History is a systematic study of evidence collected from the human past, in whatever form this evidence exists. This evidence could be in the form of written records or spoken words.
What is history
Studying the Past
What is History? “History is fundamentally applied common sense.” Robin W. Winks, Yale Historian “History is the witness that testifies to the passing of time; it illuminates reality, vitalizes memory, provides guidance in daily life and brings us tidings of antiquity.” Cicero, Roman Author, Orator and Politician, 106 BCE- 43 BCE “History is the version of past events that people have decided to agree upon.” Napoleon “Some people make headlines while others make history.” Philip Elmer-DeWitt, in Time Magazine
What is History? History is the story of the human community. History details how people live on a daily basis, share ideas, how they rule or are ruled and how they fought. History is the story of people’s dreams, weather they are fulfilled or not. When did history begin? History began when people were able to document events in writing. Events that occurred before people could write them down are considered prehistoric. Humans began writing about 3500 BCE.
Dating the Past There are 4 major methods scientists use to date the past. They are as follows: Historical Records Dendrochronology-Tree Ring Dating Radiocarbon Dating Potassium Argon Dating (Measures the Decay Rate of 40K Atoms)
Geolithic Period The current Geolithic period is the Quaternary, which is divided into two epochs: Pleistocene-Ice Age (about 2.4 million years ago). Holocene-Holos is Greek for “recent.” This is the period of time after 10,000 BCE. It is the present time.
Categories of History History can be organized into the following categories: Political Economic Social Religious Scientific Cultural
Studying History Anthropology is the term used for the science that studies humans as a species. Archaeology is the term used for the study of past cultures and civilizations through the examination of their artifacts (items made by humans.) Historiography is the written form of history.
Civilization A civilization is a complex, developed culture associated with specific achievements such as: Agriculture Urban Life Specialized Labor Writing System
Civilization Civilizations have: Urban Focus Political Structures Military Structures Social Structure based on Economic Power Development of More Complexity in a Material Sense Distinct Religious Structure Development of Writing Artistic Intellectual Activity
Culture Culture is the human created part of the environment, “way of life.” The concept of culture was developed by anthropologists to describe the unique adaptive system used by human beings. A cultural system is a complex system which includes interacting variables such as tools, burial customs, ways of obtaining food, religious beliefs and social organization. Material Culture is concrete objects that people create.