History and knowledge of the
Author: D. Juan Ortigosa García
Chairman & Technical Director of Ortronic Technology, S.L.
Thales of Miletus
The history of electricity refers to the study and human
use of the electricity, the discovery of its laws as a physical
phenomenon and the invention of devices for
One of the early milestones can be placed around the
year 600 b.c., when the Greek philosopher Thales of
Miletus observed that rubbing an amber rod with leather
or wool, small loads were obtained (the tribo-electric
effect) that attracted small objects, and when rubbing a
long time it could cause the appearance of a spark.
Near the ancient Greek city of Magnesia there were stones called stones of
Magnesia, which included magnetite. The ancient Greeks observed that pieces of this
material were attracted to each other and also to small iron objects.
Fragmentes of Ambar Magnesia
Alessandro Volta, or Count Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio
Anastasio Volta, physicist and pioneer in studies of
electricity, was born in Como, Lombardy, Italy, in 1745.
In 1780, Luigi Galvani, physician, naturalist and doctor at the
University of Bologna, discovered that when two different
metals were connected to the thigh of a frog, electrons
circulated between the metals.
In 1794, Volta was determined to find alternatives that
would allow him to obtain electricity without using animal
In 1800, Volta discovered that by placing two different metals in a glass with brine
(water and salt) electricity was generated, he had invented the electric battery, which
gave him worldwide fame, and in his honor the name VOLT was adopted.
A year later, the physicist in the presence of
Napoleon carried out another
demonstration of his current generator. Impressed,
the French Emperor appointed him Count Volta
and senator of the Kingdom of Lombardy.
The Emperor of Austria, meanwhile, appointed him
director of the department of philosophy at the
University of Padua in 1815.
The unit of electromotive force of the International
System is called Volt and named in
his honor since 1881.
Andrè Marie Ampère
André-Marie Ampère was born in Lyon, France, in 1775.
He never attended school and the only education he
received was given by his father, a professional merchant,
expert in Latin and French literature.
Ampère was a child prodigy, at the age of 12 he knew
basic mathematics, even dominated the differential and
integral calculus. It was a self-taught person example to
In 1825 he formulated the "Law of Ampere", which postulates the basic relationship
between electrical current and the emergence of an electromagnetic field.
He invented and built the "galvanometer" set the basis between electricity and
magnetism, and called the current with his name, “Ampere”, “A” symbol we still use
In 1801 he was professor of physics and
chemistry at Bourg-en-Bresse, and later
at the École Centrale in Paris. Impressed
by his talent, Napoleon promoted him
to the position of general inspector of
the new French University System, a
position he held until the end of his
In his honor, the unit of intensity of
current in the International System of
Units bears his name.
Michael Faraday, was born in Newington Butts, England
in 1791. His father was a blacksmith and had poor health
that did not allow him to contribute much to his
From a young age he helped his family delivering
newspapers in exchange for tips.
His academic training was very scarce, limited to that
received in a catechetical school where he learned to
read, write and count.
At the age of thirteen he had to find work to help the family economy and, George
Riebau, who had a library and bound books, hired him to run errands.
The family held together by a strong religious faith. The religious influence was
important for Faraday since he later developed theories that were strongly
influenced by the belief in the unity of the world.
After a year as an errand boy, he was hired as a bookbinder apprentice for George
At the age of fourteen he began learning
the art of bookbinding and after seven
years of apprenticeship he was a real
He learnt about Electricity reading the
article "Electricity," by James Ritler,
when rebinding the British Encyclopedia.
A client of Riebau provided Faraday with
tickets for a series of lectures of
Humphrey Davy on chemistry topics at
the Royal Institution.
Michael Faraday lecturing at
the Royal Institution London
Faraday took notes of all lectures of Mr. Davy, binding
them and sending them later to Mr. Davy, this fact
made him win the friendship and consideration of Mr.
In 1812 a fortuitous accident changed his destiny. Mr.
Davy became suddenly blind during a chemical
experiment he was doing and hired Faraday as his
assistant. Faraday learned the basics of physics and
chemistry with Mr. Davy.
Starting as the master’s assistant and after becoming his successor at the Royal
Institute that is where he remained anchored for most of his life. With the help of
Mr. Davy he was able to contact with the most important scientific ideas of those
In 1824 he entered the Royal Society of London and the following year he was
appointed director of the laboratory of the Royal Institution.
