter- much more. Check out the website at <http://native Meat Marketing.> or con- Because of the lack of organized traditional tact Rae Montgomery at (612) 624-2773,markets, some bison farms market their products <>.on the Internet. These producers must ensure One of the obstacles for direct marketing ofthat they know and follow the rules and regula- bison is that many people only want the best cuts; marketing of the poorer cuts can be challenging.tions for each state to which they ship bison meat. Many bison farmers offer stew meats, sausage,It is essential that all local, state, and federal food- ground burger, or patties to help market theseinspection and health requirements are followed. cuts. But what to do with the bones and organs Marketing on the Internet is not easy; there that larger slaughtering plants have markets for?are both advantages and challenges to consider. Well, there is an option available: the controver-Washington State University has a publication sial natural diet for dogs called BARF (Bones Andand website that offer resources for farmers want- Raw Food) diet. Many pet owners believe theiring to market their products. Both provide in- pets are healthier on a raw diet. Many bison farmformation on the pros and cons of Internet mar- websites have items included in their lists suchketing, tips for success, links to other farmers’ as stock bones, ham or leg bones, neck bone, andsites, resource lists for more information, and a organs for sale. These items are mainly for theglossary of Internet terms. The site location is BARF market. To learn more about BARF and< for lists of pet owners in your area who feed theirmarketing.htm>. pets BARF, use a search engine such as Yahoo, Producers considering marketing over the or visit <> and searchInternet should also check out the Access Min- for BARF, or visit <http://www.willowglen. com/barf.htm>. Some producers enhance the income of their bison enterprise by advertising and charging for bison hunts. This direct-marketing strategy can be used to reduce the herd size by either select- ing culled breeding stock for harvest or offering trophy-size bulls. Some states may have specific regulations on bison hunting, so it would be best to contact your state’s Department of Agricul- ture or Wildlife Department for specific require- ments. However, because the bison are privately owned animals, the producer would probably be allowed to sell the animals to the hunters before the hunt. The hunters would then be shooting their own animals, which is probably not regu- lated. Besides the meat and hunting aspects of a bison operation, making use of some of the by- products can add to the producer’s income. Some producers have developed markets for bison by- products such as heads, robes made from hides,PAGE 8 //BISON PRODUCTION
  9. 9. skulls, leather goods, jewelry made from bonesand horns, and so on. Another possible enterprise is tourism. The450-acre Mason family ranch, located 120 milesnorth of Omaha, Nebraska, with 150 bison cowsand calves, has attracted more than 6,000 tour-ists to take a covered-wagon tour and purchasebison sandwiches or specialized meat products(16). Reportedly, the gate admission receipts (at$4/person) and sale of sandwiches and meatproducts provide a good living for the two fami-lies who operate the ranch. More informationon tourism is available in ATTRA’s EntertainmentFarming and Agri-Tourism. PASTURING BISON Grazing bison in a sustainable and economi-cal way can best be accomplished through a ro-tational grazing system. These systems havebeen used extensively with cattle, and not as son, and enable the producer to provide higher-much with bison. The Saskatchewan Agricul- quality forage at a lower cost with fewer inputs.ture and Food Ministry’s publication Bison Pas- The goal of rotational grazing is to tailor thetures and Grazing Management, an excellent source paddock size to the number of bison, so that theof information on bison grazing, is available