What is history


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American history I

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  • History is a systematic study of evidence collected from the human past, in whatever form this evidence exists. This evidence could be in the form of written records or spoken words.
  • What is history

    1. 1. Studying the Past
    2. 2. What is History? “History is fundamentally applied common sense.” Robin W. Winks, Yale Historian “History is the witness that testifies to the passing of time; it illuminates reality, vitalizes memory, provides guidance in daily life and brings us tidings of antiquity.” Cicero, Roman Author, Orator and Politician, 106 BCE- 43 BCE “History is the version of past events that people have decided to agree upon.” Napoleon “Some people make headlines while others make history.” Philip Elmer-DeWitt, in Time Magazine
    3. 3. What is History? History is the story of the human community. History details how people live on a daily basis, share ideas, how they rule or are ruled and how they fought. History is the story of people’s dreams, weather they are fulfilled or not. When did history begin? History began when people were able to document events in writing. Events that occurred before people could write them down are considered prehistoric. Humans began writing about 3500 BCE.
    4. 4. Dating the Past There are 4 major methods scientists use to date the past. They are as follows: Historical Records Dendrochronology-Tree Ring Dating Radiocarbon Dating Potassium Argon Dating (Measures the Decay Rate of 40K Atoms)
    5. 5. Historical Records
    6. 6. Geolithic Period The current Geolithic period is the Quaternary, which is divided into two epochs: Pleistocene-Ice Age (about 2.4 million years ago). Holocene-Holos is Greek for “recent.” This is the period of time after 10,000 BCE. It is the present time.
    7. 7. Categories of History History can be organized into the following categories: Political Economic Social Religious Scientific Cultural
    8. 8. Studying History Anthropology is the term used for the science that studies humans as a species. Archaeology is the term used for the study of past cultures and civilizations through the examination of their artifacts (items made by humans.) Historiography is the written form of history.
    9. 9. Civilization A civilization is a complex, developed culture associated with specific achievements such as: Agriculture Urban Life Specialized Labor Writing System
    10. 10. Civilization Civilizations have: Urban Focus Political Structures Military Structures Social Structure based on Economic Power Development of More Complexity in a Material Sense Distinct Religious Structure Development of Writing Artistic Intellectual Activity
    11. 11. Civilization
    12. 12. Culture Culture is the human created part of the environment, “way of life.” The concept of culture was developed by anthropologists to describe the unique adaptive system used by human beings. A cultural system is a complex system which includes interacting variables such as tools, burial customs, ways of obtaining food, religious beliefs and social organization. Material Culture is concrete objects that people create.
    13. 13. Culture
    14. 14. Diffusion Theory Diffusion Theory is the knowledge of new techniques spread through human contacts.
    15. 15. Diffusion Theory