In recognition of his significant contributions, the unit of electrical capacity is called
In 1831, he began his most famous
experiments in which he discovered
experiments that even today are the
foundation of modern
In 1833 he was appointed as the
successor of Mr. Davy as professor of
chemistry of the Royal Institution.
Two years later he was granted a
lifetime pension of 300 pounds per
He has an honor plaque in
Westminster Abbey near the grave of
Faraday’s electrolysis experiment
His most important inventions were: the DC generator
or dynamo and continuous current motor.
During 1831 and 1832, Michael Faraday discovered that
a mechanical conductor moving in a magnetic field
generated a difference of potential. Taking advantage of
this, he built the first electromagnetic generator, the
Faraday disc, a homopolar generator, using a copper
disc revolving between the ends of a horseshoe-shaped
magnet, generating a small continuous current. It was also widely used as electrical
power generator to power bicycle lights of low intensity.
Faraday never learned mathematics, but his findings were those that led to deep
mathematical theories of electricity and magnetism. In particular the mathematical
theory of Maxwell, who is now studied at all universities would not have been
possible without the discovery of Faraday's laws, this is a fact that Maxwell repeated
on many occasions.
Thomas Alva Edison
Thomas Alva Edison, the youngest of four siblings, was
born on February 11, 1847 in Milan, a small town in
At the age of seven, his father Samuel Edison moved to
Port Huron, Michigan, where the future inventor first
attended school. It was a very short experience that
lasted only three months, after which he was expelled
from the classroom, his teacher alleged the absolute
lack of interest and awkwardness, this due to partial
deafness, sequel of an attack of scarlet fever.
His mother, Nancy Elliot, who had served as a teacher before marriage, assumed
hereafter to educate the youngest member of the family, inspiring in him a
boundless curiosity that would be the most outstanding feature throughout his life.
At the age of ten, the young Thomas Edison set up his first laboratory in the
basement of his parents’ house and taught himself the rudiments of chemistry and
At the age of twelve he sold newspapers on the trains, with permission from the
railroad company he lived in a wagon, where he set up a used printing plate and a
typewriter, which he bought second-hand, founding his newspaper, the Weekly
Herald, where he edited and printed during the running of the train and sold to
In one of his physics experiments the wagon
caught fire and the railroad company
expelled him out of his press-wagon-house,
so he had to find another occupation.
In 1862 he joined the telegraph office in Port
Huron and a few months later working there,
he invented a double telegraph, which could
transmit two deliveries in reverse
simultaneously on the same cable.
The success of his invention was of such
magnitude that all network telegraph
companies adopted it and in recognition of
his merits he was appointed as an Engineer.
Edison printing his newspaper, “The
Thomas Alva Edison
His inventions and “know-how” in business gave him
fame and wealth, which allowed him to build his factory
in Menlo Park in Orange, New Jersey, where he
developed new quadruple and sextuple telegraph
systems, which enabled the growth of his companies,
His company “Continental Edison Company” was
introduced in all Europe, where Nikola Tesla worked for
the one located in Paris.
In 1868, at the age of twenty-one, he could obtain the works of the British scientist
Michael Faraday “Experimental Researches in Electricity”; those readings positively
and definitely influenced him.
Faraday provided him the way to channel his inventive genius. Thomas Edison then
became more organized and disciplined, and acquired the habit of carrying a
notebook, always ready to write down any idea or fact that brought up his
Thomas Edison left the job and decided to become an independent inventor,
registering his first patent in 1868.
Very soon he received an assignment from the Western Union: A printer for the
quotation of the stock market values.
Thomas Alva Edison
His response to this challenge was his first great
invention: the Edison Universal Stock Printer. He was
offered $ 40,000 for the device, an amount that allowed
him to finally settle down.
Soon Thomas Edison planned to build a true research
center, a “factory for inventions”, as he called it, with a
laboratory, library, workshops and housing for him and
He did not lack economic resources and the proportions of his projects did eventually
To locate his new lab he sought a quiet place, where he found a deserted farm in
In West Orange, New Jersey, Thomas Edison built the Edison Laboratory, now a
national monument, where numerous workshops were created, which provided jobs
for more than five thousand people.
His best known invention is the light bulb or
incandescent lamp, which allowed the creation of
an electric company for the distribution and sale of
electricity in continuous current (DC), for which he
manufactured his own generators.
Thomas Edison may be the most prolific inventor in
history, with over 1200 patents, which deserve
special attention are: the Phonograph, the Micro
Phone handset in 1877, the Kinescope in 1894 and
ferronickel alkaline battery in 1914.
Edison´s light bulb
Thomas Alva Edison
Inventos más importantes de Thomas Alva Edison:
1. The light bulb
3. Audio recorder
6. Moving images
7. Record player
10. Electric car with “Edison Batteries”
1914 Detroit Electric Brougham, from Ford Motor Company
“The car for women” was baptized in 1914, being the best car sold for women because
of their minimal maintenance and smoothness of the engine. But weight and frequent
battery recharging made it “not recommended” for rural roads or unpopulated areas.
Powered: by 50 “Edison batteries” of 108 total volts.
1 2 3 4
5 6 7 8
Nikola Tesla, Born in Smiljan, former Yugoslavia, in
1856, where he lived until the age of twelve. His father
was the clergyman of the local Serbian Orthodox Church
and his mother could not read nor write.
At the age of fourteen, he could read in four languages.
At twenty two he completed his graduation as an
Electromechanical Engineer in the Polytechnic of Graz,
Professor Poeschl, Professor of Physics at the Polytechnic School in Graz, in 1877 was
showing students of Tesla’s engineering promotion a new DC motor, called “the
Gramme machine”, which generated continuous current when spinning caused by
some force and acted as an electric motor when connected to a DC electric potential,
of continuous current; the reversible motor.
The design of the “Gramme machine” included brushes and a commutator that
produced large sparks, Tesla believed those sparks could be somehow eliminated.
Peoeschl devoted an entire class to demonstrate the “fallacy” of Telsa’s idea, but
failed to convince him. Five years later Tesla managed to eliminate those sparks in
one of the strangest examples of scientific inspiration that history can remember.
One afternoon in February 1882, Tesla was strolling in the park in Budapest with his
friend Szigeti, reciting some of his favorite lines of Faust. In this very context, place
and moment he discovered the “rotating magnetic field” the foundation of the
alternating current that would revolutionize the world.
The result of this vision was the
Induction Motor, which he patented
and manufactured, with such
perfection that it is still used today,
practically without any technical
Two months after his vision in the
park, the powerful imagination of
Tesla and his enormous talent, leads
him to the following:
Motor de Tesla
To mentally design all the elements of a complete
system of power in alternating current (AC), which
subsequently he patented.
Tesla tried to find interested people in his invention,
first in Budapest and later in Paris, but found no answer
as expected and decided to immigrate to America.
According to Bud Spurgeon, Tesla arrived in New York
with four cents, some poems written by him, a blue print for a flying machine and a
cover letter to Thomas Edison.
Tesla worked for a year for Thomas Edison, but his temperament, methodology and
vision of the electricity separated him from Thomas Edison making their relationship
doomed to total failure.
After his failed relationship with Thomas Edison, Tesla set up his own company, the
“Tesla Electric Company” and to make that possible, he forced himself to work
trenching in road works.
In his laboratory he was able to put into practice that entire mental storehouse that
he had developed on alternating current.
In 1888 Tesla patented a complete system, consisting of motor, generator and
transformer that were a complete plant for generating alternating current.
George Westinghouse was the first one to
recognize the importance and significance of
the discoveries of Tesla and after meeting
with the inventor in his laboratory, he
reported the purchase of the technology for
the manufacture of polyphase alternating
current generators, for a million dollars plus
a royalty of one dollar per horsepower
Subsequent studies have estimated the value of the royalties during the life of Tesla,
at 12 million dollars.
Having sold his patent to Westinghouse he obtained the
money to spend as he pleased.
Tesla never married because he thought that marriage
required a dedication and time he could not take off his
To help Westinghouse to manufacture the first
polyphase alternating current system, he went to
Pittsburgh, where he worked only one year, although Westinghouse offered him a
high position and a laboratory with all the equipment, Tesla said he worked at ease
only if could personally control all of the projects, so he left Pittsburgh.
In 1893, Westinghouse introduced the first AC power plant with a great show
consisting in providing the power for all electrical needs of the World Fair in Chicago.