at pasture is used as efficiently as possible, and the< animals get the quality and quantity of foragebison/production_information/bisonpast.asp>. they need for the amount of time desired. WhenGeneral nutrition information is available from first devising a grazing plan, make big paddocksthe Saskatchewan Basic Nutrition of Bison at and use long rotations. As you become more fa-< miliar with the pasture plants and the herd’sbison/herd_health/bison-nutrition.asp>. grazing habits, further subdivide these “starter” In rotational grazing systems, animals are al- paddocks with more electric fence. It is best tolowed to graze a limited area for a limited time, make the subdivisions temporary to take advan-and are then moved to another pasture subdivi- tage of forage growing conditions and the bison’ssion, or “paddock.” This gives plants time to changing feed requirements.grow back without using up root reserves. Un- Fresh, clean water must always be available.der rotational grazing, legumes and native In a rotational grazing system, the animals mustgrasses may reappear in pastures, and produc- have access to a central water source from everyers often report that the plant community be- paddock or water must be provided to each ofcomes more diverse. Rotational grazing can be the pasture subdivisions. This can be a challengeused to improve pasture, extend the grazing sea- and may be fairly expensive. For more information on rotational grazing management, request these ATTRA publications: • Meeting the Nutritional Needs of Ruminants on Pasture • Sustainable Pasture Management • Rotational Grazing • Introduction to Paddock Design and Fencing-Water Systems for Controlled Grazing • Nutrient Cycling in Pastures //BISON PRODUCTION PAGE 9
  10. 10. Carol Klein of Oakcreek Buffalo Ranch sug- in September is very important. Young femalesgests that rotational grazing is worth consider- in their second and third winter can lose 10 toing both for better economics and for the well- 15 percent of their body weight, provided theybeing of the bison. She explains: enter the winter in good conditions. Bison are genetically programmed to maximize To use the land available to its fullest potential the spring lush of pasture growth. A green will without a doubt require a plan of rotational season pasture sward of less than four inches is grazing. It will provide an estimated 40% not recommended. Bison spend less time increase in the amount of grass available. But grazing in summer than beef cattle and do what will the buffalo think of all that control? virtually no nighttime grazing. After all they are independent, and roam throughout their territory at will. Trust me, if During the rut, the reduction in grazing time they object too strongly, they will let you know may be as high as 12 percent. Therefore, there by rearranging the fences. The field they are should be no limitation in forage quantity and being moved to should be better than the one quality during the rut. (17) they are leaving, and they will be eager for the new territory. So they will move readily when needed, and stay where they are put as long as the grazing is good. More management and fencing are needed on the part of the producer, and labor must be available when needed. What sold me on the “idea” of rotational grazing was the better quality and quantity of grass avail- able for the animals. (8) Lorne Klein, a Rangeland Agrologist atRegina, Saskatchewan, comments: Bison can extract 5 to 13 percent more nutri- ents from low quality feeds than cattle can. At feed values above 10 percent, cattle are just as efficient as bison. Bison’s metabolic rate decreases from summer to winter. Dry matter intake of cows is esti- mated to be 2.2 to 2.8 percent in the summer, but only 1.4 to 2.0 in winter. This allows them to successfully overwinter on stockpiled grasses. Provided there is adequate forage volume, hay supplementation is only required under extreme snow conditions. ***** Getting thin in winter is good for bison. There is speculation that longevity and fertility are greatly reduced when cows are not allowed to lose weight in winter. Mature bison in good condition are able to lose 10 to 15 percent of their bodyweight from January to June. The loss of weight in winter allows bison to gain weight rapidly in June and July. A rising plane of nutrition from mid-June until breedingPAGE 10 //BISON PRODUCTION
