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Presentation of building materials.


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Presentation of building materials.

  2. 2. SUMMARY <ul><ul><li>Materials used in the construction: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Rock materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Binder materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Concrete materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Ceramic materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Other materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>· Building construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>· Building tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>· Building machinery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>· Environmental impact of buildings </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. ROCK MATERIALS <ul><li>There are two types: </li></ul><ul><li>Compact rocks: they are blocks of rocks. </li></ul><ul><li>Disaggregated rocks: They are fragments of rocks of variable size. In construction two types are used: -Clay -Arids </li></ul>
  4. 4. BINDER MATERIALS <ul><li>They are materials wich are use for join other materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Lime: Used for paint buildings & make brik </li></ul><ul><li>Plaster: Used for cover walls & roofs </li></ul><ul><li>Cement: It is the most used. It is made up of limestone and clay. </li></ul>
  5. 5. CONCRETE <ul><ul><li>Concrete is a composite building material made from the combination of aggregate and a binder such as cement. The most common form of concrete is Portland concrete, but there are many types of concrete.It is used for make different types of pieces. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. CERAMICS MATERIALS <ul><li>They are materials produced with clay and introduced in a oven. </li></ul><ul><li>Producing ceramic materials: ·Mixture and molding. ·Introduction in ovens. </li></ul>
  7. 7. CERAMIC MATERIALS II <ul><li>Bricks: They ate pieces of cooked clay of prismatic form pierced. </li></ul><ul><li>Tiles:They are pieces of cooked clay utilised in covers or roofs. </li></ul><ul><li>Fixtures: They are square pieces formed by two caps, the low one of clay and the superior of vitrified enamel. </li></ul><ul><li>Gres: It is a mixture in which there are elaborated pieces of vitrified ceramics very resistant to the wear. </li></ul><ul><li>Stoneware: It is a ceramic material covered with enamel. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Other materials <ul><li>Steel: It is used for girders, props, etc.. </li></ul><ul><li>Alluminium: It is used for frames of doors, windows, railings, closings, etc,.. </li></ul><ul><li>Copper: Is used in water, gas and heating installations. </li></ul><ul><li>Woods: Their use is decreasing but it is very habitual in roofs, soils, windows, etc,... </li></ul><ul><li>Plastics: Their use is increasing in the construction. </li></ul><ul><li>Glass: It's in use in windows,doors,decoration,.. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Stages of construction: <ul><ul><li>Preparation of the area: First the area when we want to build has to be steady. We have to carry out demolition if there is any building and we have to level the soil with special machinery. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foundation: it is the placement some structures under the ground to withstand the building. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevation of the structure: it is the construction of the pillars and the plates which form the floors of the building, they can be of steel or of reinforced concrete. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Stages of construction II <ul><ul><li>Coverage: it consists on covering the building with materials like tiles or sheets of slate or zinc depending on the characteristics of the climate of the zone. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placement of the pavement: it consists on placing materials on each one of the floors. These materials may be stoneware, wood, marble… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction of the walls: in this stage the walls and partitions which close the building are built. These walls are used to isolate it from the exterior and to distribute the space of the interior. The walls are usually built with bricks. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Stages of construction III: <ul><ul><li>Placement of installations: it is necessary to place in the buildings water, gas and electricity supply, TV reception, air-conditioning installations, internet reception, lifts…. Each one of these installations are carried out by different crew of professionals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finishing works: in this stage are carried out works of painting, placing windows, doors, wardrobes…. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Stages of construction IV:
  13. 13. Construction equipment: <ul><ul><li>Construction equipment consists on compound machines or vehicle machines. These machines make up the five equipment systems: implement, traction, structure, power train... Currently most equipment use hydraulics as a primary source of transferring power. The use of heavy equipment has a long history. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples of construction’s machinery: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excavators: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An excavator is an engineering vehicle consisting of an articulated arm. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excavators are used to dig and to move the earth which has been dug. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulldozers: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A bulldozer is a machine used to push and level large quantities of soil or sand. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Construction equipment II: <ul><ul><li>Steamrollers: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steamrollers are a type of heavy construction machinery used for flattening surfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In order to level the soil machines like bulldozers or steamrollers are used. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trucks: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A truck is a large motor vehicle commonly used for carrying goods and materials. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cranes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A crane is a lifting machine equipped with a winder, wire ropes or chains and sheaves that can be used both to lift and lower materials and to move them horizontally. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concrete mixers: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A concrete mixer is a machine that homogeneously combines cement, aggregate such as sand or gravel, and water to form concrete. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Construction equipment III:
  16. 16. ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT OF BUILDINGS <ul><li>&quot;Green building&quot; and &quot;sustainable development&quot; are the hottest terms in construction right now, but what do they mean, exactly? Green building is &quot;the practice of creating healthier and more resource-efficient models of construction, renovation, operation, maintenance and demolition&quot;. Proponents say that green building is not only environmentally friendly, but also healthier and more cost-efficient. So what is sustainable development? It is a development that ensures our use of resources and the environment but doesn't restrict their use by future generations. </li></ul>
  17. 17. ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT OF BUILDINGS II: <ul><li>There are plenty of green innovations beyond the home. Schools, businesses and hospitals are getting in on the green, which makes sense ecologically and economically. By improving air quality and temperature control and designing offices to increase natural light and open spaces, they get the bonus of happier, more productive workers. </li></ul><ul><li>But homeowners who'd like to go green often don't have the big bucks that businesses do. There's a lot to consider, and the costs can make quite a difference in a home's budget. Homeowners can save cash by installing new energy-efficient light bulbs, but how &quot;green&quot; is it and how much &quot;green&quot; can it save? And who says what's green and what isn't? </li></ul>
  18. 18. ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT OF BUILDINGS III: <ul><li>It is a very complex situation because during the construction of a building many factors are involved: </li></ul><ul><li>A building has a very long life. </li></ul><ul><li>The construction of the building is carried out in the nature so that it transforms it. </li></ul><ul><li>Buildings are built with materials gotten from the nature. </li></ul><ul><li>In the construction of buildings many people take part. </li></ul>