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Globalization against illegal immigration

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Globalization against illegal immigration

  1. 1. FOREIGN POLICY OF ITALYFOREIGN POLICY OF ITALY AGAINST ILLEGALAGAINST ILLEGAL IMMIGRATIONIMMIGRATION ELENA DIVIZIAELENA DIVIZIA ERASMUS STUDENTERASMUS STUDENT MAY 2010MAY 2010 Globalization, security and International terrorism
  2. 2. Immigration is the permanent or temporary transfer of groupsImmigration is the permanent or temporary transfer of groups of people in a country other than the home.of people in a country other than the home. The real problem for the host countries (as defined in theThe real problem for the host countries (as defined in the developed or developing) concerns the regulation of thesedeveloped or developing) concerns the regulation of these people, today lack the ability to act quickly and fix them whenpeople, today lack the ability to act quickly and fix them when and where possible, or deported where needed, is necessaryand where possible, or deported where needed, is necessary to regulate the flows migration as quickly as possible.to regulate the flows migration as quickly as possible. The only one exception to this rule concerns those who areThe only one exception to this rule concerns those who are victims of political persecution or religious, come fromvictims of political persecution or religious, come from dictatorships and countries at war, the International lawdictatorships and countries at war, the International law provides that in such cases is entitled to political asylum,provides that in such cases is entitled to political asylum, health care and first aid are compulsory.health care and first aid are compulsory. 1. INTRODUCTION:
  3. 3. Immigration can help solve a problem of overcrowding in theImmigration can help solve a problem of overcrowding in the country of origin and those linked to it by hunger, disease andcountry of origin and those linked to it by hunger, disease and poverty.poverty. Politically, the countries of origin and destination may engage inPolitically, the countries of origin and destination may engage in bilateral agreements which provide control programs forbilateral agreements which provide control programs for migration, to meet labour needs of the country of destination, tomigration, to meet labour needs of the country of destination, to resolve problems of overcrowding in the country of origin,resolve problems of overcrowding in the country of origin, offset by other aspects such as exchange raw materials andoffset by other aspects such as exchange raw materials and energy.energy. The migration plays a central role in the analysis of economicThe migration plays a central role in the analysis of economic and social trends that characterize a country like Italy that hasand social trends that characterize a country like Italy that has been transformed over the past quarter century by country ofbeen transformed over the past quarter century by country of emigration to a country of immigration.emigration to a country of immigration.
  4. 4. For over a century emigration to Italy has been a valuable toolFor over a century emigration to Italy has been a valuable tool for rebalancing the labour market because large shares offor rebalancing the labour market because large shares of Italian workers have been absorbed by the economies ofItalian workers have been absorbed by the economies of multiple countries making it less burdensome level ofmultiple countries making it less burdensome level of unemployment; it is easy to understand for some times thisunemployment; it is easy to understand for some times this phenomenon was very convenient for Italy.phenomenon was very convenient for Italy. Since the eighties, but especially in the nineties, there hasSince the eighties, but especially in the nineties, there has been reversed, the migration to our country have significantlybeen reversed, the migration to our country have significantly intensified making Italy a point of land rather than secondaryintensified making Italy a point of land rather than secondary to citizens from third worldto citizens from third world.. Thus Italy is a role of "road necessary step" to NorthernThus Italy is a role of "road necessary step" to Northern Europe or "last resort" alternative to the traditional immigrationEurope or "last resort" alternative to the traditional immigration countries, often because of very stringent rules and controlscountries, often because of very stringent rules and controls other European countries.other European countries.