  11. 11. stand the bison’s nature. Bison have very strong FENCING herd instincts and will react to danger as a group, Fencing—a critical factor in raising bison on first fleeing and then returning out of curiositypasture—varies greatly from farm to farm. Some to see what “spooked” them. They also have aproducers get by with strong cattle fences, while strong sense of personal self and self-preserva-others build super-strong, extra-tall fences. What- tion, and will either flee or fight. Bison relate toever type of exterior fence you build—woven, each other through a strict “pecking order.” Thebarbwire, high-tensile, etc.—it should be at least strongest bull will be the dominant animal in the6 feet tall. Electric fencing works well with bi- herd, whose job it is to protect and breed, but theson, as long as they are trained to know what elec- dominant cow will be the herd leader. Bison cantric fences are. Barbed wire should never be used outrun a horse and turn on a dime; they are goodas electric fence because of the possibility of bi- jumpers, kickers, and swimmers; they are strongson (and humans) getting tangled in it and elec- (about four times stronger than beef cows); andtrocuted. Fences featuring six to eight high-ten- they are not tame. Klein cautions producers tosile wires with two to four electrified strands are remember that bison are dangerous and act ac-becoming popular with producers and are a good cordingly when handling them. She states:option to consider. A good energizer is essen- Buffalo are wild animals. There is not a tame ortial. A helpful publication on fencing for bison is domesticated hair on their head. You can gainavailable at < their trust and friendship, but you have notlivestock/bison/production_information/ really changed their basic nature—they willfmb398k.asp>. always be wild. This free and independent However, even strong fences will not keep nature is a strong part of the appeal buffalo havebison in if they get spooked. Robert Klessig, a to us. There is only one way to make a buffalobison producer in Wisconsin, says, “Well, I’m notgoing to promote any single type of fence, but if do anything, and that is to make him want to doyou’re going to raise bison, you better make darn it. Forget everything you know aboutsure that you use high-quality materials, and cattle. These animals have a nature of theirbuild it well. You don’t just drive a bison back in own, and that is what you will have to knowyour pastures if they get out” (18). and understand. It is that independent nature that will affect the ways in which you manage HANDLING AND TRANSPORTING BISON your herd. Bison cannot be handled like cattle. Carol Everything in life is a trade-off. As you come toKlein explained at the 2001 Missouri Bison Con- win the acceptance of your animals, they willference in Joplin that it is important for the bison lose their fear of you. That will eliminate manyproducer, especially the new producer, to under- problems of control, but will create other problems in their place. Their new proximity to you will create new dangers as well. Always stay safe. Being in the middle of a buffalo herd is no place for a person. You may think they like and accept you. Look close at how they interact with each other. They like each other, but they still act very violently with their buddies. They butt and gouge at each other, and you will notice that the receiver of that action takes the threat/ danger very seriously. They avoid being trapped by any animal more dominant than they, and stay out of their space. If they make a mistake, they are promptly and harshly reminded of their place. If you want to be part of the herd, you //BISON PRODUCTION PAGE 11
