Global Health Governance
Legal frameworks

Introduction to Global Health
Global Health Governance
Global Governance
• Comprises institutions, rules and processes
• Operating on a global global level
• Providing a framewo...
Global Health Governance
The use of institutions, rules, and processes by
states, intergovernmental organizations, and
non...
Important legal frameworks
•
•
•
•
•

WHO constitution – 1946
Human right to health
WHO Alma Ata Declaration - 1978
Develo...
WHO constitution
• Adopted in 1946, in confirmity to charter of
UN
• Strives for the highest attainable standard of
health...
Objectives and functions of the WHO
• Highest attainable level of health for all
• Directing and coordinating authority on...
Human right to health (1)
• Proclaimed in the 1948 Universal Declaration
of Human Rights (UDHR) and codified in the
1966 I...
Human right to health (2)
The human right to health is mentioned in a range of legal
frameworks:
• Constitution of the WHO...
Introduction to Global Health
Global Health Governance
WHO Alma Ata declaration (1)
• International conference on Primary Health
Care in in Alma Ata in 1978
• In context of the ...
WHO Alma Ata declaration (2)
• Includes health services, promotion and
prevention
• Participation of people and community ...
WHO Alma Ata Declaration (3)
Main point:
Comprehensive primary health
care is the key to health for all

Introduction to G...
Development frameworks (1)
• Many frameworks and reports are
produced, in particular after conferences.
• They are not leg...
Development frameworks (2)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Official Development Assistance (1969)
World bank report – “Investing in hea...
WHO treaties and codes
Examples:
• International Code of Marketing of breast-milk
substitutes (1981)
• International Healt...
Framework Convention on Tobacco
control (FCTC)
• Treaty adopted by WHA in 2003
• A supranational agreement that aims "to
p...
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Legal frameworks global health governance

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Introduction to Global Health
Global Health Governance
Legal Frameworks

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Legal frameworks global health governance

  1. 1. Global Health Governance Legal frameworks Introduction to Global Health Global Health Governance
  2. 2. Global Governance • Comprises institutions, rules and processes • Operating on a global global level • Providing a framework within which actors interact and take decisions. Introduction to Global Health Global Health Governance
  3. 3. Global Health Governance The use of institutions, rules, and processes by states, intergovernmental organizations, and nonstate actors to deal with challenges to health that require cross-border collective action to address effectively (Fidler 2010). Introduction to Global Health Global Health Governance
  4. 4. Important legal frameworks • • • • • WHO constitution – 1946 Human right to health WHO Alma Ata Declaration - 1978 Development frameworks WHO treaties and codes Introduction to Global Health Global Health Governance
  5. 5. WHO constitution • Adopted in 1946, in confirmity to charter of UN • Strives for the highest attainable standard of health as a human right • Health and wellbeing is fundamental for the attainment of peace and security • Governments have responsibility for health Introduction to Global Health Global Health Governance
  6. 6. Objectives and functions of the WHO • Highest attainable level of health for all • Directing and coordinating authority on international health • Assisting governments plus cooperation with other agencies • Proposing conventions, agreements and regulations • Membership of the organisation is open to states • Governance occurs via the World Health Assembly (WHA), Executive Board and Regional Committtees • Annual meeting of WHA to discuss pressing health issues Introduction to Global Health Global Health Governance
  7. 7. Human right to health (1) • Proclaimed in the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and codified in the 1966 International Covenant of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) • “the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health”—has become a cornerstone of global health governance Introduction to Global Health Global Health Governance
  8. 8. Human right to health (2) The human right to health is mentioned in a range of legal frameworks: • Constitution of the WHO (1946) • Universal declaration of Human rights (1948) • Human rights conventions • ICESCR Art. 12 (1966) and the General comment 14 (2000) • Declaration of Alma Ata (1978, par.1) • Special rapporteur on the Right to Health (2002): sees how countries progress • Outcome document Millenium Development Goals summit (2010, par.13) • In 140 national constitutions • In the European Social Charter Introduction to Global Health Global Health Governance
  9. 9. Introduction to Global Health Global Health Governance
  10. 10. WHO Alma Ata declaration (1) • International conference on Primary Health Care in in Alma Ata in 1978 • In context of the Cold War • Comprehensive Primary Health Care as basis of national health systems to reduce health inequities Introduction to Global Health Global Health Governance
  11. 11. WHO Alma Ata declaration (2) • Includes health services, promotion and prevention • Participation of people and community is key • Relies on sufficient and well trained health workers • Health for all by the year 2000! • Calls on cooperation and collaboration of states, WHO and UNICEF Introduction to Global Health Global Health Governance
  12. 12. WHO Alma Ata Declaration (3) Main point: Comprehensive primary health care is the key to health for all Introduction to Global Health Global Health Governance
  13. 13. Development frameworks (1) • Many frameworks and reports are produced, in particular after conferences. • They are not legally binding, but political commitments from states to work on frameworks. Introduction to Global Health Global Health Governance
  14. 14. Development frameworks (2) • • • • • • • • • Official Development Assistance (1969) World bank report – “Investing in health”(1993) Roll Back Malaria partnership initiated by WHO (1999) WHO: Commision on macro-economics and health (2001) Abuja declaration (2001) Paris declaration on Aid Effectiveness (2005) International Health partnership + (2007) WHO: Commision on Social Determinants of Health (2008) – “Closing the gap in a generation” WB/GF/GAVI/WHO: JANS national health plans (2010) Introduction to Global Health Global Health Governance
  15. 15. WHO treaties and codes Examples: • International Code of Marketing of breast-milk substitutes (1981) • International Health Regulations (2005) + Pandemic–Influenza- Preparedness framework (2011) • International code of Practice on the recruitment of health personnel (2010) • Framework Convention on Tobacco control Introduction to Global Health Global Health Governance
  16. 16. Framework Convention on Tobacco control (FCTC) • Treaty adopted by WHA in 2003 • A supranational agreement that aims "to protect present and future generations from the devastating health, social, environmental and economic consequences of tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke" by enacting a set of universal standards stating the dangers of tobacco and limiting its use in all forms worldwide. Introduction to Global Health Global Health Governance

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