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Proceedings of the symposium on enery efficiency ok rexel markup final


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Energy efficiency is now considered by experts and politicians alike to be one of the primary economic and social solutions to the current energy crisis.
This conference organised by Rexel and the CGEMP will be the opportunity to draw up concrete energy efficiency programs and to explore a number of different avenues:

- How will energy efficiency measures be able to bring about cost savings and create jobs?
- How do users behave when confronted with these issues and how can we assist them, in particular in residential buildings?
- Faced with these developments in technology and practices, what role should companies operating in the energy sector, public authorities and consumers play, in France and in Europe?

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Proceedings of the symposium on enery efficiency ok rexel markup final

  1. 1. ENERGY EFFICIENCY: AN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY Proceedingsof the Rexel – CGEMP symposium Université Paris Dauphine January 24th, 2012
  2. 2. I. Introduction :Patrice GeoffronDirector of the CGEMP, Université Paris DauphineJean-Marie ChevalierMember of the CGEMP, Université Paris DauphineJean-Charles PauzeChairman of the Management Board, and Chief Executive Officer ofRexelPatrice GeoffronDirector of the CGEMP, Université Paris DauphineBackground informationEnergy is at the heart of a great number of issues.At an international level, the Fukushima disaster calls into question the production of nuclear-generated electricity. It is thus important to quickly think about energy demand management.At the same time, the economic crisis and the rise of energy prices increase fuel poverty,hence the crucial importance of housing energy efficiency.Fuel poverty means that some households have to spend over 10% of their income onenergy. 13% of French households are in this situation, 36% if you include low-incomehomes.Philippe de la Doucette, head of the CRE (Committee for the Regulation of Energy, a Frenchquasi-autonomous non-governmental organisation), announced a few days ago that in 2016electricity prices will be 30% higher than today.As unemployment rates rise and purchasing power declines, this is a highly explosivecombination of factors.Energy efficiency is the solution to this problem.According to EU statistics, it could represent an extra 1,000€ of purchasing power per yearper household. -2-
  3. 3. Jean-Marie Chevalier – economistMember of the CGEMP, Université Paris DauphineWe reached a particularly difficult moment in the history of energy, because we juststarted dealing with climate change, a phenomenon that had been loftily ignored for a verylong time.We live in a world full of insecurity: the future of energy has never been so uncertain, as isevident from the events we have been witnessing for a year: the shale gas revolution in theUnited States and its ban in France, the Fukushima disaster, the Arab Spring whoseconsequences remain largely unknown, the German ban on nuclear power… It‟s a fast-moving world. One may wonder what the next crisis will be.With such a background, thinking about energy efficiency is a win-win game, provided thatyou can fund it. Eric Besson, the French minister for industry, energy and digital economy,describes energy efficiency as a strategic choice, under all scenarios.Rexel published a very accurate international survey on energy efficiency that concretelycompares the situation in different countries. Some may not agree, but to my knowledge nocomparative study has been conducted.The European directive on energy efficiency is very important. It is an extremely clever pieceof legislation, we will discuss it later.The recent roundtable organized by the government shows that the global initiative onenergy efficiency is gaining momentum.Under most scenarios, the share of electricity in the global energy consumption is expectedto rise further. It is a problem, especially during peak periods. Electricity has become acrucial utility for about fifteen years; we just can‟t live without it. The 1999 blackout was kindof fun, because it was so uncanny to be powerless for a couple of hours. Today, not beingable to charge our appliances is a big issue.FundingWe are in a difficult period. Regional and local authorities have limited funds, utilitycompanies are not as rich as they used to be fifteen years ago. The price of electricity doesnot necessarily reflect its full cost.Mr de la Doucette‟s statement is both courageous and very cautious.He said that, all else being equal, given the current legislation, electricity prices are expectedto rise by 30% between 2012 and 2016. Everyone says that electricity prices are cheaper inFrance than anywhere else: well, yes and no, because network maintenance costs are nottaken into account, and these will inevitably increase. Put differently, French households aregoing to undergo an increase in prices of basic