Being so successful Westinghouse was selected to install the first large hydroelectric
plant at Niagara Falls, with a capacity of 5,000 HP.
During the Chicago World Fair in 1893, Tesla obtained his great opportunity. When
Westinghouse submitted a budget for half what was proposed by General Electric, he
was awarded the Fair lighting and Tesla could display the generators, multiple
dynamos, alternating current (AC) motors and light bulbs.
World Fair Chicago 1893
Edison and Westinghouse fought a public relations
battle, which the newspapers called "The War of the
Currents," to determine which system would become
the dominant technology. In response, Thomas Edison
invented the electric chair and electrocuted dogs, cats
and even an elephant to prove that alternating current
was dangerous. "Opsy“ the elephant stepped into
immortality in 1903 in a film with the name "Topsy”.
(You can search by Google with the name: “Topsy, the
The alternating current was adopted throughout the country and Thomas Edison had
to change the systems even though he proposed a law to ban the use of alternating
current alleging to be very dangerous.
Tesla is the true inventor of radio:
First of all, Tesla invented the parallel resonant circuit,
which is essential to tune the radio.
In 1897 Tesla sent the first radio signals from his
laboratory to a boat on the Hudson
Bay, 25 miles away.
In 1898, Tesla made the first public demonstration of
radio communication, combined with the first
demonstration of robotics.
The show was held in Madison Square Garden and
was a tremendous success.
The robot was a boat several feet long, made of iron
with a sealed cover. In the square there was a large
tank of water constructed in order that the boat
could float inside. In the demonstration
Tesla ordered the ship's movements by radio
transmission and the ship obeyed to Tesla’s orders,
the crowd thought they were witnessing magic. Tesla boat
The transmission of electricity without cables.
For the real demonstration of his electrical distribution
system without cables, (i.e.wireless), Tesla needed a
field laboratory and enough space.
His patent attorney negotiated with the power
company “Colorado Springs Power Company” so that
Tesla could carry out his demonstration at the boundary
of Colorado Springs.
In 1899 Tesla had built a huge wooden laboratory, equipped with a huge coil, acting
as a transmitter.
In Colorado Springs he carried out the first demonstrations of lighting the space, with
great balls of light that were transmitted by its coil, he intended to use this
technology, as it will be seen later, in the lighting of the seas. The balls of light
astonished the local population who came from all places to watch.
To discourage the curious people and avoid visits, Tesla announced that he was
working on a new secret weapon that could kill three hundred thousand people at
The most amazing show in history was the wireless electric distribution that
consisted of two hundred lamps illuminated at a distance of 26 miles of its
transmitter coil in Colorado Springs.
When he finished the
experiments, in late 1898,
Tesla returned to New York
and his friend Robert
Underwood, editor of
Century, invited him to write
article about the issue of
energy in the future, with
particular reference to solar
Tesla at his Colorado Springs Laboratory
Referring to the solar energy and among all the known methods, searching for the
best method for deriving energy from the sun would, in many ways, contribute to the
progress of civilization.
Tesla’s article in Century had a great impact in the scientific and financial media. One
who showed a great interest was the millionaire J.P. Morgan, who invited Tesla to his
home to explain him about his system of wireless transmission of electricity in detail.
The contacts between Tesla and J.P. Morgan crystallized into an agreement to
undertake a titanic project, which was named WARDENCLYFFE project, where J.P.
Morgan funded in its first stage.
The site chosen for the project was Suffolk County in Long Island, through a contract
with a local builder, where it was planned to build housing for the thousands of
people who would work on the project.
With the anticipated funding by J.P. Morgan,
WARDENCLYFFE project was launched and the
building was constructed to house the systems
provided by Tesla, ending in a large wooden
tower with a height of 150 feet where the Tesla
coil transmitter was to be installed.
A brochure was published in 1901 in Long
Island, explaining the amazing features of the
Project which included among other activities,
In his article in Century, he affirmed that burning crude oil
to produce electricity was barbaric and completely wrong;
adding that with his discovery of sending electricity
through the electric field of the earth, all electrical needs
could be covered.
The article also explained his plan to solve all the world's
energy needs through hydro generators installed in all the
rivers of the earth that could accomplish it and
distributing the energy generated by his invention.
