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Artificial Classification System
(Carolus Linnaeus)
Dr. Vishal R. Marathe
Assistant Professor
Dept. of Botany, N.E.S. Science College,
Nanded – 431 605
Email ID : dr.vishalmarathe@gmail.com
Life history
 Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778), was also known as Carl
Linnaeus, Carl Linne, or Carl Von Linne.
 For his outstanding contribution he is called the “Father
of Taxonomy”.
 Born on 23rd May, 1707 at Village of Rashult in Swaland
(Sweden), had botany attached to him at birth, since
Linnaeus is the Latin name for Linden tree (Tilia spp.).
 His early interest in botany was channeled by a teacher
at Vaxjo (Sweden), who acquainted him with the plant
system of French botanist J. P. de Tournefort.
 In 1727 Linnaeus began his studies in medicine at Lund
University, but he transferred to Uppsala University in
1728.
 From 1730 to 1732 he was able to subsidize himself by
teaching botany in the university garden of Uppsala
 In 23 June, 1735 received Doctor of Medicine degree
from the University of Harderwijk on the topic of
‘intermittent fevers’.
 Returned to Sweden and practicing medicine (Specilized
in treatment of symphilis)
 After appointed as Professor in Medicine and Botany at
Uppsala in 1741, travelled through the Baltic islands of
Oland and Gotland to survey their natural history and
economic products etc.
 In the 1750 & 1760 he continue to collect and classify
plants, animals and minerals while publishing several
volumes
 He was the most famous Scientist in Europe at the time
 He has been called as Princeps Botanicorum (Prince of
Botanist) and “Pliny of the North”
 He is also considered as founder of Modern Ecology
 Died on 10th January, 1778 at Uppsala
 James Edward Smith buy the collections of Linnaeus
after his death from his widow Sara which includes 1400
plants, 3198 insects, 1564 shells, about 3000 letters and
1600 books.
 James Smith founded Linnean Society of London in 1788
which is oldest world famous and learned
society dedicated to the study and dissemination of
information concerning natural history, evolution
and taxonomy
Publications
1) 1730: Hortus Uplandicus (contains the plants of Uppsala
Botanic Garden at that time).
2) 1735: Systema Naturae.
3) 1737: Hortus Cliffortianus (contains the plants in the
Garden of George Clifford at Hartecamp).
4) 1737: Genera Plantarum.
5) 1738: Classes Plantarum.
6) 1751: Philosophia Botanica (contains the revised
revision of his earlier publications Systema Naturae and
Classes Plantarum.
7) 1753: Species Plantarum (contains some 7,300 species
described and arranged according to his system
of classification).
Source: www.google.com
 Also known as Sexual Classification system
 It is World famous Artificial Systems based on one or
few superficial morphological characters
 Specially on the basis of Number, cohesion of stamen
and carpel
 He has published system of classification as a two-
volume work in famous book Species Plantarum on 1st
May, 1753.
 Includes classification of more than 7300 species
belongs to 935 genera.
 Its prime importance is perhaps that it is the primary
starting point of plant nomenclature as it exists today
Classification system of Linnaeus
 Species Plantarum was published on 1st May 1753 by
Laurentius Salvius in Stockholm, in two volumes.
 A second edition was published in 1762–1763, and
 A third edition in 1764, although this "scarcely differed"
from the second.
 Further Fourth editions were published after Linnaeus'
death in 1778, under the direction of Karl Ludwig
Willdenow, the director of the Berlin Botanical Garden;
 The fifth edition (1800) was published in four volumes.
 Because of binomial nomenclature was consistently
applied, Species Plantarum was chosen as the "starting
point" for the nomenclature of most plants
Species Plantarum
Salient Features
 He listed and described all the known species of plants at
that time.
 Linnaeus used the binomial nomenclature along with
Polynomial nomenclature
 For each species there was
(i) a generic name;
(ii) a polynomial descriptive phrase or phrase-name
commencing with generic name and of up to twelve
words, intended to serve as description of the species;
(iii) a trivial name or specific epithet on the margin;
(iv) synonyms with reference to important earlier literature;
(v) habitats and countries.
Before Species Plantarum, this plant was referred to as:
 Polynomial Namenclature: "Plantago foliis ovato-
lanceolatis pubescentibus, spica cylindrica, scapo tereti";
 Linnaeus renamed it Plantago media (Binomial
Nomenclature).
Source: www.google.com
Outline of classification
 The system of Linnaeus, very simple in
its application, recognized 24 classes,
mostly on the basis of stamens.
 These classes were further subdivided
on the basis of carpel characteristics into
orders such as Monogynia, Digynia, etc.
 Such a classification based on stamens
and carpels resulted in the artificial
grouping of unrelated taxa and
separation of relatives.