goods which will undermine their purchasingpower. Fuel poverty is a major issue. We must be honest with users: rising prices mean theywon‟t be able to consume as much as they did in the past, and they are going to feel thedifference.In France, the Court of Accounts(Cour des Comptes) remarked that the measures of theGrenelleEnvironnement1 must be funded through credit reallocation. For lack of will, this hasnot been achieved, and for want of courage, nothing has been done yet to tax the gasconsumption of big trucks. It‟s like running away to fight another day. It seems that somedare not take bold decisions because they seek re-election.Tax revenue must be spent on projects which prioritize energy efficiency while helping thepoorest households. It is not about giving checks, but creating incentives.The issue of energy efficiency is multidimensional: it has economic, financial, political andsocial aspects. The latter is going to gain importance in the coming months.1A multi-party debate in France on environmental issues -3-
  4. 4. Jean-Charles PauzeChairman of the Management Board, REXEL groupWhy does Rexel participate to this debate? The industry is faced on a daily basis with theissues which are being discussed here. The problem is global and multifaceted and shouldbe dealt with as such.From the entrepreneur‟s point of view, adapting to our fast-moving world is essential. We areconfronted to energy efficiency issues every day, that‟s why we must find solutions and strikenew partnerships. That‟s the reason why we are here today.Implementing solutions to spare energy is an important part of our business: how can weadapt them to the requirements of construction companies? This is a long-standing technicalissue.The necessary shift in behaviours is a more recent question. How are users supposed toreact? We are less prepared to tackle this aspect of the problem, since we are in contact withother professionals, and not with the other end of the supply chain.We have been striving to gain a better grasp of these issues since 2008, though. Launchingour international survey on energy efficiency last year was a big symbol of this. One of theresults is that our solutions must be both practical and sustainable. That‟s what our businesshas to be about.Technical aspectsParticipants will soon talk about the passive part. Things are already moving forward in thisrespect.As for the active part, that is electric appliances, I couldn‟t agree more with Jean-Marie;electricity conveys power, but also data. We depend on it more than ever, and we must befully aware of the global systemic risks our society is exposed to, should a big energy crisisoccur.Funding and education are two of the issues we are facing. We must be able to implementworkable solutions as soon as possible. For example, it still takes a couple of years to recoupthe cost of energy saving lamps, which is too long.40% of global energy consumption is used to power buildings, which is precisely our job.Low energy buildings use four to five times less energy! The stakes are very high! As hasbeen said already, it represents an extra 1,000€ of purchasing power per household.As emerged from the answers to the first question of the international survey we conductedin France, the UK, the USA and Germany, 90% of the respondents consider that energyefficiency is a relevant issue! The 2008 crisis most certainly influenced people‟s attitudes. Buton the other hand, when asked if they feel familiar with energy efficiency, or if they haveheard about zero-rate eco-loans, only 40% know what it‟s about. There is a huge gap to bebridged.It is clear that our interaction with a wide range of stakeholders within the energy sector andour outreach to thousands of clients give us a unique role and make us responsible formoving forward. -4-
  5. 5. II. ConferencePhilippe Pelletier Lawyer,President of the Strategic Committee of the GrenelleBuilding PlanArmand AjdariDeputy R&D Vice President, SAINT-GOBAINSilvia-Adriana ŢicăuMember of the European Parliament, Energy Specialist, Rapporteur onthe Directive on the energy performance of buildings in 2008-2010Bernard LaponcheNuclear Physicist, Engineer, Expert in Energy EconomyColette LewinerGlobal Leader of Energy, Utilities & Chemicals, CAPGEMINIFabien RoquesIHS CERA Director (Cambridge Energy Research Associates)Philippe Pelletier – lawyer,President of the Strategic Committee of the GrenelleBuilding PlanToday I would like to focus on the renovation of pre-existing buildings. I will omit theimportant issue of construction norms, for the greatest problem is renovation.Opening statementWhat is the stake of energy efficiency in buildings?I will make three points afterwards to answer this question.Taking into account energy efficiency in buildings is going to change everything. We mustbring about nothing short of a revolution: it‟s not about doing things slightly better thanbefore, but doing them differently. Constructing a low-energy building will require newmethods. Adding up different skilled trades on the same construction site is not enough, theyneed