Chris Dede

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Chris Dede

  1. 1. Emerging Interactive Media:Implications for Teaching and Research Chris Dede Harvard Graduate School of Education Chris_Dede@harvard.edu www.gse.harvard.edu/~dedech
  2. 2. “Digital Life” Outside of Class All information is instantly available Distance and time do not matter Multi-tasking is how people work Machines have “intelligence” Powerful tools for creative work are taken for granted Options are abundant Multimedia interactive entertainment is omnipresent Change is constant and rapidA Big Challenge to Meet in the Limits of the Classroom
  3. 3. What is “Web 2.0”? Web 2.0 is a perceived second generation of web-based communities and hosted services— such as social-networking sites, wikis, and folksonomies — which aim to facilitate creativity, collaboration, and sharing between users --Wikipedia [stresses the intellectual] [Web 2.0 technologies include] weblogs (blogs), social bookmarking, wikis, podcasts, RSS feeds (and other forms of many-to-many publishing), social software, and web application programming interfaces (APIs)
  4. 4. The Spectrum of Interactive Media Sharing  Social Bookmarking  Photo/Video Sharing  Social Networking  Writers’ Workshops and Fanfiction Thinking  Blogs  Podcasts  Online Discussion Forums Co-Creating  Wikis/Collaborative File Creation  Mashups/Collective Media Creation  Collaborative Social Change Communities
  5. 5. Social Bookmarking Social bookmarking sites allow users to sort and organize bookmarks using keywords (tags) and store them in an online account. These bookmarks are publicly or privately shared in the online community of subscribers within the site. Advanced features include the ability to highlight sections and add sticky notes, powerful browser toolbars and slideshow displays. Social bookmarking sites can have all the features and tools of a social-networking sites such as friends and groups and recommendation services that use your existing bookmarks to suggest new sites and groups. Social Bookmarking, especially with advanced features such as highlighting and notes, may add transparency to the process by which students are gathering and integrating information, thus allowing teachers to guide students in evaluating information sources.  Edtags www.edtags.org  Diigo www.diigo.com/ www.diigo.com/  EduHound www.eduhound.com/hotlist/ www.eduhound.com/hotlist/  Del.icio.us delicious.com Potential Issues  Privacy  Information Overload
  6. 6. http://www.edtags.org
  7. 7. Edtags Conceptual Frameworks
  8. 8. Edtags User Profiles
  9. 9. Photo/Video Sharing Many photo/ video sharing sites allow students and teachers in different parts of the world to interact with one another in a variety of ways, either by sharing their own works, by creating new mashups based on work uploaded by others, by discussing a shared work, or by sharing lesson plans/ideas for how to teach. Creating and sharing engages the learner in a way that passive receipt of information does not. This is particularly the case with inquiry-based learning, where students and teachers would have ready-made repositories to house and share media that would help guide the inquiry process. Since this is a visual medium, it could eliminate language barriers that might otherwise exist for students trying to communicate globally.  VoiceThread voicethread.com/  TeacherTube www.teachertube.com  Jumpcut www.jumpcut.com/ Potential Issues  Intellectual Property  Internet Safety  Differential Access
  10. 10. Social Networking Social networking sites, because of their unique ability to bring together like-minded people from physically distant locations, are uniquely positioned to foster learning communities around certain topics or even (as in location-based networks) around certain locations. These communities can harness the knowledge, intellect, and enthusiasm of people spread around the globe to educate, train, and motivate learners. Classrooms could use social networks to allow students to connect to and interact with (synchronously and asynchronously) their classmates as well as other students studying similar topics across the globe—allowing for both broader and deeper discussion. The sense of social connection, particularly with a “larger” group, and the more visual platform (as opposed to lecture), might also appeal to students that might not otherwise participate in class.  Classroom 2.0 www.classroom20.com  Ning www.ning.com  Linked In www.linkedin.com/  FaceBook www.facebook.com/ Potential Issues  Social Aspects Can Overwhelm Learning  Scale of Community Can be Daunting  Internet Safety
  11. 11. Writers’ Workshops and Fanfiction In the world of artists, workshops are designed to expose participants to each others works by creating a platform for constructive criticism and feedback. Often led by a master or a facilitator with expertise on the subject art, workshops allow small groups of like-minded individuals to collaborate. Currently, online workshops are primarily used by teenagers and professionals as they require a complex understanding of the functionalities of the web; however, these frameworks could adapt to create special sites for younger children or seniors.  National Novel Writing Month ywp.nanowrimo.org/  Red Bubble www.redbubble.com  Harry Potter Fanfiction www.harrypotterfanfiction.com Potential Issues  Online Safety  Intellectual Property
