Day 7 total physical response


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Total Physical Response

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Day 7 total physical response

  2. 2. A dog is practicing Total Physical Response
  3. 3. Background Total Physical Response is a method developed by James J.Ashers, a professor of psychology at San Jose State University, California. Dr. Ashers began experimenting with TPR in the 1960s. The method has been developed from developmental psychology, learning theory and language learning procedures.
  4. 4. Background According to Asher, TPR is based on the premise that the human brain has a biological program for acquiring any natural language on earth - including the sign language of the deaf. The process is visible when we observe how infants internalize their first language.
  5. 5. Background Based on the developmental psychology, the proponents of TPR claim that memory is increased if it is stimulated through association with motor activity and the process of learning a foreign language is a parallel process to learning the first language (Brown, 1987:163)
  6. 6. Background  Children do a lot of listening before they learn to speak and they do a lot of physical activities in learning their first language, such as reaching, moving and grabbing.  In having children learn the first language commands from the adult dominate the communication and children respond physically before they begin to produce verbal responses (Richards and Rodgers, 1986:87)
  7. 7. Background  Asher sees successful adult second language learning as a parallel process to child first language acquisition.  Asher feels that adults should recapitulate the processes by which children acquire their native language.  He shares with the school of humanistic psychology a concern for the role of affective (emotional) factors in language learning.
  8. 8. Background  A method that is undemanding in terms of linguistic production and that involves gamelike movement reduces learner stress, he believes, and create a positive mood in the learner, which facilitate learning.  TPR emphasizes on comprehension and delays the production of language. This process the one by which children acquire their L1.
  9. 9. A Research of TPR  Many people believe that TPR is only appropriate for children since the method relies on imperatives.  However, Ashers (1988:31) believes that the method can be used to teach any foreign language not only to children but also adults.
  10. 10. A Research of TPR  A research on language teaching through TPR conducted by Ashers and Brice (1982) provided data that when adults learn a second language under the same conditions as children, adults outperform children.  The only advantage children have is acquiring a near-native pronunciation.
  11. 11. A Research of TPR  Ashers suggests that the time per session should vary depending on the age of the learners.  The older the learners are, the longer the time they can learn effectively.  Thirty minutes of training one time will be effective for children. Junior and senior high school students respond well to 50- minute sessions while university students can handle up to 3-hour sessions.
  12. 12. Approach: Theory of language and learning  TPR reflects a grammar-based view of language.  Asher states that “most of the grammatical structure of the target language and hundreds of vocabulary items can be learned from the skillful use of the imperative by the instructor” (1977:4)  He views the verb, and particularly the verb in the imperative, as the central linguistic motif around which language use and learning are organized.
  13. 13. Approach: Theory of language and learning  Asher sees a stimulus-response view as providing the learning theory underlying language teaching pedagogy.  TPR can also be linked to the “trace theory” of memory in psychology (e.g., Katona 1940), which holds that the more often or the more intensively a memory connection is traced, the stronger the memory association will be and the more likely it will be recalled.  Retracing can be done verbally (e.g., by rote repetition) and/or in association with motor activity.
  14. 14. Approach: Theory of language and learning Combined tracing activities, such as verbal rehearsal accompanied by motor activity, hence increase the possibility of successful recall.
  15. 15. Approach: Theory of language and learning In addition, Asher has elaborated an account of what he feels facilitates or inhibits foreign language learning. He draws on three rather influential learning hypotheses: 1. There is exists a specific innate bio-program for language learning, which defines an optimal path for first and second language development. 2. Brain lateralization defines different learning functions in the left-and right-brain hemispheres. 3. Stress (an affective filter) intervenes between the act of learning and what is to be learned; the lower the stress, the greater the learning.
  16. 16. Asher sees TPR as directed to -> Right Brain Learning The child language learner acquires language through motor movement- a right-hemisphere activity Brain Lateralization Most second language teaching methods are directed to left brain learning Right-hemisphere activities must occur before the left hemisphere can process language for production
  17. 17. Brain Lateralization Similarly, the adult should proceed to language mastery through right-hemisphere motor activities, while the left hemisphere watches and learns. When a sufficient amount of right-hemisphere learning has taken place, the left hemisphere will be triggered to produce language and to initiate other, more abstract language processes.
  18. 18. Sufficient amount of right hemisphere learning Language production & other abstract language processes
  19. 19. Reduction of Stress
  20. 20. Stress-free environment Relaxed and pleasurable experiences Focusing on the meaning interpreted by movement In order to reduce stress;
  21. 21. Reduction of Stress An important condition for successful language learning is the absence of stress. First language acquisition takes place in a stress-free environment  The adult language learning environment often causes considerable stress and anxiety.  The key to stress-free learning is to tap into the natural bio-program for language development and thus to recapture the relaxed and pleasurable experiences that accompany first language learning.  By focusing on meaning interpreted through movement, rather than on language forms studied in the abstract, the learner is said to be liberated from self-conscious and stressful situations and is able to devote full energy to learning.
  22. 22. Approach: Theory of language and learning Asher sees first language and second language learning as parallel process. He sees three processes as central 1. Children develop listening competence before they develop the ability to speak. At the early stages of first language acquisition, they can understand complex utterances that they cannot spontaneously produce or imitate. 2. Children’s ability in listening comprehension is acquired because children are required to respond physically to spoken language in the form of parental commands. 3. Once a foundation in listening comprehension has been established, speech evolves naturally and effortlessly out of it.
  23. 23. Design
  24. 24. Ultimate Aim: To teach basic speaking skills Major Classroom Activity: Imperative Drills Syllabus: Sentence-based Primary Roles: Listener – Performer Feedback: Parent – Children example Plan: No basic text. Concrete materials and realia is used instead.
  25. 25. Objectives To teach oral proficiency at a beginning level and the ultimate aim is to teach basic speaking skills. To produce learners who are capable of free communication, which is understandable to a native speaker.
  26. 26. Syllabus The syllabus is predictable from the exercises used in the class: A sentence-based syllabus with grammatical & lexical criteria being primary in selecting teaching items. TPR requires initial attention to meaning rather than to the form of items. Grammar is thus taught inductively.
  27. 27. Learning Activities Imperative drills are the major classroom activity in TPR. Other class activities include role plays and slide presentations. Conversational dialogues are delayed until after almost 120 hours of instruction.
  28. 28. Roles of Learners & Teacher Learners have the primary roles of listener & performer. They listen attentively and respond physically to the commands given. The teacher who has a direct and active role has the responsibility of providing the best kind of exposure to language.
  29. 29. “It is wise to write out the exact utterances you will be using and especially the novel commands because the action is so fast moving, there is usually not time for create spontenaously.” -Asher (1977:42)
  30. 30. Materials For absolute beginners lessons may not require the use of materials since the teacher’s voice, actions and gestures may be sufficient. The teacher can use basic classroom objects such as books, pens etc. As the course develops, the teacher will need to collect new materials. These may include pictures, realia, slides, word charts.
  31. 31. TPR Student Kit - Supermarket
  32. 32. Procedure
  33. 33. •Review •New Commands •Role Reversal •Reading and Writing
  34. 34. Review • Teacher gives a summary of the last lesson. • Teacher repeats the verbs/items etc. that were learned in the previous lesson.
  35. 35. New commands • Giving the commands. • Three commands at a time. • Varying the sequence of commands.
  36. 36. How much of a language can be taught through the use of imperatives
  37. 37. An Advanced Lesson of TPR Teacher: Rachel, walk to the whiteboard. (Rachel gets up and walks to the whiteboard.) Teacher: Class, if Rachel walked to the whiteboard, stand up. (The class stands up.) Teacher: Rachel, write your name on the whiteboard. (Rachel writes her name on the whiteboard.) Teacher: Class, if Rachel wrote her name on the whiteboard, sit down. (The class sits down.)
  38. 38. Role Reversal • Students commanding their teacher and classmates. Reading and Writing • Writing the new items on the board.
  39. 39. Some Characteristics of TPR • Focusing on meaning and comprehension. • Seated in a semi-circle. • Great deal of listening and acting. • Directing a performance in which the students are actors. • Verbal response is not necessary. • Humor is easy to introduce. • Teacher always uses the target language. • Overcoming the fear of speaking
  40. 40. Advantages of TPR • Students enjoying moving around the classroom. • It is very memorable • Not preparing long hours • It is good for kinesthetic leaners. • Effective for both adult and young learners. • It involves both left and right-brained learning.
  41. 41. Disadvantages of TPR • Best suitable for beginners. • Challenging for shy students. • It is not flexibly used to teach everything • It tends to neglect narrative, descriptions, and conversation forms of language
  42. 42. Conclusion  Total Physical Response means that second language learning should be based on the model of first language learning. It has three vital aspects: a). understanding the spoken language must come before speaking, b). understanding is developed through body movements , and c). the listening period creates a readiness to speak  TPR was very popular because of its support by those who emphasize the role of comprehension in second language acquisition.  Total Physical Response should be used in association with other methods and technique.
  43. 43. PROCEDURE OF PRESENTING THE MATERIALS BY USING TPR Using hand signals, motion four students to come up to the front of the classroom. Then gesture for two students to sit on either side of you facing the class. Other students in the class are often seated in a semi-circle so that there is a rather large space for the action. Then say “stand up!” and immediately stand up as you motion the students seated on either side of you to stand up. Next say, “Sit down!” and immediately sit down along with the four students. If any student tries to repeat what you have said, signal silence by touching your lips with your index finger. Then say “Stand up!” , and the group, including the instructor, should stand up; and then “Sit down!” each followed by the appropriate action until all respond confidently without hesitation (Ashers, 1988:2-4) The beginning above is the beginning activities in teaching English. The teacher introduced two verbs of commands “stand up” and “Sit down”. These two verbs are easy to be presented. As mentioned earlier that TPR follows the language sequence of how an infant learns his/her mother tongue. After the learners can respond the command confidently, the learners may practice giving the commands among them. The procedure above can continue by introducing the verbs “walk, stop, turn around, jump”. If the teacher observes the hesitation of the students in responding, the teacher should model the actions and commands with the students until the students can individually respond quickly and accurately. When the learners are ready for an expansion of utterance, the activities below can follow.
  44. 44. PROCEDURE OF PRESENTING THE MATERIALS BY USING TPR Point to the door. (The teacher and the students point to the door.) Point to the chairs. (The teacher and the students point to the chairs.) Point to the table. (The teacher and the students point to the table.) (Ashers, 1988:3-4) Through the activities above the class is not only introduced the verb”point to” but also the nouns “door, chairs, and table”. After the students have enough understanding of the words, the language to teach can be expanded and the commands may consist of longer utterances. The teacher should always consider the language the students have mastered. The commands may consist of two or three actions but most (or all) of the words used in the commands must be familiar. Point to the door. Walk to the door. (The teacher and the students point to the door and walk to the door.) Touch the door. (The teacher and the students touch the door.) (Ashers, 1988:3-4)
  45. 45. PROCEDURE OF PRESENTING THE MATERIALS BY USING TPR Listening and comprehension can also be practiced by giving scenarios to the students. The scenarios below are taken from Garcia (1996:V-3) Go to the table. Touch the table. Sit on the table. Point to the table with your hands. Squat in front of the table. Turn around. Get up. Return to your seat. Go to the table. Pick up the green book. Read the book. Scratch your stomach with the green book. Put the book in the box of fruit. Put your head in the box of fruit. Pick up the box of fruit. Put your head in the box of fruit. Take your head out of the box of fruit. Go to the chalkboard. Salute the flag. Jump twice. Touch the chalkboard with your nose. Scratch your right foot. Go to the chalkboard. Draw a school. Erase the roof of the school. Write the name of the teacher of English.
  46. 46. PROCEDURE OF PRESENTING THE MATERIALS BY USING TPR When the students reach a certain level of understanding of the target language through body movement, the students are ready for role reversal: they play the teacher’s role and utter directions in the target language to cause action from other students or the teacher. The role reversal should be done gradually since the very essence of TPR is listening and comprehension before production. The teacher does not hurry the students into speaking. More advanced students can be encouraged to speak in the target language by providing scenarios.
  47. 47. PROCEDURE OF PRESENTING THE MATERIALS BY USING TPR The following are examples of learning scenarios for advances students (Garcia,1996:V-27) You arrive at your home. The neighbor’s kids are playing in your front yard. They are pulling flowers, playing with the water hose, etc. Give some commands suitable for the occasion. You need some groceries from the store, You ask your friend to do it for you because you are very busy. Ask your friend to bring you a few things (vegetables and foodstuff). You are in the wilderness. You come upon a place with tall grass and thick shrubs. Suddenly you see a snake. You have three friends with you. React to the situation with some commands. You find a four-year-old girl in the middle of the street. She is crying and frightened. Try to communicate with her with several command.
  48. 48. PROCEDURE OF PRESENTING THE MATERIALS BY USING TPR Writing and reading So far the class deals with understanding and listening (to some extent speaking as well). Writing may be introduced in the first days if needed. TPR flows from comprehension to speaking; from comprehension into reading and writing. Reading and writing in TPR may flow after the students are able to comprehend the commands. It is assumed in the following activities that the students have learned the words “run, go, board, chalkboard”. The main material to teach is “name”. The word “write” may or may not have been introduced. The main consideration in giving commands is that there is no more than one new word. If there more than one new word. If there are more than one new word, the understanding of the commands is relatively difficult.
  49. 49. PROCEDURE OF PRESENTING THE MATERIALS BY USING TPR The following activities are meant to teach writing. This is the beginning of writing class and the commands are simple. I will write my name on the board. Juan, run to the chalkboard and write your name. Jaime, go to the chalkboard and write your name. Everyone, write your name on your paper. (Asher, 1988:4-8)
  50. 50. PROCEDURE OF PRESENTING THE MATERIALS BY USING TPR For more advanced students, students’ names can be replaced with other concrete nouns , as follow: Juan, go to the chalkboard and write what you see. Jaime, walk to the chalkboard and write what you touch. The commands are not only used to teach verbs of imperatives but they can be used to teach tenses. The following examples are the activities used to teach present continuous tense.
  51. 51. PROCEDURE OF PRESENTING THE MATERIALS BY USING TPR Rita, touch the table. (Pause) Shirou, touch the table that Rita is touching. Juan, touch the chalkboard. (Pause) Maria, touch the chalkboard that Juan is touching. Miguel, draw a square on the chalkboard. (Pause) draw a circle around the square that Miguel is drawing. Maria, write your name on the chalkboard. (Pause) Juan, erase the name that Maria is writing. (Ashers, 1988:4-24 – 4-25) It is assumed that in the above activities, the students have learned the verbs touch, draw, erase, write, and the nouns square, circle, table, chalkboard.
  52. 52. PROCEDURE OF PRESENTING THE MATERIALS BY USING TPR The following is another procedure suggested by Ashers (cited in Richards and Rodgers, 1986:97). The instructor wrote on the chalkboard each new vocabulary item and a sentence to illustrate the item. Then she spoke each item and acted out the sentence. The students listened as she read the material. Some copied the information in their notebooks.
  53. 53. PROCEDURE OF PRESENTING THE MATERIALS BY USING TPR The TPR allows language learners to learn the target language in a manner similar to a child learns his/her mother tongue. In a class that is taught through the TPR, a language teacher begins the class by modeling actions and students observe and act the same actions. The students guess meanings by observing and acting the commands from the teacher. The students fellow classmates. Gradually, the students themselves will direct the class and decide who has to give commands.
  54. 54. PROCEDURE OF PRESENTING THE MATERIALS BY USING TPR Language teachers or prospective language teachers have to ask themselves which principles can be implemented in English teaching in their condition and situation. As suggested by Asher, the TPR should be used in association with other methods and techniques. Language teachers may develop some techniques deriving from the principles of the TPR and try out the techniques in teaching English in Indonesia. They do not necessarily take the whole procedure of the TPR. They may consider some of the underlying principles and the techniques which can be implemented in their language classes.
  55. 55. PROCEDURE OF PRESENTING THE MATERIALS BY USING TPR Example of TPR Listen and Look Stand …walk to the door… Stop… Back to your chair…. Stand…walk to the window…Stop…Back to your chair… Stand…walk to the whiteboard…Stop… Back to your chair… Stand…walk to the door…Stop… Back to your chair… Listen and Repeat T: door S: door T:whiteboard S:Whiteboard T:chair S: chair T: Window S: window (Classically, group or individually)
  56. 56. PROCEDURE OF PRESENTING THE MATERIALS BY USING TPR Listen and Do Stand …walk to the door… Stop… Back to your chair…. Stand…walk to the window…Stop…Back to your chair… Stand…walk to the whiteboard…Stop… Back to your chair… Stand…walk to the door…Stop… Back to your chair…
  57. 57. ReferencesBooks Ashers, 1977.Learning Another Language Through Actions: The Complete Teacher’s Guidebook.. Los Gatos, CA: Sky Oaks Production, Inc. ___________.1988.Learning Another Language Through Actions: The Complete Teacher’s Guidebook.2nd eds. Los Gatos, CA: Sky Oaks Production, Inc. Brown, H.D.1987. Principle of Language Learning and Teaching . New Jersey: Prentice- Hall, Inc. C.Richards, J., & S.Rodgers, T. 1986. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge University Press. C.Richards, J., & S.Rodgers, T. 2001. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge University Press. D.Moore, K. 2005. Effective Instructional Strategies. Sage Publications, Inc. Herrell, A., & Jordan, M. 2004 Fifty Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners. Pearson Education, Inc. Larsen-Freeman, D. 2000. Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. Oxford University Press. Web Sites • • • Articles • The Learning Strategy of the Total Physical Response: A Review James J. Asher
  58. 58. Thank You For Listening