  12. 12. will also be in their pecking order—and they chute, they must be held in separate com- will find out that you should be on the bottom partments between solid sliding gates. rung. The bull will test you first, and there For more specifics on designing a reduced- may not be enough left for any others to play stress handling facility and to read the article, with. But if you don’t want affectionate buffalo “The Calming of American Bison during Rou- jumping on your butt, then stay on your side of tine Handling,” see Grandin’s website at the fence. Otherwise, you will learn about < tough love. Your reaction times are not good buffalo.html> and < enough to avoid the actions of a buffalo. (8) references/bison.paper.html>. Colorado State University’s Temple Grandin Some additional bison-handling systems aresuggests that training bison calves will change diagrammed at the Saskatchewan Agriculturetheir perception of a stressful, negative experi- and Food website, < to either a neutral or even a positive experi- This will not make the bison tame or do- production_information/fmb398j.asp>. Themesticated, but will simply condition them to re- Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Develop-spond to a particular situation in a calmer man- ment Ministry has a 38-minute VHS video en-ner, making them easier to handle. For more titled Handling Bison Safely and Effectively (492-specifics on training bison calves, see Grandin’s VT) (see Further Resources: Video for orderingwebsite at < information). The Prairie Agricultural Machin-bison.calves.html>. ery Institute (PAMI) has the book The Rancher’s Handling systems have to be designed for Guide to Elk and Bison Handling Facilities (see Fur-bison and human safety. Grandin has designed ther Resources: Books for ordering information).handling facilities to reduce the stress of handling Rounding up bison is not like rounding upon the bison, as well as protect the people doing cattle. Georgia Derrick, a bison producer in Wis-the sorting. Some of her suggestions follow. consin, explains, “These are wild animals, you don’t turn your back and you don’t get into a• Handling facilities must have solid seven- situation you can’t get out of.” This usually foot sides on all fences, chutes, gates, and means having a truck handy to bail into, al- pens, and must be designed so that the han- though her husband Jim drives his tractor into dlers can operate gates without being among the herd. Cows with calves and bulls in rut are the bison. extremely dangerous (18). In an e-mail message• Fences and chutes should have toe holds and sent to “Graze-l” in May 1997, Robert O. grab bars to provide an escape route for han- Gjerdingen of Viola, Wisconsin stated, “A Ca- dlers. nadian livestock hauler, the type of man who• Fill crowd pens no more than one-third full. has hauled every type of beast in the industry,• Bison must be sorted single-file, not in a wide told me that a female bison was the only critter lane. Use a round forcing pen to direct bison ever to lay in wait for him in a back compart- into the single-file race. Bison will move eas- ment with the goal of ending his life on earth. ily through the round pen into single-file be- Had he been a little fatter, and the vent holes in cause as they circle around they think they the side of the trailer a little narrower, he would are going back to where they came from. not be alive today.”• Bison will remain calmer if brought up indi- vidually to the solid-sided, solid-topped squeeze chute from the crowd pen. Bison of- ten become agitated if left waiting in a single- file chute. The bison remain calmer if left in the crowd pen with their mates and brought to the squeeze chute one at a time. If the bi- son have to be held standing in a single-filePAGE 12 //BISON PRODUCTION
  13. 13. management, and history. It is mainly scientific SOURCES OF FURTHER INFORMATION OURCES URTHER NFORMATION information; however, there is a section on view- The National Buffalo Association and the points at the end of the proceedings that providesAmerican Bison Association consolidated their various producers’ opinions on their differentmemberships on January 1, 1995, to form the Na- management styles. The Proceedings can be or-tional Bison Association (19). This association dered for $30 (checks payable to MSU Extensionprovides educational and research materials, and Wildlife) from:a communications service to farmers, ranchers, MSU Extension Wildlife Programand individuals concerned with the propagation 221 Linfield Halland promotion of the American bison. The yearly Montana State UniversityGold Trophy Show and Sale is held in January Bozeman, MT 59717in Denver, Colorado, and another convention isheld each year in alternating locations through-out the U. S. REFERENCES The National Bison Association publishes a 1) American Bison Association. 1993. Overviewquarterly magazine entitled Bison World, which of the bison industry: Buffalo or bison? Bisonis free with membership, along with a subscrip- Breeders Handbook. American Bison Associa-tion to the North American Bison Journal. They tion [now National Bison Association]. p. 20–also sell many excellent books on bison produc- 21.tion. They have an Information Packet available 2) Burgess, Regina G. 2001. Buffalo: The come-for $20 plus $6 shipping that contains a wide va- back of the twenty-first century. AgVentures.riety of basic bison production and marketing April–May. p. 6–9.information. The cost of membership is $150 ayear. Additional information about their orga- 3) Moseley, Jan. 2001. The meat solution...Thenization is available at <http://www. evolution of the bison industry continues. The Stockman Grass Farmer. August. p. 1, 10–>. There are other national, state, and Canadian 4) Tessaro, Stacy V. 1989. Review of the dis-associations dealing with bison. See the Appen- eases, parasites and miscellaneous pathologi-dix for listings of associations from The Tracker, cal conditions of the North American bison. Canadian Veterinary Journal. May. p. 416–a monthly publication from Canada that lists, associations, and advertisers that workwith bison (see Further Resources: Magazines 5) Personal communication. USDA/FSIS Inspec-for subscription information). tion & Enforcement Standards Development Many electronic resources are now available Staff. May those with Internet access. Several websites 6) Mamminga, Mike. 2000. Venison inspectionare provided in the above listing of associations requirements. Deer Farmers’ Digest. October.from The Tracker. A search engine such as Ya- p. 9–10. < can also be used to locate other lists on the oct00.htm>. [Reprinted June 2000 in The ElkInternet. Scoop, a publication of Iowa Elk Breeders Association.] Vern Anderson at North Dakota’s CarringtonResearch Extension Center (20) has information 7) Personal communication. USDA/FSIS Label-available on all aspects of bison production. ing and Consumer Protection Staff. May 2001.There is a small copying and mailing charge; con- 8) Klein, Carol. 2001. Understanding Bisontact the Center for details. Their website features Behavior and Characteristics for Effectivethe 1997 to 2001 Beef and Bison Production Field Herd Management. Paper presented at theDays, which includes many bison research pa- 2001 Missouri Bison Conference, February 10pers. at Joplin, Missouri. 6 p. The 395–page 1997 International Symposium 9) Texas Bison Company. 2000. Frequentlyon Bison Ecology and Management in North America asked questions: I am interested in raisingProceedings, by L. Irby and J. Knight, contains in- bison. What do I need to know? <http://formation on bison disease, ecology, genetics,>. 9 p. //BISON PRODUCTION PAGE 13