  5. 5. Basically people move to new country for problems incidental toBasically people move to new country for problems incidental to these social phenomena:these social phenomena: PovertyPoverty: one of the more immediate causes for the selection: one of the more immediate causes for the selection of a migratory population is represented by the poverty thatof a migratory population is represented by the poverty that continues to increase in many developing countries of thecontinues to increase in many developing countries of the Mediterranean as a combined effect of several factors.Mediterranean as a combined effect of several factors. WarsWars: ethnic and religious conflicts, tribal hostility and other: ethnic and religious conflicts, tribal hostility and other forms of persecution. These causes generally attributable toforms of persecution. These causes generally attributable to the political situation of countries of origin.the political situation of countries of origin. Deteriorating environmental conditions:Deteriorating environmental conditions: natural disasters,natural disasters, soil erosion, deforestation, lack of water resources,soil erosion, deforestation, lack of water resources, desertification and pollution in its different manifestationsdesertification and pollution in its different manifestations make uninviting areas more extensive on the planet, causingmake uninviting areas more extensive on the planet, causing mass transfer of populations in areas deemed safer.mass transfer of populations in areas deemed safer. Food shortagesFood shortages: The reduction of arable land due to the: The reduction of arable land due to the development of desertification and urbanization has resulteddevelopment of desertification and urbanization has resulted in an obvious decline in food production.in an obvious decline in food production. 2.2. What are the factors that cause migrationWhat are the factors that cause migration and why is Italy the first choice?and why is Italy the first choice?
  6. 6. Massive population growthMassive population growth: the exponential growth and: the exponential growth and accelerated urban population of southern Mediterraneanaccelerated urban population of southern Mediterranean countries has created even more instability, as it wascountries has created even more instability, as it was compatible with the growth capacity of the economic andcompatible with the growth capacity of the economic and social system of the country.social system of the country. Advent of new technologiesAdvent of new technologies: phenomenon that has proved: phenomenon that has proved destructive to many traditional business sectors and hasdestructive to many traditional business sectors and has contributed to unemployment, affecting the productivecontributed to unemployment, affecting the productive structures of the less advanced countries, characterized bystructures of the less advanced countries, characterized by the massive forces of cheap labour is not specializedthe massive forces of cheap labour is not specialized
  7. 7. The reasons for the choice of Italy as a land ofThe reasons for the choice of Italy as a land of immigration are many:immigration are many: It is a geographical location in the MediterraneanIt is a geographical location in the Mediterranean which makes it particularly vulnerable to the influx ofwhich makes it particularly vulnerable to the influx of North African country, even from the greatNorth African country, even from the great responsibilities related to Italy for his role in theresponsibilities related to Italy for his role in the border country of the European Union in the southborder country of the European Union in the south and in the east;and in the east; The characteristics of our national borders make itThe characteristics of our national borders make it very difficult to fully and properly;very difficult to fully and properly; supervised, is in fact mostly coast within easy reachsupervised, is in fact mostly coast within easy reach and difficult to control, in addition to allegedly lowerand difficult to control, in addition to allegedly lower stiffness compared to other European countries tostiffness compared to other European countries to Italy shall be deducted from other countries.Italy shall be deducted from other countries. Europeans, accustomed to the controls on theirEuropeans, accustomed to the controls on their traditional country of arrival of migratory flowstraditional country of arrival of migratory flows
  8. 8. 3. The immigration problem is too big for Italy.3. The immigration problem is too big for Italy. It needs to cooperate with European UnionIt needs to cooperate with European Union to combat it.to combat it. To combat the problem of illegal immigration Italy have toTo combat the problem of illegal immigration Italy have to cooperate with other states, because it alone cannot containcooperate with other states, because it alone cannot contain this phenomenon.this phenomenon. Precisely for this reasons Italy is asking other states toPrecisely for this reasons Italy is asking other states to collaborate creating a clear policy against illegal immigration,collaborate creating a clear policy against illegal immigration, is fundamental to promote only the legal immigration that ifis fundamental to promote only the legal immigration that if well-managed can help the state to grow from an economicwell-managed can help the state to grow from an economic and social standpoint.and social standpoint. In one of many files produced by the European CommissionIn one of many files produced by the European Commission on this issue is the need to strengthen cooperation betweenon this issue is the need to strengthen cooperation between Member States and the entire European Union with countriesMember States and the entire European Union with countries of origin for immigrants in order to combat illegal immigration.of origin for immigrants in order to combat illegal immigration. The common immigration policy must necessarily be basedThe common immigration policy must necessarily be based on a high level of political and operational solidarity, mutualon a high level of political and operational solidarity, mutual trust, transparency, shared responsibility and joint efforts oftrust, transparency, shared responsibility and joint efforts of the European Union and the Member States.the European Union and the Member States.