to work together. Otherwise the building‟s air-tightness may be insufficient, for instance.On the other hand, if we don‟t change our behaviour as users (in the office or at home),obviously very little is going to happen. Besides, if homeowners don‟t take into accountrenovation works, the value of their property will go down. Seeking energy efficiency inbuildings in order to reduce energy costs will require deep changes.Helping the poorestAs President of the Strategic Committee of the Grenelle Building Plan, I did my best to targetthe poorest. Fuel poverty does exist in our country. Looking at the numbers, nowadays over3,800,000 households spend 10% of their income on heating.In the past years, the government‟s strategy consisted in helping them pay their bills(Housing Solidarity Fund, fuel oil premium). Now the paradigm has changed: public moneymust be used to control bills! A few simple steps: insulating the roof, changing the windowpanes, updating the heating system.We set up a 1.3 billion euro-programme in partnership with the National Housing Agencyaiming at lifting 300,000 households out of fuel poverty in 6 years. A ratio of 300,000 out ofover 3 million is certainly not enough, but it is already a huge achievement.Contrary to common beliefs, these people are senior citizens and homeowners, living indetached houses in rural areas. The issue of care-dependency thus adds up to fuel poverty! -5-
  6. 6. Helping the average citizenEarlier you hinted at the fact that our tools are complicated and unfamiliar. Renovating ourhousing is a long-term goal; it won‟t be done until 2050, that is, two generations. I am tryingto overcome the misperception that everything should be done all at once. The reason is thatnot only do we have to take concrete steps, but we must also foster a progressive culturalshift of our entire society. Renovating your house is not a natural thing to do. Think about it;compare your house with your parents‟: what has changed? Yes, you might have changedthe carpet and the wallpaper, but usually that‟s about it. Renovating is by no means atradition.We must design services that are relevant to the owners‟ requirements and not disappointthem. But it takes time. Companies are progressively gaining competence in the field ofenergy efficiency and are increasingly able to provide adequate services. It took time forpolicy-makers to implement incentives, but now the system is ready.Why not make renovation toward more energy efficiency a mandatory requirementinstead of relying on incentives?The Grenelle II law provides that the office park nationwide had to undergo renovation worksbetween 2012 and 2020. The government asked me to write the order in council which woulddefine precisely what energy efficiency renovation works consist of.Here is my question: is it responsible today (letting aside the upcoming presidential election)to burden companies with such renovation works on their premises, especially at a timewhen regional and local authorities are not able to fund supporting measures?There is no other way, though. If we don‟t act,we might weaken our image), but if we do, youmust know that legislation is going to be loosely enforced. At this point I don‟t know what torecommend to the government. The system is ready…The only good news is that half of the 40% energy savings that must be achieved by 2020depends on a shift in behaviours: fine tuning of thermostats, more cautious maintenanceworks… Why not take these first steps? There will still be 20% left to achieve, but the firstpart is easier to implement. -6-
  7. 7. Armand AjdariDeputy R&D Vice President, SAINT-GOBAINI would like to give my viewpoint as an industrialist: Saint-Gobain is a 40 billion-eurobusiness, an international group which spends 400 million euros on R&D.We are the most advanced construction company in terms of technology solutions. Our goalis to become the industry leader on sustainable housing. Our job is to offer comfortablehomes. Most importantly, you may want to know that buildings represent 40% of the overallenergy consumption!Almost nothing has been done so far. Compared to what we can achieve, today‟s buildingsare a real “thermal sieve”! Right now we don‟t need a technological change: solutions alreadyexist, but are not implemented. We just don‟t have an energy efficiency sector ready yet. Weneed a genuine revolution: the biggest energy source on the planet is to be found in energyefficient buildings. One more thing to bear in mind: China builds much more homes everyyear than we will renovate in twenty years.The reason why our homes are “sieves” and our sector is little qualified is that we don‟t thinkenough about what a smart building is like, a building adapted to all kinds of constraints:climatic, cultural, social, and local. You need an adequate high-performance material to wraparound buildings with. But such buildings won‟t get the full extent of energy efficiency unlessyou are using low-energy appliances in them. Thinking of renewable energies and buildingsas two separate things is missing the point of efficiency… We must learn to think of buildingsas mini-power plants. Renewable sources of energy can be part of a building and supply itwith power as a self-relying unit. Once again, let‟s remember that educating people andchanging behaviours is important: for instance, it is useless to have double-glazed windows ifyou leave them open.An aspect of the problem has been largely neglected so far: improving our commercialrelationship and promoting public knowledge of the latest evolutions. The construction sectorneeds people able to conduct product demos; unfortunately, it is immeasurably more difficultand complex to present a demo on efficient buildings than to present a smart phone‟s newapps.Let me take an example: the multi-comfort house. It uses less than 40 kW/h per m2 per yearand produces over 60 kW/h thanks to solar panels. It produces more energy than it uses,and most of all it doesn‟t use much. Highly-insulating windows allow coolness in the summer,warmth in the winter. Philippe Pelletier “The house of the future is beautiful! It is wrong to imagine that energy efficient houses are going to look like thermos flasks or blockhouses. We must combat such misconceptions, buildings can be both energy efficient and beautiful. Besides, it is hardly more expensive than a regular building.”Armand AjdariAnother special feature of new houses is that now a building‟s energy efficiency is decidedoff-plan. But then there‟s not actual verification! That‟s why buyers often wonder if promiseswill be kept. It‟s quite a shame, whereas a caris always checked after being built.Our sector must make its expertise known by developing certificates of quality, taking energyconsumption after a year as a criterion. Homeowners too often notice that energyconsumption is superior to what they were promised.About renovation70% of the buildings which will be used in 2050 already exist, that‟s why renovation is apriority. People usually don‟t have their house renovated for economic reasons, but when it -7-
  8. 8. gets too dirty or severely damaged. Given that the savings that energy-efficient buildings canachieve represent the biggest source of energy on the planet, renovating a home regardlessof energy would be almost criminal. A house should be retrofitted permanently, not onlyevery 20 years. Energy has to be taken into account when it comes to renovating a building.Public incentives are necessary, because renovating takes more than re-building. Thegovernment should lead the way by renovating public buildings and offering demos. -8-
  9. 9. Silvia-Adriana Ţicău– Member of the European ParliamentEnergy specialist. Rapporteur on the Directive on the energyperformance of buildings in 2008-2010Here are the main goals of the directive on energy efficiency of the EuropeanParliament: Cutting energy consumption by 20% by 2020 while ensuring that basic needs are met (promoting renovation, fostering a shift in behaviours, etc.). Each MemberState is free to decide on its reduction rate, provided that it is no lower than 20%. Promoting and installing smart metres. Implementing measuring and certification systems for energy efficiency, in particular for buildings.This directive establishes a common framework for energy efficiency, and the top prioritygoal is to lower energy consumption by 20%. Each MemberState must see to it that fromJanuary 1st 2014 on, public authorities renovate annually 3% of their floor space.Besides, Member States must design an energy efficiency obligation scheme aimed atensuring that all energy distributors achieve annual energy savings equal to 1.3% of theirenergy sales, by volume, in the previous year. Member States must also ensure thatcustomers are equipped with smart metres, accurately measuring their actual consumption.By January 1st 2014, Member States shall establish and notify to the Commission a nationalheating and cooling plan for developing the potential for the application of high-efficiencycogeneration and efficient district heating and cooling. Besides, they shall assess theefficiency of their national energy system.By April 30each year, Member States shall report on the progress achieved towards nationalenergy efficiency targets.Amendments currently being discussed at the European ParliamentThis directive raises an intense debate among MEPs. They present amendments onmandatory and optional targets, also aiming at tackling fuel poverty. We are currentlydiscussing the quantification of objectives and time-related issues (number of square metresto be renovated annually, deadlines, etc.)Funding is obviously a crucial issue. You cannot require people to renovate their homes ifyou don‟t support them financially. That‟s why we are trying to increase the percentage ofstructural funds allocated to Member States for energy efficiency, knowing that many fundsdevoted to side tasks could be better distributed.Council’s proposalsThe Council already started to work on this topic. It hasn‟t reached a final agreement yet, butthe Danish Presidency set energy efficiency as one of its top goals. We are striving to reachan agreement at the European Parliament in first reading so as to take advantage of thispolitical opportunity.As for the annual renovation of 3% of the floor space, the Council would like to exempt localauthorities, religious buildings or constructions with historic or cultural significance.The Council suggests that smart metres should be given to households for free (80% ofcitizens must be equipped with electricity smart metres by 2020). As far as heating andcooling are concerned, the Commission is thinking about a cost-benefit analysis of each kindof renovation works. -9-
  10. 10. Future goals of the ParliamentThe Parliament is very ambitious; MEPs want to take one step further. We are hoping for anagreement in first reading so as to take advantage of the Danish Presidency and not loseanother six months. - 10 -
  11. 11. Bernard Laponche – Nuclear physicist, engineerExpert in energy economyMy first reaction is: “At last!” Energy efficiency is not a by-product of the 2009 crisis. It onlybecomes a political issue now, but many have been issuing warnings for almost half acentury… Actually the real starting point was the 1974 oil crisis.If you take a close look at what has been done so far, you must recognize that significantefforts were made at European level. If the consumption pattern in 1974 had been confirmed,we would have used twice more energy in 2010 than we actually did. European directivesand other policies have thus had a real impact, although we should be far more ambitious.This issue is complicated and must be taken seriously. Energy efficiency compriseslegislative as well as fiscal aspects, but also sector-specific topics. Today our debate ismostly on buildings, but industry and transportation are also affected by energy efficiencynorms. Too often only the supply side of the problem is considered, but demand is also avaried, complex and interesting issue which requires the same amount of attention and effort!We must not only consume less energy, but also change our consumption patterns. Half ofthe power used in homes and offices goes to specific consumption, that is audio-visualappliances, computers, etc.What matters is cutting primary energy consumption.This commitment also involves cuttingelectricity consumption: so much can be done in this field. Half of it is specific consumption,i.e. domestic appliances, etc. Here a different kind of companies is involved: domesticappliances manufacturers.Current political goals are ambitious given the state of our economy.Engines, for instance, make up 70% of the global industrial electricity consumption. It is thusnecessary to dramatically improve the efficiency of industrial machinery. Other fact: whereastransportation only accounts for 3% of the global electricity consumption, heating represents60%! However I wouldn‟t mind if the transportation sector consumed three times moreelectricity up to 10%, it would represent a significant effort to move away from fossil fuels.Organizing our systemWe know about best practice. We have gained a significant experience in many sectors. Nowit‟s all about political will. The difficult part is that energy efficiency is a quite horizontal fieldcomprising many sectors; besides, consumers cannot be made responsible for all theproblems. What we need is middle-men with an expertise working on the ground: a Frenchmayor willing to take action often doesn‟t know who to speak to.First need: creating a competence network.Besides, I would like to mention pilot schemes: not only are they rarely discussed, but theyalso often remain experiments and are never implemented on a broader scale, especiallywhen they depend on public funds.Second need: financial incentive schemes.For example, a semi-public company could work as a middle-man between consumers andthe industry. The ultimate goal is to enable consumers to write off their investment thanks toenergy savings, but initial funds are needed to get started. - 11 -
  12. 12. Colette LewinerGlobal Leader of Energy, Utilities & Chemicals, CAPGEMINII am going to leave the macro level and present to you a series of experiments on energyefficiency in order to give you an insight into how equipment and price can affect the users‟behaviour: Installation of smart metres in ItalyRelying on the automated meter reading (AMR) technology, this experiment is the first of itskind in Europe and took place between 2002 and 2009. The level of energy losses ondomestic networks was very high due to electricity theft. Smart metres solved the problem.Service quality definitely improved, but bills showed that very little power was spared.However, the return on investment was pretty good since security and supply improved. Time-of-use rates in CanadaThe government in Ontario set up time-of-use rates for electricity: summer rates, winterrates, holiday rates… with maximum rates at peak periods. This experiment, requiring smartmetres, yielded very convincing results since peak consumption was smoothed down, withusers consuming more outside the peak period. The overall result is a 6% cut on globalconsumption for 75% of