  12. 12. Blogs A forum for students and teachers to share information, knowledge, and resources; a space for educators to share articles, insightful anecdotes, online resources, research findings, lesson plans, or concrete instructional materials. Teachers can easily set up a free, private blog for the class to publish responses to class assignments, conduct peer review, collaborate on group projects, and share links of interest to the community. Possibly the biggest advantage is providing students with the opportunity and challenge of seeing their work instantly made public with prompt feedback; the instant and collaborative nature of blogging can serve as motivation.  Literacy is Priceless literacyispriceless.wordpress.com/  Infinite Thinking www.infinitethinking.org/  Clive Shepard clive-shepherd.blogspot.com/  Xplanazine www.xplanazine.com/  Bionic Teaching bionicteaching.com/ Potential Issues  High Level of Maintenance  Challenges of Quality
  13. 13. Podcasts Podcasts deliver information where and when users want it, largely free of charge. “Where and when” also means information can be matched to specific locations and events, creating an experience similar to augmented reality or ubiquitous computing. By using podcasts to overlay information on a site or experience, different content can provide interpretation for learners of different ages, abilities, and interests without making physical changes to the environment. With the creation of vodcasts —podcasts with video—the medium has increased its potential for addressing different learning styles. User-friendly podcasting tools provide teachers, students, and experts alike the opportunity to create educational content, enriching the learning and teaching experience through collaboration. Teachers can use podcasts for professional development or for enhancing teaching.  KidCast www.intelligenic.com/blog/  Learning Disabilities Podcast www.ldpodcast.com/  Stanford on iTunes U itunes.stanford.edu/  Sesame Street www.sesamestreet.org/podcasts/  Grammar Girl grammar.quickanddirtytips.com/ Potential Issues  Access  Hard to Find  Video More Limited in Distribution
  14. 14. Online Discussion Forums Discussion forums allow remote, asynchronous, two-way communication and collaboration among teachers and students. Participants can be located at different geographical locations and contribute at a time convenient to them. Discussions can go beyond the curriculum, allowing richer content and development of higher-order thinking skills, because discussion forums give students time to search for more information (online or in textbooks) to support their opinion, think through their arguments, and craft their responses thoughtfully. Discussion forums might be especially suited for shy, introvert students who fear speaking in classes.  The Learning Circuits Blog learningcircuits.blogspot.com/  Education World Forum forums.educationworld.com  Chronicle Forum chronicle.com/forums/ Potential Issues  Teacher Facilitation and Integration  Student Rhetoric and Netiquette
  15. 15. Wikis/Collaborative File Creation Wikis offer the ability to asynchronously collaborate on a document without having to worry about time or geographic constraints. Individual contributions can be tracked by moderators, or by the participants themselves, depending on how the wiki is built. In terms of skills, wikis provide opportunities for students to interact and learn as a group. This can help them learn how to peer edit and to give and receive constructive criticism on their creative work, all at their own pace. Teachers can use wikis to amass knowledge and lessons on topics that pertain to the curriculum. Wikis have the power to grant students ownership of the classroom, empowering them to build knowledge of content collectively.  Zoho Writer writer.zoho.com  Socialtext 3.0 www.socialtext.com/  Etherpad etherpad.com Potential Issues  “Not Exactly” Synchronous  Regression to the Mean  Manipulation of Content
  16. 16. Mashups/Collective Media Creation In one sense, a mashup is a new web application made from the combination of two or more specific web functionalities, which is then used to create novel representations of data and media. In another sense, a mashup is the editing together of various media pieces to create a new work. Existing mashups provide students access to an abundance of knowledge and data, to an inside view of other cultures, and to current local and global movements. These mashups can be used in informal or formal education settings for gathering information, performing research, analyzing data, thinking critically, problem solving, and simply enriching course materials and subjects for better learning. By creating and sharing their own mashups, students can design tools that will meet their individual needs while building and sharing living knowledge repositories that are flexible to change.  We Feel Fine www.wefeelfine.org/  HealthMap healthmap.org/en  Scratch scratch.mit.edu/galleries/browse/newest Potential Issues  Intellectual Property  Technical Barriers  Offensive Content
  17. 17. Collaborative Social Change Collaborative Social Change sites empower people to collaborate in pursuit of social justice. These sites create global networks and members benefit from one anothers expertise, philanthropy and enthusiasm. School subjects as diverse as Ethics, Current Events, Science, Creative Writing and Global Politics would benefit from using these websites, particularly in helping students understand international cultures, a key component of global citizenship. The two words which epitomize the ethos of Collaborate Social Change networks are inclusion and empowerment. Students take part in collaborative learning, where they work towards a common purpose gaining knowledge about a specific problem. Students become change makers in their very schools, questioning how schools operate and the role of technology in empowerment.  Care2 www.care2.com  Kiva www.kiva.com  Idealist www.idealist.org  Digital Divide Network www.digitaldivide.net  Change.org www.change.org  Do Something www.dosomething.org  Open net Initiative opennet.net  Volans www.volans.com  Fahamu www.fahamu.org Potential Issues  Internet Safety  Acting Outside the Local Culture (for better or for worse)
  18. 18. “Web 2.0” Redefines What, How and With Whom We Learn Effective use of Web 2.0 media requires fluency in their rhetoric Almost any piece of information can now be found online in less than a minute – perhaps intermingled with inaccurate and biased data – so what core knowledge should every student learn to prepare for 21st century work and citizenship? Web 2.0 “knowledge” is constructed by negotiating a consensus articulation across various points of view, so how do we help students understand the differences between facts, opinions, and values – and appreciate the interrelationships among them that go beyond accuracy to create “meaning?”
  19. 19. Jenkin’s Framework for New Literacies Play — experimenting with one’s surroundings in problem-solving Performance — adopting alternative identities for improvisation and discovery Simulation —interpreting and constructing dynamic models of real-world processes Appropriation — the ability to meaningfully sample and remix media content Multitasking —scanning one’s environment and shifting focus to salient details Distributed Cognition — fluently using tools that expand mental capacities Collective Intelligence —pooling knowledge with others toward a common goal Judgment —evaluating the reliability and credibility of different information sources Transmedia Navigation — the ability to follow the flow of stories and information across multiple modalities Networking — the ability to search for, synthesize, and disseminate information Negotiation — the ability to travel across diverse communities, discerning and respecting multiple perspectives, and grasping and following alternative norms
  20. 20. Leu’s Characteristics of New Literacies1. Emerging ICT tools, applications, media, and environments require novel skills, strategies, and dispositions for their effective use.2. New literacies are central to full economic, civic, and personal participation in a globalized society.3. New literacies constantly evolve as their defining ICT continuously are renewed through innovation.4. New literacies are multiple, multimodel, and multifaceted.
  21. 21. Implications for Research Through communal bookmarking , geographically distributed research group could continuously scan for resources of interest, including non-archival material such as unpublished papers and YouTube videos. Photo/video-sharing tools could enable sharing and annotating research data as multimedia artifacts. A ning could provide background information to foster informal professional exchanges among members of this community A wiki could serve as the basis for a negotiated exposition of theoretical principles  the theoretical wiki at the National Science Foundation (NSF)- funded Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center (http:// www.learnlab.org/research/wiki/index.php/Main_Page) illustrates the value of this Mashups could offer ways to contextualize individual datasets against a larger context of practice.
  22. 22. Professional Development: Communities of “Unlearning” Developing fluency in using emerging interactive media Complementing presentational instruction with collaborative inquiry-based learning Unlearning almost unconscious assumptions and beliefs and values about the nature of teaching, learning, and schooling Crucial issue for professional development
  23. 23. “Sea Change” In Shakespeare’s “The Tempest,” Ariel sings to Ferdinand: Full fathom five thy father lies; Of his bones are coral made; Those are pearls that were his eyes: Nothing of him that doth fade But doth suffer a sea-change Into something rich and strange.