  9. 9. Another important point on which I believe should workAnother important point on which I believe should work is not only the creation of a common policy, but also anis not only the creation of a common policy, but also an international body that may apply.international body that may apply. About this is most important to control the borders, and exactlyAbout this is most important to control the borders, and exactly for this purpose the European Union has created thefor this purpose the European Union has created the FrontexFrontex (full name:(full name: "European Agency for the Management of"European Agency for the Management of International Cooperation at the External Borders of theInternational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the Union"Member States of the Union") whose administrative centre) whose administrative centre is in Warsaw, Poland.is in Warsaw, Poland. Its purpose is the coordination of border patrols outside air,Its purpose is the coordination of border patrols outside air, sea and land of the EU states and the establishment ofsea and land of the EU states and the establishment of agreements with countries bordering the European Unionagreements with countries bordering the European Union rejected the readmission of migrants along the border.rejected the readmission of migrants along the border. It is really important also create a common policy that consistsIt is really important also create a common policy that consists in collaboration between different states of Europe Union, toin collaboration between different states of Europe Union, to do that is fundamental watch out at subjects like solidarity,do that is fundamental watch out at subjects like solidarity, integration and transparency.integration and transparency.
  10. 10. Europe Union decided that the integration is basic for create aEurope Union decided that the integration is basic for create a good relationship between different people; for these reasonsgood relationship between different people; for these reasons Europe Union determined that there are some points on whichEurope Union determined that there are some points on which to focus discussion like:to focus discussion like: •• support diversity management and evaluation of results ofsupport diversity management and evaluation of results of integration policies in theintegration policies in the Member States;Member States; •• promote integration programs for newly arrived immigrants;promote integration programs for newly arrived immigrants; •• ensure equal career opportunities in the labour market for legalensure equal career opportunities in the labour market for legal workers from third countries;workers from third countries; •• apply the social security schemes on an equal footing toapply the social security schemes on an equal footing to immigrants and EU citizens;immigrants and EU citizens; •• develop measures to increase the participation of migrants indevelop measures to increase the participation of migrants in society;society; •• review the Council Directive on family reunification;review the Council Directive on family reunification;
  11. 11. 3. Relations with other3. Relations with other differentdifferent Mediterranean'sMediterranean's StatesStates Europe, like Italy, to attain a good policy about theEurope, like Italy, to attain a good policy about the immigration problem must collaborate with more differentimmigration problem must collaborate with more different countries that until now had not considerate, nations likecountries that until now had not considerate, nations like Libya, Turkey and Malta.Libya, Turkey and Malta. Europe and of course Italy is concluding agreements withEurope and of course Italy is concluding agreements with countries like Morocco, which fortunately do not reach largecountries like Morocco, which fortunately do not reach large migration flows, which works fine with Egypt and Tunisia.migration flows, which works fine with Egypt and Tunisia. Agreement with Libya is recent but is already showing the firstAgreement with Libya is recent but is already showing the first results of Tripoli with the government that knows that thereresults of Tripoli with the government that knows that there are places, where smuggling is organized and goes into thoseare places, where smuggling is organized and goes into those ports and arrest people, leaders and organizers. In doing so,ports and arrest people, leaders and organizers. In doing so, with perseverance and stubbornness, the phenomenon willwith perseverance and stubbornness, the phenomenon will gradually be blocked.gradually be blocked. In conclusion we can not forget the important role played byIn conclusion we can not forget the important role played by Malta in the context of illegal immigration in theMalta in the context of illegal immigration in the Mediterranean.Mediterranean.

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