the users affected by the programme. LED balls in CaliforniaThis is an example of a much simpler technology. Californian energy suppliers decided tooffer their customers, who so wish, a LED ball whose colour changes according to theconsumption period. This very easy technique, which does not impact the energy supply,surprisingly increases efficiency. It shows that cheaper electricity bills do not necessarilyimply more complex equipment. Customers adjust their consumption according to the colour-changing LED ball, using less power during peak periods. This experiment had a significantimpact on users‟ behaviours.Smart metres are a popular topic in Europe, but the user must interact with the metre if youwant to see results: the first generation of Linky metres didn‟t allow such an interaction sinceyou couldn‟t tell how much power you had used up. In Europe, however, this raises thequestion of personal data, whereas in the US users turn over energy management tospecialized private companies, or directly to the energy distributors themselves.One last essential aspect: informing users.We must get an insight into the users‟ behaviours: using segmentation, marketing andcommunication methods is crucial to reach out directly to users and inform them. As the LEDball experiment suggests, a shift in behaviours is the first way to improve energy efficiency.The simplest operations are the most successful.Smart metres alone are not enough. You need to set up digital displays in the living room orin the kitchen and to connect metres onto smart phones so that the user can take a glance athis real-time consumption. Most importantly, they are useless unless you get them out of thebasement. - 12 -
  13. 13. Fabien RoquesIHS CERA Director (Cambridge Energy Research Associates)The declared target of the European Union is to cut energy consumption by 20%, but if wefollow the current trend I‟m afraid we won‟t do more than 10-11%. These numbers are similarto those found in some of the Commission‟s studies.A range of technologies could help us curb our consumption, be it at home or in theoffice. The “green scenario” drawn up in the Ecodesign directive lists some of them.In the household sector, putting appliances on standby mode is a solution. As you may havenoticed if you bought a new TV set, modern domestic appliances switch off automaticallyafter being put on standby: it‟s a quite simple way of saving energy. This significant change isa good example of a successful policy.In the commercial and industrial sector, things are not as easy. Lighting and heating are thetwo main targets. So far we have identified targets and the technical solutions that must beimplemented.When it comes to housing renovation, an interesting limitation deserves to be mentioned: theprincipal-agent theory.When you buy a home you often lack information about energy efficiency. Besides, it‟s not inthe landlord‟s interest to renovate if only the tenant is going to benefit from it. In return, it‟snot in the tenant‟s interest to renovate his home if the works become profitable only after tenyears when he‟s not likely to live there anymore.Another financial problem is return rates.The initial funding is not always possible, and return rates are often unknown!This kind of double jeopardy is the reason why energy efficiency investments are still difficult.The British Green Deal, a very promising example:This initiative includes an array of innovations in the field of housing renovation: lower if notzero initial investment cost, less paperwork and administrative procedure…The government created an investment bank offering low interest rate loans. Householdsand bankers struck a deal: the loan repayment is attached to the house itself. If you sell yourhome, you also sell the loan that helped make the house more energy efficient. Thistechnique is being expended on a broad scale.So far the UK is the most advanced country in Europe in this field.Energy efficiency is also a network management issue. A distinction must be madebetween two aspects: sustained energy demand management on the one hand, and rollingblackouts on the other. Rolling blackouts, also referred to as load shedding, is a last resortway of avoiding a complete blackout during peak periods. Rolling blackouts have spread veryquickly in the US since 2005. InFrance, on the contrary, rolling blackouts have decreasedsteadily since 2000. We consume more and more. In 2000 you could make up for a four-degree drop in temperature merely by resorting to rolling blackouts. Today, rolling blackoutscan only make up for 1°C, all things being equal. In ten years we have become much morevulnerable to temperature drops, because we consume more electricity. - 13 -
  14. 14. III. Questions and answersWho benefits from the promotion of energy efficiency?Colette LewinerUsers certainly do, but it is less certain that utility companies do, since they aren‟t interestedin lower sales. They are more interested in rolling blackouts. That‟s why we need a paradigmshift through regulatory certifications.Reducing peak periods is in the interest of the economy!For the rest, Californian regulators obliged utility companies to raise their rates only whenthey were cutting power consumption… they basically get paid for selling less!This paradigm shift affects all energy companies, not only those selling kWh.Fabien RoquesIt‟s hard to say who benefits from energy efficiency today. We don‟t have a system ofeconomic incentives, and we need to design it now!Today people buy energy, tomorrow they will pay for the service that energy represents.Once this system is implemented, users will obviously benefit from it, as well all those playingsome other part in this important innovative sector.Soon all actors will be involved, from equipment to energy suppliers.Philippe PelletierWe must think about the issue of the value of real estate.For example, at the business district of la Défense, big companies take energy efficiencygrades into account when they buy office space. Project developers must adapt, offer moreenergy efficient buildings, and suppliers will adapt, too.The same logic prevails for households: real estate agencies display small posters showingthe energy efficiency of the homes they sell.Is there a genuine energy efficiency industry in France?Jean-Charles PauzeAn energy efficiency sector has yet to be created, and it will include several components.Manufacturers are able to improve their products, but what matters most is their ability tocooperate. It doesn‟t make sense to separate things. So yes, the industry itself exists, butnow we must ensure coherence between its members.The industry isn‟t informed enough; it cannot find its way around, that‟s why a lot needs to bedone to inform and above all train the various stakeholders.We‟ve done a lot in this direction, but the system won‟t succeed unless we ensure it iscoherent. - 14 -
  15. 15. Does energy efficiency entail high additional costs when it comes torenovation?Silvia-Adriana ŢicăuThe European directive requires that if renovation costs exceed a certain threshold, publicauthorities are liable for the cost. Every possible step should be taken to ensure that theenergetic benefits of renovation are taken into account.Philippe PelletierAccessibility of buildings should serve as a pretext to deal with renovation and its costs.According to French building trade associations, energy efficiency accounts for nearly half ofthe global renovation budget.Additional costs are high, but on the other hand this evolution makes sense for real estate.Landlords have a vested interest in the rise of a building‟s price. Energy performancecontracts setting concrete goals are an interesting novelty in this respect.Philippe Pelletier explained that renovation was a revolution in the buildingsector. Since energy efficiency is a cross-cutting problem, different tradesmust cooperate to make something new together. Building a smartneighbourhood is an even more horizontal undertaking. Unfortunately,although energy efficiency is becoming familiar, it is too often thought aboutsector by sector.The big question is to know whether it is possible to achieve energy efficiencynationwide through a long-term cross-cutting initiative.Philippe PelletierI couldn‟t agree more with what has just been said. I would like to illustrate your point andmention another aspect.A process of certification of construction companies is taking place. Building tradeassociations agreed that from 2014 on only qualified companies will be able to benefit frompublic funding, such as zero-rate eco-loans.Secondly, energy efficiency also affects regulation. Demand for higher quality products isgrowing and customers have an increasingly accurate knowledge of energy efficiencymeasures.Bernard LaponcheI am convinced that energy efficiency should be a collective cross-cutting undertaking, justlike public transportation in suburban areas.However, although I am not against it, I don‟t believe in the rise of electric cars. I am afraidthat promoting electric cars isn‟t the proper way to foster a shift in behaviours. - 15 -
  16. 16. Member of the audienceI work for the electric automobile industry and I believe that a whole range of solutions exist,and electric cars are one of them.As far as buildings are concerned, in my opinion government and society as a whole have along-term interest in sparing energy, since it will become profitable on the long run. We areslowly getting started.Should energy efficiency become a mandatory requirement for private companies? Sparingenergy will enable them to write off future investments. The state of the economy matters:when it is good, no one talks about sparing energy, but when it goes wrong then people startthinking. Government funds are necessary to help and to ensure that everyone is on anequal footing, by supporting training programmes and by controlling loans.Are there ways to know if energy efficiency policies are successful or not?Armand AjdariCompanies committed to sparing energy by implementing energy efficiency improve theirimage because they allegedly protect the environment by emitting less CO2.Hiring more