1. Construction of the largest power plant, conceived
in his era, with an electrical output of ten million
horsepower, i.e. 7,600 million kilowatts, which
would be distributed through the air.
2. Interconnection with all the telegraph offices
3. Establishment of a secret government telegraphs
service that could not be interfered.
4. Interconnection with all telephone offices worldwide.
5. Universal distribution of news by the telegraph or telephone in connection with
6. Establishment of a global intelligence system for private use only.
7. Interconnection and operations with all global stock markets and their
8. Establishment of a global system of music distribution.
9. Global establishment of time information,
10. Transmission by Facsimile of manuals,
letters and documents.
11. Establishment of a global system of
navigation aid that would allow ships to
sail without a compass, accurate
information on their location, time and
speed, thus preventing collisions and
12. Grand opening of a global printing system
on land and sea.
13. Copying worldwide of photography,
paintings and all kinds of drawings and
In the mind of the man who thought that with his
technology he could shake the whole planet, were the
ideas of all possible forms of communication and all of
that, nine years before the famous telegraph
transmission across the Atlantic carried out by Marconi
and sixteen years before David Sarnoff wrote his “Music
Box Memo”, outlining the first idea, considered “a
moving idea”, of the first radio station that could send
music to the American households.
At that time Tesla wrote the following:
“In the near future we will see a huge amount of new uses of the electricity, we will
be able to disperse the fog with electrical forces, wireless stations will be constructed
for the purpose of illuminating the oceans, transmission of the image will be a near
reality, electric typewriters will obey the human voice, we will have smoke
annihilators, dust absorbers, water, air, food and clothing sterilizers...“
If we use crude oil in order to obtain electricity, reserves will quickly end. This
method, barbaric and unjustifiable, must be stopped it in the interest of future
generations. The inevitable conclusion is that the potential of water is by far our most
With the full development and improvement of wireless energy transmission systems
to any distance it will be possible to solve all the problems of material existence of
man. Distance, which is the main impediment to human progress, will be completely
annihilated in thought, word and action. Humanity will unite, wars will become
impossible and peace will be the ultimate realm.”
Probably the most important fact in the history of man on Earth, that could have
changed the fate of humanity, happened at this time and was the decision made by
J.P. Morgan to withdraw his financial support to the WARDENCLYFFE project.
It can never be understood why J.P. Morgan did not allow the completion of the
project and its implementation.
J.P. Morgan's decision could represent something more than his withdrawal from the
project, since it is also understandable that from that precise moment, Tesla had all
doors closed to other possible sources of funding.
Tesla had invested all his fortune on the
WARDENCLYFFE project, and the man who invented
alternating current, which has allowed the
development of humanity has today it is understood,
could not find funding to continue the great project of
his life, being the one who could change the fate of
humanity and the history of Science.
In a publication issued in 1978 by Lafferty, Harwood &
Partners Ltd. n Montreal, it was studied that all the
But Tesla’s technology is still an unresolved subject and one of the biggest
frustrations for the scientific world, which a hundred years later can neither affirm
nor deny the technology of the WARDENCLYFFE project.
The scientists of his time got nervous just by hearing the name of Tesla, according to
Lafferty, Harwood & Partners, they had true phobia towards Tesla, while the reason
might be true envy of his findings considered too advanced for their time. Many
maybe could have been glad of J.P. Morgan’s decision, but it is not understandable
that no one raised his voice to the fact or that nobody helped him.
Tesla Laboratory - Wanderclyffe
ingredients lead to the inevitable conclusion that Tesla was the victim of a
conspiracy by the major railroad, steel and coal companies, planned and carried out
all by J.P. Morgan.
Tesla rejected many times when he was asked to discuss
about his technology, giving always the same answers:
a) I am speaking about “another” electricity.
b) I use electricity in a different way as it is used by
In 1912 Tesla was nominated for the Nobel Prize jointly
with Thomas Edison, but he rejected the prestigious
award, and the reason why of this resignation there have been given many different
interpretations. Some say the reason was his problematic relation with Thomas
Edison, that he did not consider him a scientist of his level and the possible revenge
for his campaign to discredit the alternating current. Others think it was the manifest
unfairness by the Nobel Award in 1909 that went to Marconi for the invention of the
radio, obviously an invention that corresponds to Tesla.
Whatever the cause, Tesla had many reasons to show his outrage for the many
injustices committed against him and I think the world owes him compensation.
With the cessation of WARDENCLYFFE project we missed a great opportunity to
have solved the global energy problem and what could be even worse, the loss of a
technology that promised a new course of the planet.
But mankind has continued thinking about Tesla, one, trying to find his secrets and
the other monitoring the possibility that others might find them before they do.
In the last years of the Cold War, the Americans believed that the Russians had found
the secrets and they blamed them for many natural disasters and in return the
Russians believed the Americans were building a shield based on Tesla’s technology.
The Pentagon hired Golka Associates, Brockton, Mass., to study Tesla’s technology.
The company was established by Robert A. Golka, a man who had studied
extensively the work of Tesla. Under the contract they built a copy of a Tesla
transmitter in an Air Force hangar in Wendover, Utah.
The project involved the best minds of modern times and the results according to
their statements were not fortunate, Tesla took the basic laws of his technology
with him to the grave.
Some independent thinkers believed they had found
the secrets of Tesla, as is the Case of Andrija Puharich,
according to the article titled "The Physics of the Tesla
Magnifying Transmitters, and the Transmission of
Electrical Power without Wires." which describes the
Tesla transmitter as follows:
Between the surface of the Earth and the top of the
atmosphere there exists an electrical potential of about
two billion volts. This vast and inexhaustible electric
energy reserve shows us the magnitude of available
According to Andrija Puharich, Tesla conceived a system to exploit this vast reserve of
energy, essentially static, making it come into resonance at a frequency which
Puharich called the frequency of Tesla.
Tesla had a 1930 Pierce Arrow car, one of the luxury cars of his time, where the
gasoline engine was changed to an electric one; the engine was shaped round about
1 meter long and 65 centimeters in diameter, with a fan at the front. Tesla never said
who the manufacturer of the engine was, though it was assumed that Westinghouse
had manufactured it. The clutch, gearbox and transmission to the rear wheels were
The "gravitational energy converter" was built by Tesla himself. The dimensions of
the converter housing were approximately 60 x 25 x 15 cm. The converter was
installed in front of the dashboard, and among other things it contained 12 electronic
valves "Vacuum Tubes", three of which were of a type: 70L7-GT, power rectifiers.
Out of the converter were: a heavy antenna of approximately 1.8 meters high and
two thick bars of 10 cm each.
Tesla’s Electric car
In 1931, Petar Savo, 32 years old, who was born in
Yugoslavia in 1899 and Tesla's nephew, was invited by
his uncle to go to New York, in order to reveal several of
Uncle and nephew moved to Buffalo, where Tesla
showed Petar his latest invention, which he called
"gravitational energy converter."
Tesla’s car , Pierce Arrow 1930
Tesla believed in transmitting the wireless power from the central plant of Niagara
Falls, thinking that this solution could be used by everyone in the future.
Tesla must have discussed the issue in depth together with his partner J.P. Morgan,
who was not convinced and ended up arguing about the issues that were not solved
like the security measures of the consumption of each car, or where the meters
would be installed. Probably the disagreement between Tesla and J.P. Morgan had
some influence on the removal of the J.P. Morgan WARDENCLYFFE project.
Tesla tested the full performance of his electric car for a week, casting the amazing
• The converter provides enough energy and power to feed an entire house, plus
the necessary to boost the car.
• The car reached the 1800 revolutions per minute without difficulty.
• Effortless speed reaching 90 miles per hour.
• There was no significant difference with gasoline cars.
• At a stop sign, a passerby observed that there were no fumes from the exhaust
pipe. As Petar obviously answered “It has got no motor!"
• The car did not have to charge batteries because there were no batteries.
As they said: “it was a wireless vehicle without batteries for propulsion, the energy
received was through the antenna, free energy, free of charge.”
Tesla knew he could not make his electric car come true, because nobody would
have allowed him a breakthrough that mighty for his era, and I am convinced that it
neither would be allowed in ours.
The energy source was a frame with electronic valves,
called “Vacuum tubes” located in the glove
compartment. Connected to the converter was a heavy
antenna about 1.8 meters long, which was sticking out
of the car. The antenna was fed to a tuner, once tuned to
the correct frequency it gave 240 volts to the input of
The electric car was kept at about 20 miles from Buffalo,
at a farm near Niagara Falls.
Juan Ortigosa García
The selected group of geniuses discovered the foundations of the electricity we use
today, although we still understand neither the nature nor the true functioning of the
The most important discoveries of Tesla, which he could not put in operation because
he was not allowed, are light years ahead of our knowledge and we will probably
never get to know them for the following reasons:
I have briefly analyzed the greatest geniuses of the
electricity, those who have discovered the basic laws of
the electric energy and those who have invented the
devices or equipment for practical use.
Probability many geniuses have remained out of my list
but I have selected the clearest minds I consider for the
case and purpose of this writing that through their
example may help us find convincing answers that
justifies the today “drought” in the knowledge of the
1. We have mistaken the course
of basic investigation .
2. The methodology of our
Universities restricts creativity.
3. Scientists today are not ready
for the discoveries.
4. We only advance in
innovation, which is to
improve what we already
know how to do, but we do
not know how to get started
at basic discoveries.
Juan Ortigosa with his first prototypes
The fathers of electricity are a great example to follow, we must learn from them:
their lives, their knowledge, manners and habits.
Juan Ortigosa García
Q Have we lost scientific creativity?
A Yes, because we have abandoned the metaphysics and our engineers leave the
Universities incapable to visualize with their minds, the physical phenomena
that formulas represent.
Q Are we all guilty for the loss of creativity?
A Yes, and for the following reasons:
• We use mathematical models to discover laws and dimensions of Physics that we
do not know, reaching to results that do not represent the physical phenomena.
• The mathematical models are fundamental in order to understand and preview
the future based on statistical variables but inadequate to predict the unknown
laws of Physics.
• Mathematics is a helpful tool, created by humans, like computer science,
computers or a GPS, but no tool created by man can become the teacher of his
creator. It would be ridiculous and absurd to think that someday computers will
discover the laws of Physics that humans have never imagined before.
It would be a great exercise to do and to answer the
Q Is all discovered or all invented?
A No, what we know is like a drop of water but what
we ignore is the ocean.
Q Why during the last 200 years, we still have no
discoveries in electricity?
A Because we have established an inadequate
methodology for basic research.
Juan Ortigosa García
On our planet we are still using Uranium, Gas and Crude oil, to obtain electric energy
that later we use with efficiency less than 10% of its possibilities.
If we keep on wasting energy as we are doing today, we will end with all the reserves,
we will not be able to leave our planet and reach another habitable before being
engulfed by our sun.
To a large extent, the enormous waste of electric energy is due to the lack new
discoveries about generation and uses of the electric energy.
With the multiplication of the electric power and water dissociation by inverse
resonance, all the energy problems of the planet would be solved.
The fathers of the electricity never had the restrictions
derived from wrongly applied mathematical models, like
we can appreciate here below:
1. None of them used the mathematical models for
2. All of them were self-taught persons in their
3. All of them found the solutions that they searched
for, in their minds.
4. All of them saw with their minds the laws of Physics
they were searching for.
5. None of them had professors in their specialty.
New Ortronic® power multiplier systems
Juan Ortigosa García
The Scientific world has never understood Nikola Tesla’s
electricity and has reduced it to a Theoretical Model
that does not really exist.
According to the Model, the useful power of a generator
is inversely proportional to the quality Q of the
Total Power = kVA = V I
Active Power= kW=V I Cos 𝜑 = Brown Color
Reactive Power = kVAr=VI Sen 𝜑 = Green Color
The quantity of useful power of a generator
depends on the quality factors Q, of the
engines’ windings connected to the
generators. The formula to calculate Q is
𝟐𝝅 = Known constant
𝒇 = Frequency in hertzs
𝑳 = Auto induction coefficient in Henries.
The motor is ideal when R = 0, in which
case, Q = infinite.
The great PARADOX of the Theoretical
Model is: That the ideal engine is the only
that produces no work. The work begins
when the engine is no longer the ideal and
increases as it moves away from the ideal
Juan Ortigosa García
The formula W=VICos𝛗, that universally is used to
calculate the electric power, is obtained in the following
In the equation, the second term in brackets is zero,
because it represents the average value of a sinusoidal
magnitude during a double period, and based on this
consideration the equation becomes:
W = V I Cos 𝝋
The Cos does not exist because electricity is not vectorial. The angle does not exist.