  24. 24. Next Generation Interfaces for “Distributed Learning” World to the Desktop: Accessing distant experts and archives for knowledge creation, sharing, and mastery Multi-User Virtual Environments: Immersion in virtual contexts with digital artifacts and avatar-based identities Ubiquitous Computing: Wearable wireless devices coupled to smart objects for “augmented reality”
  25. 25. What is a MUVE? A representational container that enables multiple simultaneous participants to access virtual spaces configured for learning. A place where learners represent themselves through graphical avatars (persona) to communicate with others’ avatars and computer-based agents, as well as to interact with digital artifacts and virtual contexts. A learning experience that provides diverse activities in support of classroom curriculum.
  26. 26. Findings from Gaming ResearchMassively multi-player online games (MMOG) andcomplementary fan-fiction offer learning and identityformation, but not linked to life Everquest game has 77th largest economy; over 120,000 fan-fictions online about Harry Potter
  27. 27. http://muve.gse.harvard.edu/rivercityproject/ Toolbar Space
  28. 28. Situated Learning constellations of architectural, social, organizational, and material vectors that aid in learning culturally based practices  apprenticeship (the process of moving from novice to expert within a given set of practices)  legitimate peripheral participation (tacit learning similar to that involved in internships)  high fidelity is not important unless essential for task (e.g., interpreting photographic images)
  29. 29. Distributed-Learning Communities Range of participants’ skills and interests goes beyond geographic boundaries Asynchronous media enable convenient participation and deeper reflection Emotional and social dimensions intensified by synchronous virtual interchanges Broader range of participants engage in dialogue Collaborative, Mediated, Situated Immersion
  30. 30. Next Generation Interfaces for “Distributed Learning” World to the Desktop: Accessing distant experts and archives for knowledge creation, sharing, and mastery Multi-User Virtual Environments: Immersion in virtual contexts with digital artifacts and avatar-based identities Ubiquitous Computing: Wearable wireless devices coupled to smart objects for “augmented reality”
  31. 31. “Overlay Devices” Wireless mobile devices offer substantial power, at a fraction of the cost for laptops and with greater mobility Entertainment and learning can be anywhere One-to-one person-to-device ratio becomes affordable in education “Augmented Reality” for entertainment and learning
  32. 32. Handheld Augmented Reality Project (HARP) QuickTim e™ and a Photo - JPEG decom press or are needed to see this picture.
  33. 33. Collaboration & Interdependence…Chemist …Linguist…FBIAgent …Computer Expert
  34. 34. 1976 2009
  35. 35. 2009 2020 ?
  36. 36. A Different Model of Pedagogy Experiences central, rather than information as pre-digested experience (for assimilation or synthesis) “Walking the Tightrope” between simplicity and complexity Knowledge is situated in a context and distributed across a community (rather than located within an individual: with vs. from) Reputation, experiences, and accomplishments as measures of quality (rather than tests, papers)
  37. 37. “Umbrella” for PedagogiesAssumptions about Learning:Sleeping -------- Eating -------- Bondingsimple complex
  38. 38. “Cyberinfrastructure”• Computing• Data and networks• Digitally-enabled sensors• Observatories and experimental facilities• An interoperable suite of software and middleware services and tools All integrated http://www.nsf.gov/crssprgm/ci-team/
  39. 39. Potential to Transform Teaching and LearningContent and Research• Ubiquitous, pervasive access to scientific and educational resources• Real-time data collection through smart sensors managed by virtual collaboratoriesInteractivity and Individualization• Single, customizable, personal platform for distributed learning• Formative assessment of students’ educational gains via microgenetic data
  40. 40. The Evolution of Education shifts in the knowledge and skills society values development of new methods of teaching and learning changes in the characteristics of learners emerging information technologies are reshaping each of these – and changing how we learn and know
  41. 41. Evolving toward Distributed Learning Sophisticated Methods of Learning and Teaching  Guided learning by doing  Apprenticeships, mentoring  Learning communities Orchestrated across classrooms, homes, workplaces, community settings On demand, just-in-time Collaborative distributed across space, time, media
  42. 42. Focus on A Particular Suite of Understandings and Performances Collaborative Problem Resolution via Mediated Interaction: Problem Finding Before Problem Solving Comprehension by a Team, Not an Individual Making Meaning Out of Complexity:  Utilizing sophisticated tools and representations  Recognizing and matching patterns  Judging the value of alternative formations  Communicating to others with differing perspectives

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