Introduction to Group behavior


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This presentation is an introduction to groups and teams.

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Introduction to Group behavior

  1. 1. PGDM (2013-15) Term-II Dynamics of Group Behavior Session-2 Dr. V. Ekkirala Group Behavior
  2. 2. Function Groups Teams Performance Individual Individual & Collective Leadership Assigned Leader Shared leadership roles Accountability Individual Individual, Mutual and Collective Purpose Similar to Organization’s purpose Specific Common Purpose & goals Size Range from two to thousands Narrow range of size Skills Similar skills Complementary skills Tasks Jointly perform similar tasks Collective work, integration & coordination Authority Perform under authority figure Empowered, responsible & accountable Synergy Neutral (at times negative) Positive Groups & Teams S-2: Dynamics of Group Bhavior - Dr. V. Ekkirala 2
  3. 3. • Formal group: Created by the organization with designated roles • Informal group: Social groups of employees beyond the organization’s structure – Friendship groups, Interest groups etc. • Command group: Group of people reporting to a given manager • Teams: Formal Collaborative group with common goals, shared leadership and collective responsibility • Task force: Temporary team Created for specific purpose/goal • Functional groups: Comprising of members from a specific function • Cross-functional groups: Group members from multiple functions Types of Groups S-2: Dynamics of Group Bhavior - Dr. V. Ekkirala 3
  4. 4. • Forming: Knowing each other, clarifying goals, roles & Behavior • Storming: Dealing with tensions of resistance, competition & conflict • Norming: Evolve standards, roles & norms of group behavior • Performing: Start working towards group goals • Adjourning: Group disbands after accomplishment of its goals Groups do not always progress from one stage to the other sequentially. They may go through several stages simultaneously (e.g.., storming & performing) or may even regress to previous stages. ¹ Tuckman, & Jensen. (1965). Stages of Group Development ¹ S-2: Dynamics of Group Bhavior - Dr. V. Ekkirala 4
  5. 5. Group norms are informal rules of conduct – acceptable standards of member behavior. Reasons for conformity of members to the Group’s norms: • Compliance: To avoid punishment and/or to obtain reward • Identification: Associating with the supporters of the norm • Internalization: Belief that the norm is most appropriate Deviance: Violation of a norm by a member. Responses to deviance:  Justifying the need for compliance/reprimand or punishment  Reject or expel the member Change the norm itself when it is found to be inappropriate Balancing Deviance & Conformity: Teams need both deviance & conformity to accomplish their goals. Group Norms S-2: Dynamics of Group Bhavior - Dr. V. Ekkirala 5
  6. 6. Cohesiveness is the strength of the glue that holds the group together. It is the attractiveness of the group to its members, together with their motivation to remain with the group. (Piper et al. 1983). Factors influencing Cohesiveness: • Group size • Similarity/Diversity • Status of the group • Success • External pressure A cohesive group is more productive when the group’s attitude is positively aligned with organization’s goals. A highly cohesive group with unfavorable attitude towards organization/ its goals, causes decline in performance. Group Cohesiveness S-2: Dynamics of Group Bhavior - Dr. V. Ekkirala 6
  7. 7. • Social Facilitation: How the presence of others effects an individual’s performance (Positive and negative) as a result of heightened emotional state (tension & excitement) • Drive theory of Social Facilitation: In the presence of others, individuals perform better on well-learned tasks but poorer if the task is not well- learned (due to social facilitation). • Evaluation apprehension: The fear of being judged by others – what others might think about them. At times close monitoring on the job might hinder performance. • Social Loafing: The tendency of people to work less hard in a group than they would individually (Latane, Williams & Harkins, 1978) ². • Overcoming Social Loafing: Define roles; identify and reward individual contribution to group performance; Raise accountability. Individual Performance in Groups S-2: Dynamics of Group Bhavior - Dr. V. Ekkirala 7
  8. 8. S-2: Dynamics of Group Bhavior - Dr. V. Ekkirala 8 • Deviant behavior (Unethical/ antisocial behavior or workplace incivility) refers to voluntary actions violating organizational norms detrimental to the well-being of the organization or its members. • Individuals who do not engage in deviant behavior may be more likely to do so in a group. • A study found that individuals working alone never lied. But those working in groups were more likely to cheat on task and steal ³. Groups provide a shield of anonymity. • Deviant behavior depends on the accepted norms of the group ⁴. Deviant Workplace Behavior
  9. 9. 1. Tuckman, B.W. & