Nippon Pulse America unraveling the mystery of stepper motor technology presentation

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Nippon Pulse America unraveling the mystery of stepper motor technology presentation

  1. 1. NPM Unraveling The Mystery of Stepper Motor Technology Jeramé Chamberlain Nippon Pulse America, Inc., USA Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com
  2. 2. NPM What is a Open Loop Stepper Motor System?What Are Stepper Motors?How Do Stepper Motors Work?Troubleshoot & Test Stepper Motors Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com
  3. 3. NPM Basic Stepper Application Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com
  4. 4. NPM Stepper Motor Coil PHASE A S N ● PHASE B PHASE B S N Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 PHASE A www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com
  5. 5. NPM PHASE A One Phase PHASE A Step Sequence S NPHASE B ● PHASE B PHASE B N S PHASE B N S ● ● S N STEP 1 STEP 2 PHASE A Two Phase PHASE A PHASE A Stepper Motor PHASE A N SPHASE B ● ● PHASE B PHASE B S N PHASE B N ● S N N S STEP 4 Sold & Serviced By: STEP 3 ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com PHASE A PHASE A sales@electromate.com
  6. 6. NPM Types of Stepper Motors Permanent-Magnet (PM) • PM rotor & electromagnetic coil Variable Reluctance (VR) • No PM, no residual torque Hybrid – NEMA Sizing • Combined PM & VR Technology Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com
  7. 7. Cross Section of A TwoNPM Phase Hybrid Motor Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com
  8. 8. NPM PM & Hybrid Stepper Motors Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com
  9. 9. NPM Bipolar Coil Winding Each phase is a single winding Current flow and electromagnetic polarity is reverses in the windings Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com
  10. 10. NPM Unipolar Coil Winding Sometimes called four-phase steppers Current flow and electromagnetic polarity is NOT reversed in the windings. Polarity comes from alternately energized windingsSold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com
  11. 11. NPM Motors Need Maintenance Steppers – Not So Much Stalled motors burn up • Steppers operate in stall condition Most brushes go bad • Steppers are brushless All bearings go bad • Quality Stepper bearings are rated from 90-100K hours People break them Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE • Hammers don’t fix Steppers Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com
  12. 12. NPM Ohmmeter Test With Steppers Bipolar Always 4 leads Resistance is the same in both windings and both directions Some 8 lead motors can be connected as bipolar Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com
  13. 13. NPM Ohmmeter Test With Steppers Unipolar 5 or 6 leads Resistance from each phase to Common is the same in both directions If 5 leads, two commons connected Sold & Serviced By: Some 8 lead motors can be Unipolar ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com
  14. 14. NPM Unipolar Windings & Wire Colors Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com
  15. 15. NPM Bipolar Windings & Wire Colors Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com
  16. 16. NPM Stepper Motor Electronic System CPU, Controller, Sequencer, Driver One or more parts can be combined, Sold & Serviced By: based on motion complexity ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com
  17. 17. NPM Controller Receives & Coordinates A dedicated controller generates motion profiles that produce smoother Sold & Serviced By: motor operation than just with a CPU. ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com
  18. 18. NPM Controller Manages & Interpolates Some controllers provide interpolation between motors to produce smooth XYZ motions – CNC Machines Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com
  19. 19. NPM Two Outputs Types to Sequencer Pulse & Direction – Speed & Rotation CW/CCW – Speed & Rotation Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com
  20. 20. NPM One Controller – Two Output Types Pulse & Direction – Speed & Rotation CW/CCW – Speed & Rotation Pulse & Direction is the most common format used in the USA PCL6045B can output both formats Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com
  21. 21. NPM Stepper Motor Sequencers Sequencers read speed and direction from controller and deliver excitation sequence to the driver Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com
  22. 22. NPM Bipolar Stepper Drivers When Q1a and Q4a (green) are on, current flows in one direction When Q2a and Q3a (red) are turned on, current flow is reversed Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com
  23. 23. NPM Unipolar Stepper Drivers Half the drive electronics of bipolar, and 30% less torque However, unipolar coils allow a higher pulse rate than bipolar, before becoming Sold & Serviced By: saturated. ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com
  24. 24. NPM Constant Current - Constant Voltage Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com
  25. 25. NPM Current Lags Voltage in an Inductor Torque from stepper motors is generated by current, not voltage PWM or Chopper drive manages current through a switch, applied at higher voltages to induce more winding current Chopper delivers more Sold & Serviced By: torque at higher speeds ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com
  26. 26. NPM Half Stepping A Stepper Motor Easiest way to accomplish half stepping is by using 1-2 phase excitation Divides a stepper’s full step angle by two 7.5°/2 = 3.25° per half step 30% loss of torque depending on step rate when compared to full step Winding is not energized during each alternating half step Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com
  27. 27. NPM PHASE A Half Stepping PHASE A Sequence S NPHASE B ● PHASE B PHASE B N S PHASE B N S ● ● S N STEP 1 STEP 3 PHASE A Two Phase PHASE A PHASE A Stepper Motor PHASE A N N N N N SPHASE B S PHASE B PHASE B S PHASE B ● ● S N S S STEP 4 Sold & Serviced By: STEP 2 ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com PHASE A PHASE A sales@electromate.com
  28. 28. NPM Microstepping A Stepper Motor Full step can be broken into as many as 512 parts Current is limited through each winding. Unequal pull on the magnet means it moves toward the weaker winding Torque falls rapidly as speed increases Steps are not constant for positioning Microstepping should only be used for Sold & Serviced By: smooth movement. ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com
  29. 29. NPM Combined Sequencer & Translator Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com

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