 He used hierarchical classification, Each
kingdom was subdivided into classes,
orders, genera and species
Source: www.google.com
Outline of Classification
Sr. No. Class Characters Examples
1 Monandria stamen one Canna, Lemna
2 Diandria stamen two Veronica, Lepidium
3 Triandria stamen three Iris, Grasses
4 Tetrandria stamen four Ulmus, Protea
5 Pentandria stamen five Ipomoea, Primula
6 Hexandria stamen six Lilium, Allisma
7 Heptandria stamen seven Trientalis
8 Octandria stamen eight Vaccinium
9 Ennandria stamen nine Rheum, Ranunculus
10 Decandria stamen one Oxalis, Acer
11 Dodecandria stamens 11-19 Reseda, Calla
12 Icosandria stamens 20 or more, on the calyx Rosa, Rubus
SN Class Characters Examples
13 Polyandria stamens 20 or more, on the receptacle Tilia, Papaver
14 Didynamia stamens didynamous; 2 short, 2 long Labiatae
15 Tetradynamia stamens tetradynamous; 4 long, 2 short Cruciferae
16 Monadelphia stamens monadelphous; united in 1
group
Malvaceae
17 Diadephia stamens diadelphous; united in 2 groups Papilionatae
18 Polyadelphia stamens polyadelphous; united in 3 or
more groups
Hypericum
19 Syngenesia stamens syngenesious; united by
anthers only
Compositae
20 Gynandria stamens united with the gynoecium Orchidaceae
21 Monoecia plants monoecious Morus, Typha
22 Dioecia plants dioecious Salix,Juniperus
23 Polygamia plants polygamous Acer
24 Cryptogamia flowerless plants Fern, Algae, Fungi
Source: www.google.com
Postage stamps released by Sweden in honor of Linnaeus
Linnaea borealis
National Flower of Sweden
named after Linnaeus
Source: www.google.com
Merits:
1. It aids in quick and easy identification by means of one or a few
easily observable characters
2. Modern biological classification has its root in the work
of Carolus Linnaeus
Demerits/Limitations:
1. Since this system is based on differences rather than on similarities
of the sex organs, very often closely related plants have been
placed in widely separated groups, while those quite different from
each other have been placed in the same group.
2. Affinities and relationships amongst the taxa have not been
considered.
3. There is no distinction between the dicotyledones and
Monocotyledones and have been mixed up and put together.
4. The placement of gymnosperms in the class 14 (Didynamia) along
the angiosperm family Labiatae is most unsatisfactory.
Thank
“If you do not know
the names of things,
the knowledge of
them lost,
too……….”
- Carl Van Linnaeus
Source: www.google.com

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artificial classification system-caroluslinneaus-200413113450.pdf

  • 1. Artificial Classification System (Carolus Linnaeus) Dr. Vishal R. Marathe Assistant Professor Dept. of Botany, N.E.S. Science College, Nanded – 431 605 Email ID : dr.vishalmarathe@gmail.com
  • 2. Life history  Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778), was also known as Carl Linnaeus, Carl Linne, or Carl Von Linne.  For his outstanding contribution he is called the “Father of Taxonomy”.  Born on 23rd May, 1707 at Village of Rashult in Swaland (Sweden), had botany attached to him at birth, since Linnaeus is the Latin name for Linden tree (Tilia spp.).  His early interest in botany was channeled by a teacher at Vaxjo (Sweden), who acquainted him with the plant system of French botanist J. P. de Tournefort.  In 1727 Linnaeus began his studies in medicine at Lund University, but he transferred to Uppsala University in 1728.
  • 3.  From 1730 to 1732 he was able to subsidize himself by teaching botany in the university garden of Uppsala  In 23 June, 1735 received Doctor of Medicine degree from the University of Harderwijk on the topic of ‘intermittent fevers’.  Returned to Sweden and practicing medicine (Specilized in treatment of symphilis)  After appointed as Professor in Medicine and Botany at Uppsala in 1741, travelled through the Baltic islands of Oland and Gotland to survey their natural history and economic products etc.  In the 1750 & 1760 he continue to collect and classify plants, animals and minerals while publishing several volumes
  • 4.  He was the most famous Scientist in Europe at the time  He has been called as Princeps Botanicorum (Prince of Botanist) and “Pliny of the North”  He is also considered as founder of Modern Ecology  Died on 10th January, 1778 at Uppsala  James Edward Smith buy the collections of Linnaeus after his death from his widow Sara which includes 1400 plants, 3198 insects, 1564 shells, about 3000 letters and 1600 books.  James Smith founded Linnean Society of London in 1788 which is oldest world famous and learned society dedicated to the study and dissemination of information concerning natural history, evolution and taxonomy
  • 5. Publications 1) 1730: Hortus Uplandicus (contains the plants of Uppsala Botanic Garden at that time). 2) 1735: Systema Naturae. 3) 1737: Hortus Cliffortianus (contains the plants in the Garden of George Clifford at Hartecamp). 4) 1737: Genera Plantarum. 5) 1738: Classes Plantarum. 6) 1751: Philosophia Botanica (contains the revised revision of his earlier publications Systema Naturae and Classes Plantarum. 7) 1753: Species Plantarum (contains some 7,300 species described and arranged according to his system of classification).
