The Water-Energy Nexus:
Opportunities and Challenges

Heather Cooley, Pacific Institute
October 27, 2013
The Water-Energy Nexus

Energy

Water

• Energy Extraction

• Water Extraction

• Fuel processing

• Conveyance

• Transpo...
Once-Through Cooling System

Source: GAO
Recirculating Cooling System

Source: GAO
Dry Cooling Systems

Source: GAO
Not All Energy Systems are the Same!

Source: Averyt et al.
Water for Thermoelectric Generation

Water Withdrawals

Water Consumption
Lake Mead Water Levels, 1983 & 2007

Source: Pat Mulroy, General Manager, Southern Nevada Water Authority, Lake
Mead Intak...
Mohave Generating Plant

Photo: Center for Land Use Interpretation

Photo: Jonathon LeFaive
Growing Concern: Water Availability
Threatens Energy Security

Source: U.S. DOE 2013
Shale Gas Resources

Data Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA). (2011). Annual Energy Outlook.
Energy Sector Trends
• Unconventional oil and gas (hydraulic

fracturing)
• Increased demand for electricity
• Carbon Capt...
The Water-Energy Nexus

Energy

Water

• Energy Extraction

• Water Extraction

• Fuel processing

• Conveyance

• Transpo...
Source: Oregon Climate Service, 1995
California Water
Projects
Federal Projects
California Water
Projects
State Projects

[map from CDWR 2002]
Photo Courtesy of California Department of Water Resources
California Water
Projects
Local Projects
California Water
Projects
All Water Projects

[map from CDWR 2002]
Source: GAO 2011
Water-Related Electricity and
Natural Gas Use
Wastewater
Treatment
3%

Wastewater
Treatment
1%

Water Supply and
Treatment...
=
5 minutes
60-W light bulb for 14 hours
Water Sector Trends
• Emerging contaminants and stricter

water quality regulations
• Climate change
• Population and econ...
Proposed
Seawater
Desalination
Plants
Challenges = Opportunities!
Water Conservation and Efficiency
• Urban and agricultural sectors
• Indoor and outdoor savings
• Social, economic, and en...
Capturing Stormwater
 Reduces storm water flows

 Improves water quality
 Promotes groundwater recharge

 Saves energy...
Rainwater Harvesting
• Surface water from roofs or hard surfaces

caused by rainfall
• Common uses: irrigation, flushing t...
Water Reuse
 Capturing wastewater and reusing it for

non-potable or in some cases potable uses
 Can occur at various sc...
654 13th Street, Preservation Park, Oakland, CA 94612
Phone:: (510) 251-1600 Email: info@pacinst.org Web:
www.pacinst.org
The Water-Energy Nexus: Opportunities and Challenges
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The Water-Energy Nexus: Opportunities and Challenges, presented by Heather Cooley, Pacific Institute, at the Electrochemical Energy Summit in San Francisco on October 27.

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The Water-Energy Nexus: Opportunities and Challenges

  1. 1. The Water-Energy Nexus: Opportunities and Challenges Heather Cooley, Pacific Institute October 27, 2013
  2. 2. The Water-Energy Nexus Energy Water • Energy Extraction • Water Extraction • Fuel processing • Conveyance • Transportation • Treatment • Generation • Distribution • Emissions Control • Customer End Use
  3. 3. Once-Through Cooling System Source: GAO
  4. 4. Recirculating Cooling System Source: GAO
  5. 5. Dry Cooling Systems Source: GAO
  6. 6. Not All Energy Systems are the Same! Source: Averyt et al.
  7. 7. Water for Thermoelectric Generation Water Withdrawals Water Consumption
  8. 8. Lake Mead Water Levels, 1983 & 2007 Source: Pat Mulroy, General Manager, Southern Nevada Water Authority, Lake Mead Intake No. 3, Keynote address, PowerPoint presentation, Environmental Services Association of Alberta, Banff, Alberta, Canada, April 22, 2010
  9. 9. Mohave Generating Plant Photo: Center for Land Use Interpretation Photo: Jonathon LeFaive
  10. 10. Growing Concern: Water Availability Threatens Energy Security Source: U.S. DOE 2013
  11. 11. Shale Gas Resources Data Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA). (2011). Annual Energy Outlook.
  12. 12. Energy Sector Trends • Unconventional oil and gas (hydraulic fracturing) • Increased demand for electricity • Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) • Transportation fuels (ethanol, biofuels, and electricity)
  13. 13. The Water-Energy Nexus Energy Water • Energy Extraction • Water Extraction • Fuel processing • Conveyance • Transportation • Treatment • Generation • Distribution • Emissions Control • Customer End Use
  14. 14. Source: Oregon Climate Service, 1995
  15. 15. California Water Projects Federal Projects
  16. 16. California Water Projects State Projects [map from CDWR 2002]
  17. 17. Photo Courtesy of California Department of Water Resources
  18. 18. California Water Projects Local Projects
  19. 19. California Water Projects All Water Projects [map from CDWR 2002]
  20. 20. Source: GAO 2011
  21. 21. Water-Related Electricity and Natural Gas Use Wastewater Treatment 3% Wastewater Treatment 1% Water Supply and Treatment <1% Water Supply and Treatment 14% End Use 83% Electricity Source: California Energy Commission 2005 End Use 99% Natural Gas
  22. 22. = 5 minutes 60-W light bulb for 14 hours
  23. 23. Water Sector Trends • Emerging contaminants and stricter water quality regulations • Climate change • Population and economic growth
  24. 24. Proposed Seawater Desalination Plants
  25. 25. Challenges = Opportunities!
  26. 26. Water Conservation and Efficiency • Urban and agricultural sectors • Indoor and outdoor savings • Social, economic, and environmental benefits
  27. 27. Capturing Stormwater  Reduces storm water flows  Improves water quality  Promotes groundwater recharge  Saves energy by reducing pumping and treatment requirements
  28. 28. Rainwater Harvesting • Surface water from roofs or hard surfaces caused by rainfall • Common uses: irrigation, flushing toilets, washing machines, process uses
  29. 29. Water Reuse  Capturing wastewater and reusing it for non-potable or in some cases potable uses  Can occur at various scales  Residence, facility, building  Small group of buildings or district  Municipal scale
  30. 30. 654 13th Street, Preservation Park, Oakland, CA 94612 Phone:: (510) 251-1600 Email: info@pacinst.org Web: www.pacinst.org

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