  14. 14. 10) Staff. 1998. Bison Production: Economic and Production Information for Saskatchewan FURTHER RESOURCES Producers. Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food, Regina, Sask., Canada. p. 1, 7. WEBSITES:11) Gompert, Terry, Jan Jorgensen, and Larry The National Bison Association Mason. 1998. A beginner’s primer...Tips on bison marketing and management. The Stockman Grass Farmer. March. p. 7–8. USDA Rural Development/Cooperative gtss_rules.asp Services State Veterinarians’ phone number and state Stop 3250 health requirements in Appendix D. Washington, DC 20250-3250 The Bison Centre of Excellence in Alberta, (202) 720-7558; Fax (202) 720-4641 Canada E-mail: csdir.htm index.html13) Pates, Mikkel. 2001. Bison co-op to launch Features over 500 articles on Bison basics, more aggressive meat marketing campaign. Production information for the established Agweek Magazine. July 23. <http:// producer, Bison research for academic interest,>. 11 p. and Bison marketing and economics, as well as14) Anon. No date. Omega 3 Fatty Acids. the International Bison Conference 2000 < Proceedings. id28_m.htm>. 2 p. Alberta Agriculture, Food, and Rural Develop-15) North American Bison Cooperative ment Ministry RR 1, Box 162B New Rockford, ND 58356 492830_1.html or .pdf (701) 947-2505; Fax (701) 947-2105 Alberta publication Commercial Bison Indus-16) Staff. 1999. Living prairie draws tourists by try. the thousands to small Nebraska ranch. Stockman Grass Farmer. March. p. 1. freedex.html#special17) Klein, Lorne. 2000. Bison are well-adapted for Four Alberta budget publications: winter grazing in cold climates. The Stockman Grass Farmer. July. p. 16. • Bison Profit$ – Alberta 20 Cow Start-up Bison Enterprise18) Baker, Juli. 1996. Bison on grass. Pasture Talk. October. p. 10–11. • Bison Profit$ – Alberta 50 Cow Start-up Bison Enterprise19) National Bison Association • Bison Profits – Profit Planning Tools for a 4701 Marion Street, Suite 100 100 Cow Established Bison Enterprise Denver, Colorado 80216 • Bison Profits – Profit Planning Tools for (303) 292-2833; Fax (303) 292-2564 Assessing the Profitability of Investing in Bison Cows20) Vern Anderson Carrington Research Extension Center Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food Ministry Box 219 Carrington, ND 58421-0219 stock/bison/production_information/ (701) 652-2951; Fax: (701) 652-2055 fmb398.asp Saskatchewan publication Bison Production – Economic and Production Information for Saskatchewan Producers.PAGE 14 //BISON PRODUCTION
  15. 15. stock/bison/production_information/ bison.paper.html fmb398k.asp The article “The Calming of American Bison Saskatchewan publication section on fencing for (Bison bison) During Routine Handling.” bison. Eat Wild Website stock/bison/production_information/ Information on grass-fed meats. fmb398j.asp USDA/FSIS Saskatchewan diagrams of bison handling systems. STATE/stateoff.htm Listing of all States Officials in the Cooperative econ_farm_man/production/specializ/ Meat & Poultry Inspection programs. bisonfeedlot.pdf Saskatchewan publication Bison Feedlot: nacmpi/nov2000/papers/species.htm Economic and Production Information. USDA’s concept paper, “Extending USDA’s Inspection Program to Non-Amenable/Exotic stock/bison/production_information/ Species.” bisonpast.asp Saskatchewan publication Bison Pastures and focusbison.htm Grazing Management. The USDA/Food Safety and Inspection Service publication Focus On Bison. stock/bison/herd_health/bison- USDA Rural Business and Cooperative Service nutrition.asp Development Saskatchewan publication Basic Nutrition of Bison. csdir.htm stock/elk_and_deer/herd_health/ Washington State University paratuberculosis.asp Publication Paratuberculosis/Johne’s Disease. internetmarketing.htm Publication and website providing informationNorth Dakota State University Bison Research on the pros and cons of Internet marketing, tipsProgram for success, links to other farmers’ websites, edu/ resource lists for more information, and a carringt/bison_research_program.htm glossary of Internet terms. 1997 to 2001 Bison Research and Production Field Day Reports. University of Minnesota Grandin’s Website Access Minnesota Main Street website provides information on: electronic commerce basics; bison.calves.html finding business information and services Publication Training American Bison (Bison online; exploring E-commerce websites; creating bison) Calves. your website; promoting your website; Minne- sota case studies; developing your Internet buffalo.html business plan, and much more. Specifics on designing a reduced-stress han- Bones and Raw Food Website dling facility. Information on BARF. //BISON PRODUCTION PAGE 15