qualified employees makes a company more efficient, they are its driving force.Some of the final users are aware of the issue of energy efficiency and have an increasedaccess to information.Clients tell us about what they‟ve found on the internet on energy efficiency and we must beable to meet their new expectations and requirements. Clients and craftsmen ask us forinformation, especially about regulation and incentive policies, our services and the productswe use. They know what they want and make us want to work for them.Philippe PelletierIn France, the Court of Accounts has just published a report that criticizes harshly the waypublic money is spent on the Grenelle, although the Building Plan is spared by thesecriticisms.The costliest and least efficient measure is the sustainable development tax credit. Thegovernment uses it to make equipment more efficient, but it‟s difficult to see exactly whatgood this measure does.Lending money to owners and joint owners through a collective eco-loan would actually besimpler and more efficient. - 16 -
  17. 17. How efficient are public policies, particularly tax credits?Colette LewinerRegulatory solutions are possible, provided that they are enforced, but it‟s rarely the case.Can you check the way public subsidies are actually used by beneficiaries? It is verycomplicated, and I don‟t trust too complex and unenforceable measures.Bernard LaponcheOne way to achieve results is simply to create legal standards.For instance, California put a ban on appliances that consume too much energy!Armand AjdariSystems promoting solar panels have been implemented by several countries.Implementing energy efficiency in buildings is a difficult task, because landlords and tenantsalike have no short-term interest in doing it, hence the inertia of the building sector.Cooperation on energy efficiency should help design a technical certification system, asmarter labelling scheme, the long-run target being state-of-the-art energy efficiency normsfor buildings.Fabien RoquesTax credits have a distorting impact on the market, but they are a good incentive. Most of theequipment selected by public authorities is twice more expensive.It‟s a fact, state aids necessarily make prices go up.Colette LewinerBeware of labyrinthine legislation.Is there a way to organize the sector towards sales to private homeowners?How can services be formatted and simplified towards more accessibility?Silvia-Adriana ŢicăuThe Energy Performance Contract is an important first step as it provides necessaryinformation.Philippe PelletierRaising awareness is essential; every opportunity should be seized to reach out to the public!People should be made aware of energy audits when they buy or sell a house.Joint owners should be made to cooperate and have their property audited.As for poor households, it is necessary to assist them until they are granted a state aid. Weimplemented “work bundles” combining different operations. It is arguable that zero-rate eco-loans should target renovation works.Helping households is a good way to improve electric efficiency. - 17 -
  18. 18. IV. ConclusionJean-Charles PauzeEnergy efficiency must be seen as a global societal issue.What matters is that promises on energy efficiency be actually kept!We need to work together in this sector and raise the awareness of end users. One cannotwork on his own. The sector‟s key actors should cooperate and complement each other ifthey want to move forward.Educating and raising public awareness is essential.To change their behaviours, peoplemust be taught what energy efficiency really is.structure à revoir.Let me take two examples: in the UK, it took us around a year to make parking lot ownersunderstand that it was efficient to install remote-controlled low-energy lamps (return oninvestment after less than a year). In gas stations on the side of the highway, 98% of the air-conditioning motorsare very old, worn out and consume a lot of energy… Only by educatingpeople can we foster change.Two points made during the conference seem crucial to me: The end user:He undergoes most of the change, and therefore needs to be educated to accept policies. Collective work and assessment:It is clear that the most advanced countries are those where the government, industry andother actors cooperate.Jean-Marie ChevalierIn France, the national loan scheme (“Grand emprunt”) has been little discussed. Part of itwill be spent on universities, another part on innovative energy projects in the framework ofthe Grenelle Plan.I am struck to see how innovative these projects are: if I were a student here at Dauphineattending this meeting, I would say to myself: „This is fantastic, there are so many futureopportunities out there!‟ On the one hand, energy is getting more and more expensive, andon the other hand citizens and consumers are getting aware of the advantages of energyefficiency.I realize that everything that has been said here calls for new business models: thisformidable undertaking will bring about new jobs, along with innovative and smart solutionsfor the future. - 18 -