Native americans


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American History I

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Native americans

  1. 1. Original Inhabitants of the New World
  2. 2. Native Americans
  3. 3. Native Americans The term Native Americans refers to those people who lived in the Americas before the arrival of the Europeans. The term Native Americans also refers to the ancestors of the original inhabitants. In 1492 there was between 8-10 million Native Americans in North America. The Native Americans in North America had developed into 600 societies and 200 languages. It would be the Native Americans that kept the first Europeans in North America alive.
  4. 4. Indians The term “Indian” is attributed to Christopher Columbus who mistakenly believed that he had reached India. He named the native population “Los Indios,” which later became Indian.
  5. 5. Christopher Columbus
  6. 6. Native Americans
  7. 7. Native Americans Unfortunately, the more Europeans that moved to the Americas the more conflict there was with the native population. Eventually racism was developed and used as a reason to wipe out the native populations. In the end, it was disease that caused the most damage to the Native Americans, wiping out 90% of the native population. Native populations did, however, begin to intermix with European explorers and settlers who arrived in the New World. This led to a new population group called the Métis. The Métis were children of native and non-native heritage.
  8. 8. Tribes In reference to Native Americans, a tribe is a social group that is bound by a common culture and history. The term tribe also means “peoples” and “nations.” A tribe is also a political organization, a group of Native Americans that have been recognized by the United States federal government as a political entity. The term sachem refers to a tribal leader or chief.
  9. 9. Bands A band is a political subdivision of a Native American tribe. In some Native American groups a band can translate to a residential subdivision, like a town. For mobile Native American tribes a band is a group of people who are traveling together in search of subsistence.
  10. 10. Language Family A language family is a group of languages that show a close historical connection among themselves. A language family may share a common ancestry and may have come from the same originating language, or mother tongue. Language families are not mutually intelligible.
  11. 11. Language Family The Native American language family includes the following groups: Algic (Algonquin) Iroquoian Muskogean Siouan Athabaskan Uto-Aztecan Salishan
  12. 12. Native American Language Families
  13. 13. Native American Cultures There are 8 major Native American cultures in the United States. They are as follows: Arctic and Subarctic Eastern Woodlands Southeast Plains Southwest Plateau and Great Basin Pacific Northwest California
  14. 14. Native American Culture
  15. 15. Plains Indians
  16. 16. Native American Women In Native American society men did not dominate or control the women in their tribes. Native American women had some influence over the political process within the tribe. In each of the 7 Cherokee clans women played an important role in the governing of the tribe. All 7 of the Cherokee clans were represented to the tribal council by an Honored Woman. The Honored Woman spoke for the entire clan. The Beloved Women was the spokeswomen for the Honored Women. The role of Beloved Woman was the highest status a Cherokee woman could aspire.
  17. 17. Beloved Woman of the Cherokee
  18. 18. Native American Women
  19. 19. Native American Women
  20. 20. Native Proverb “Children must be taught or they will not know anything; if they do not know anything, they will have no sense; and if they have no sense they will not know how to act.”
  21. 21. Algonquian “What will it avail you to take that by force you may quickly have by love, or destroy them that provide you food?” Wahunsonacock, leader of the Algonquan Confederacy.
  22. 22. Pocahontas
  23. 23. Apache “I was born on the prairies where the wind blew free and there was nothing to break the light of the sun. I was born where there was no enclosures.” Geronimo “I never do wrong, without a cause.” Geronimo, 1886 “The soldiers never explained to the government when an Indian was wronged, but reported the misdeeds of the Indians.” Geronimo “It is better to have less thunder in the mouth and more lightening in the hand.” Apache
  24. 24. Apache
  25. 25. Cherokee “When we look into the history of our race, we see some green spots that are pleasing to us. We also find many things to make the heart sad.” John Ross, Cherokee Chief “Don’t let yesterday use up too much today.” Cherokee
  26. 26. Cherokee “They say the government wanted to put a man on the moon and it could be done alright, but nobody knew how to get the guy home again after he landed on the moon. These guys said that all the government had to do was put an Indian in that rocketship and tell him he was being relocated and then, after he got to the moon, that Indian would find his own way home again and the government wouldn’t have to figure that part out at all.” Watt Spade, Cherokee
  27. 27. Cherokee
  28. 28. Cheyenne “A danger foreseen is half-avoided.” Cheyenne Proverb “A good soldier is a poor scout.” Cheyenne
  29. 29. Cheyenne
  30. 30. Navajo “Rather than trying to control nature, one should try to achieve balance with it. White people deal with flooding on a river by building a dam, while a Navajo would simply move to higher ground.” Navajo Adage
  31. 31. Navajo
  32. 32. Sioux “God Almighty made [me] an Indian and did not make [me] an agency Indian, either, and [I do] not intend to be one.” Sitting Bull, Lakota Chief
  33. 33. Sioux Chief Sitting Bull
  34. 34. United States/Indian Relations There were 7 ways the U.S. government used in “dealing with” the Indians. Treaties Removal Reservations Assimilation Reorganization Termination Self-Determination
  35. 35. Native Americans There were 5 distinct reasons for the rapid decline of the Native Americans. They are: Diseases from Contagions Diseases from Deliberate Infections (Smallpox infected blankets.) Warfare/Battle Losses Starvation/Exposure Extermination/Slaughter
  36. 36. Native Americans The Native American population was devastated by numerous diseases such as the following: Bubonic Plague Chicken Pox Cholera Diphtheria Dysentery Influenza Malaria Measles
  37. 37. Native Americans Mumps Pleurisy Scarlet Fever Smallpox Typhoid Fever Typhus Whooping Cough Yellow Fever
  38. 38. Native American Proverbs “After dark, all cats are leopards.” Zuni “See how the boy is with his sister and you can know how the man will be with your daughter.” Plains Sioux “We stand somewhere between the mountain and the ant.” Onondaga “All who have died are equal.” Comanche “All dreams spin out from the same web.” Hopi
  39. 39. Tecumseh
  40. 40. Tecumseh “Always give a word or a sign of salute when meeting or passing a friend, even a stranger, if in a lonely place.” Tecumseh, Chieftan of the Shawnee Tribe