  16. 16. Yahoo! Groups List MAGAZINES: For lists of groups of pet owners in your area North American Bison Journal who feed their pets BARF, enter BARF into the Tri-State Livestock News search field. (800) 253-3656 or (605) 347-2585; Fax: (605) 347-2525Western College of Veterinary Medicine at the http://bisonjournal.comUniversity of Saskatchewan Subscription rate is $21 per year (12 issues) or $21.84 for South Dakota subscribers ($31 in specialstock/ Canada). They have two years of archived Excellent publication called A Literature issues on their website. Review of Disease in Bison, plus good informa- tion on Malignant Catarrhal Fever (MDF). The Stockman Grass Farmer P.O. Box 2300University of Wisconsin Ridgeland, MS 39158-2300 (800) 748-9808; FAX (601) 853-8087 Site on Johne’s Disease with specific bison E-mail: information. http://www.stockmangrassfarmer.comVIDEO: Subscription rate is $28 per year (12 issues). The TrackerHandling Bison Safely and Effectively (492-VT) Box 1094 Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Devel- Regina, Saskatchewan S4P 3B2 opment (306) 337-1540; FAX (306) 337-1531 Publications Office E-mail: 7000 - 113 Street Subscription rate is $25 (U.S.) per year (11 Edmonton, Alberta T6H 5T6 issues). (780) 427–0391 Canadian toll-free (800) 292–5697 High Plains Journal Cost $25.00 plus $2.00 handling and $3.00 for High Plains Publishers, Inc. U.S. orders. P.O. Box 760 1500 Wyatt Earp Blvd.BOOKS: Dodge City, KS 67801–0760Bison Breeder’s Handbook and The Buffalo Producer’s (620) 227–7171; Fax (620) 227-7173Guide to Marketing and Management E-mail: National Bison Association 4701 Marion Street, Suite 100 Subscription rate is $56 per year (52 issues). Denver, Colorado 80216 (303) 292-2833; FAX (303) 292-2564 By Lance E. Gegner NCAT Agriculture SpecialistThe Rancher’s Guide to Elk and Bison Handling Fa- Edited by Richard Earlescilities. Formatted by Gail M. Hardy Prairie Agricultural Machinery Institute (PAMI) December 2001 Box 1150, Highway 5 West Humboldt, Saskatchewan, CANADA S0A IP151 2A0 The electronic version of Bison Production is (800) 567–7264 located at: HTML PDF 16 //BISON PRODUCTION
  17. 17. American Bison Foundation APPENDIX Dr. Ken Throlson, President 4701 Marion St.BISON ASSOCIATIONS Denver, CO 80216Source: The Tracker, October 2001, p. 10–11. Phone: 303-292-2833 Fax: 303-292-2564Alberta Bison AssociationSusanne Pohl, Office Manager Eastern Bison Association4301-50th Street, Leduc, AB T9E 7H3 Deborah Tanner, SecPhone: 780-980-4835 Box 708Fax: 780-980-7597 Brooklyn, CT 06234email: Phone: 877-461-7555website: email: ebabison@hotmail website: http://www.ebabison.orgAssociation Quebecoise Du BisonBruno Roy Great Plains Buffalo Association1608, du Bosquet T. R. Hughes, Pres.Ancienne-Lorette, PQ G2E 3LI P.O. Box 243Phone: 418-877-8868 Seward, NE 68434Fax: 418-877-7179 Phone: 402-643-2574 Fax: 303-665-1535BC Interior Bison Association email: info@gpbuffalo.orgDel Myers, Sec. website: http://www.gpbuffalo.org21845 Hwy 97 SPrince George, B.C. V2N 6A3 Intertribal Bison CooperativePhone: 250-330-4465 Tim Wapato, Exec. Dir.Fax: 250-330-4449 1560 Concourse Drivewebsite: Rapid City, SD 57703 Phone: 605-394-7742Canadian Bison Association email: itbc@cnetis.netGavin Conacher, Executive Director website:, 1600 Pasqua Street, Box 3116Regina, SK S4P 3G7 Iowa Bison AssociationPhone: 306-522-4766 Tom Cink, Pres.Fax: 306-522-4768 2103 - 210th Wesley, IA 50483 Phone: 515-679-4501Colorado Bison Association Fax: 515-679-4283John Painter, Sec/Treas email: tricbisn@rconnect.com303 S. Broadway Suite B522 website: http://www.iowabison.orgDenver, CO 80209Phone: 505-770-7751 Jamestown Area Buffalo AssociationFax: 505-768-5561 Oren Krapp, Pres. P.O. Box 112Dakota Territory Buffalo Association Pingree, ND 58476Jud Seaman Phone: 701-252-6853P.O. Box 4104 email: bison@daktel.comRapid City, SD 57709 website: http://www.buffaloblast.comPhone: 605-923-6383email: info@dakotabuffalo.comwebsite: //BISON PRODUCTION PAGE 17