This formula does not represent the real electric power of an alternating current
• Ignorance of the true nature of the
• Efficiency below 10% of its real
• The Mathematical model used is only
valid for vectorial magnitudes and the
alternating current is not vectorial.
• The Ideal Motor is the only one that
does not produce any work.
• More than 90% of natural resources
used in the generation and utilization of
the alternating current are wasted.
THE IMPOSSIBLE CUBE
Best graphic representation of the
𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝟐𝝎𝒕 + φ 𝒅𝒕]
Juan Ortigosa García
With the mathematical model used it is not possible to:
Multiply the electric power in the alternating
Transmit electricity in the alternating current
Use hydrogen from water as a cheap and infinite
Guarantee the energy in the future.
Travel around our galaxy.
Competitive electric vehicles.
In the following figure, the blue graphic represents the variation of the sine of the angle
𝜑 , in the course of a full rotation, 2π radians or 360 degrees.
The sine of an angle is a vectorial magnitude, with a numerical module, a direction and a
sense, in this case a circular rotation.
But also the same graphic represents the voltage of an alternating current cycle,
knowing it is not vectorial, as shown below.
Juan Ortigosa García
In this case the variation of the sine of the angle 𝜑,
which is the same vectorial magnitude in the case of the
previous figure, represents an AC voltage cycle. But
knowing that electricity is not vectorial, we again have
to affirm that it is another great PARADOX, as in the
case of the impossible cube, in this case the impossible
generator, as we will see.
It cannot be the EFFECT, because in the time of a cycle,
which is 20 milliseconds at 50 Hertzs, would travel 6,000
Kms, which means that the circumference length would
have to be 6,000 Kms, at least, and there is no generator
of such dimensions and of course it would be impossible
The electrons cannot be either, because its maximum speed is 17 centimeters per
second and in 20 milliseconds the electrons would travel 0.34 cm, which means that
the length of the circumference should be 0.34cm, maximum, truly absurd.
The true conclusion is that there is no element, nor effect, which turns in a
circumference, because electricity is not vectorial, electricity moves in other
dimensions that represents the true physical phenomenon.
Ortronic®, with no Paradoxes, Limitations nor Incoherencies
Ortronic® is a registered trademark, which represents the technology developed by
the Scientific Juan Ortigosa García and the products derived therefrom.
Ortronic® technology is based on the discovery of new dimensions of the electricity;
which allows us to say that it is A NEW CONCEPT OF THE ELECTRICITY.
Ortronic® technology cannot be understood from the basis of traditional knowledge,
for the following reasons:
• Traditional knowledge does not represent the true physical phenomenon.
• As we have seen, the mathematical model is false.
Ortronic® technology is the only technology known today which has solved the
limitations and incoherencies aforementioned, allowing, to multiply the active power,
the transmission of electricity without cables and the AC resonance or inverse
resonance without using capacitors. From its knowledge are derivate fundamental
applications for the progress of humanity.
Juan Ortigosa García
The Universal Laws of Physics do not change, what
changes is the true knowledge of them, there are many
examples in History of Science, taking for example:
batteries, which were used for a hundred years without
really knowing how they worked.
Ortronic® does not contradict the universal law of
conservation of energy or the first law of
thermodynamics: “Energy is neither created nor
destroyed; it is only transformed”
The bases that Ortronic® contradicts are:
1. The traditional knowledge about electricity, because it is incomplete and
2. The mathematical model used for calculation, because it does not represent
the physical phenomenon, it limits its widespread use and denies the
theoretical possibility of “perpetual motion”.
If the Cosmos is not a “perpetual motion”, where is the gas station of the Cosmos?
Ortronic® is the result of a new method for Scientific Research, based on Aristotle's
Metaphysics in the interpretation advocated by J. Gómez Caffarena, and understood
by the Greek meaning “Beyond the Physics.”
The modern scientific methodology, based on the search for mathematical models
that allow us to discover new dimensions of physics, in the light of the conclusions of
this essay and the results of the last 200 years, can be considered a true failure.
Ortronic® Technology represents today, the bases of a new awakening of the
Madrid, november ,2011
Juan Ortigosa García
Scientist, Inventor and Entrepreneur.
Chairman & Technical Director of Ortronic Technology, S.L.
Company E-mail: email@example.com
Personal E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org