  • 7.  Also known as Sexual Classification system  It is World famous Artificial Systems based on one or few superficial morphological characters  Specially on the basis of Number, cohesion of stamen and carpel  He has published system of classification as a two- volume work in famous book Species Plantarum on 1st May, 1753.  Includes classification of more than 7300 species belongs to 935 genera.  Its prime importance is perhaps that it is the primary starting point of plant nomenclature as it exists today Classification system of Linnaeus
  • 8.  Species Plantarum was published on 1st May 1753 by Laurentius Salvius in Stockholm, in two volumes.  A second edition was published in 1762–1763, and  A third edition in 1764, although this "scarcely differed" from the second.  Further Fourth editions were published after Linnaeus' death in 1778, under the direction of Karl Ludwig Willdenow, the director of the Berlin Botanical Garden;  The fifth edition (1800) was published in four volumes.  Because of binomial nomenclature was consistently applied, Species Plantarum was chosen as the "starting point" for the nomenclature of most plants Species Plantarum
  • 9. Salient Features  He listed and described all the known species of plants at that time.  Linnaeus used the binomial nomenclature along with Polynomial nomenclature  For each species there was (i) a generic name; (ii) a polynomial descriptive phrase or phrase-name commencing with generic name and of up to twelve words, intended to serve as description of the species; (iii) a trivial name or specific epithet on the margin; (iv) synonyms with reference to important earlier literature; (v) habitats and countries.
  • 10. Before Species Plantarum, this plant was referred to as:  Polynomial Namenclature: "Plantago foliis ovato- lanceolatis pubescentibus, spica cylindrica, scapo tereti";  Linnaeus renamed it Plantago media (Binomial Nomenclature). Source: www.google.com
  • 11. Outline of classification  The system of Linnaeus, very simple in its application, recognized 24 classes, mostly on the basis of stamens.  These classes were further subdivided on the basis of carpel characteristics into orders such as Monogynia, Digynia, etc.  Such a classification based on stamens and carpels resulted in the artificial grouping of unrelated taxa and separation of relatives.  He used hierarchical classification, Each kingdom was subdivided into classes, orders, genera and species Source: www.google.com
  • 12. Outline of Classification Sr. No. Class Characters Examples 1 Monandria stamen one Canna, Lemna 2 Diandria stamen two Veronica, Lepidium 3 Triandria stamen three Iris, Grasses 4 Tetrandria stamen four Ulmus, Protea 5 Pentandria stamen five Ipomoea, Primula 6 Hexandria stamen six Lilium, Allisma 7 Heptandria stamen seven Trientalis 8 Octandria stamen eight Vaccinium 9 Ennandria stamen nine Rheum, Ranunculus 10 Decandria stamen one Oxalis, Acer 11 Dodecandria stamens 11-19 Reseda, Calla 12 Icosandria stamens 20 or more, on the calyx Rosa, Rubus
  • 13. SN Class Characters Examples 13 Polyandria stamens 20 or more, on the receptacle Tilia, Papaver 14 Didynamia stamens didynamous; 2 short, 2 long Labiatae 15 Tetradynamia stamens tetradynamous; 4 long, 2 short Cruciferae 16 Monadelphia stamens monadelphous; united in 1 group Malvaceae 17 Diadephia stamens diadelphous; united in 2 groups Papilionatae 18 Polyadelphia stamens polyadelphous; united in 3 or more groups Hypericum 19 Syngenesia stamens syngenesious; united by anthers only Compositae 20 Gynandria stamens united with the gynoecium Orchidaceae 21 Monoecia plants monoecious Morus, Typha 22 Dioecia plants dioecious Salix,Juniperus 23 Polygamia plants polygamous Acer 24 Cryptogamia flowerless plants Fern, Algae, Fungi
  • 15. Postage stamps released by Sweden in honor of Linnaeus Linnaea borealis National Flower of Sweden named after Linnaeus Source: www.google.com
  • 16. Merits: 1. It aids in quick and easy identification by means of one or a few easily observable characters 2. Modern biological classification has its root in the work of Carolus Linnaeus Demerits/Limitations: 1. Since this system is based on differences rather than on similarities of the sex organs, very often closely related plants have been placed in widely separated groups, while those quite different from each other have been placed in the same group. 2. Affinities and relationships amongst the taxa have not been considered. 3. There is no distinction between the dicotyledones and Monocotyledones and have been mixed up and put together. 4. The placement of gymnosperms in the class 14 (Didynamia) along the angiosperm family Labiatae is most unsatisfactory.
  • 17. Thank “If you do not know the names of things, the knowledge of them lost, too……….” - Carl Van Linnaeus Source: www.google.com