  18. 18. Kansas Buffalo Association Montana Bison AssociationCharlies Smies, Sec./Treas. Wayne Arnold, Sec./Treas.P.O. Box 12110 HC 75, Box 467Wichita, KS 67277-2110 Brady, MT 59416Phone: 316-721-0970 Phone: 406-627-2417Phone: 888-282-4766 Fax: 406-627-2417Fax: 316-773-4720 National Bison AssociationManitoba 1st Nation Elk/Bison Association 4701 Marion St. Ste 100Harvey Payne Denver, CO 802163411 Grant Avenue Phone: 303-292-2833(BUFF)Winnipeg, MB R3R 0K8 Fax: 303-292-2564Phone: 204-832-9497 email: website: http://www.nbabison.orgManitoba Bison AssociationDave Giesbrecht, Pres. National Buffalo FoundationBox 959 Edwin Tuccio, Pres.Teulon, MB R0C 3B0 547 East Main St.Phone: 204-886-2221 Riverhead, NY 11901Fax: 204-886-3336 Phone: 516-727-6644Ray Salmon, Sec. Fax: 516-369-2727Phone: 204-945-2223 email: info@bisoncentral.comFax: 204-945-4327 website: http://www.bisoncentral.comMichigan Bison Association Nebraska State Buffalo AssociationBeth O’Rourke Sheila Peterson, Office Mgr.8450 O’Rourke Rd. P.O. Box 1137Vanderbilt, Ml 49795-9703 Grand Island, NE 68802Phone: 517-983-4149 Phone: 402-865-4235Fax: 517-983-2077 website: http://www.nebraskastatebuffalo.orgemail: double_c@voyager.netwebsite: Northwest Bison Association Maureen Durheim, Sec.Minnesota Buffalo Association 6510 North Division St. #280Dennis Tuel, Sr., Pres. Spokane, WA 99208-3993Gail Griffin, Exec. Dir. Phone: 1-888-314-3788 (US)Route 5 Box 2 Phone: 1-888-314-6922 (Canada)Winona, MN 55987 Fax: 503-357-1352Phone: 507-454-2828 email: nwba@nwbison.orgemail: website: http://www.nwbison.orgMissouri Bison Association North American Bison SocietyDeWayne Frobenius, Sec. Boots DelanoBox 472 4570 N. Oraibi Pl.Kimberline City, MO 65686 Tucson, AZ 85749-9386Phone: 417-739-2281 Phone: 520-749+-5654Phone: 800-365-2115 email: bison@mciworld.comFax: 417-739-2281email: information@mobisonassoc.orgwebsite: http://www.mobisonassoc.orgPAGE 18 //BISON PRODUCTION
  19. 19. North Dakota Buffalo Association Saskatchewan Bison AssociationPaul Thomas, Exec. Dir. Leon Brin, Exec. Dir.4007 State St. Box 36011Bismark, ND 58503 Regina, SK S4S 7H6Phone: 701-223-4130 Phone: 306-585-6304email: Fax: 306-585-6285website: email: website: http://www.saskbison.comNorth Dakota Buffalo Foundation, Inc.National Buffalo Museum South East Bison AssociationP.O. Box 1712 Steve WilsonJamestown, ND 58402-1712 4801 Greenhaven LanePhone: 701-252-8648 Goshen, KY 40026Phone: 800-222-4766 Phone: 502-222-4451website: Fax: 502-222-4452promotiontourism.buffalomuseum.htm Texas Bison AssociationOklahoma Bison Association 801 Wallis Ave., P.O. Box 579Nick Anderson, Osaj Bison Santa Anna, TX 76878P.O. Box 1347Cushing, OK 74023-1347 Western Bison AssociationPhone: 918-225-2260 P.O. Box 60126Fax: 918-225-6592 Reno, NV 85906-0126 Phone: 775-969-3497Ontario Bison AssociationChristina Pyke, Sec. Wisconsin Bison AssociationRR4 Rebecca Ries, Sec./Treas.Wolf Island, ON K0H 2Y0 W2749 Gold Course RoadPhone: 613-385-1925 Mount Calvary, WI 53057Fax: 613-385-1926 Phone: 920-921-8889 Fax: 920-921-0306Peace Country Bison Association email: rr1047@thesurf.comStacey Basnett, Sec. website: http://www.wibison.comBox 159Fairview, AB T0H 1L0Phone: 780-494-2407Fax: 780-494-2869email: snazarko@telusplanet.netPennsylvania Bison AssociationAnn Darrow, Sec.2708 Lincoln HighwaySchellsburg, PA 15559Phone: 814-733-4908Fax: 814-733-2323email: bisonbor@nb.netwebsite: //BISON PRODUCTION PAGE 19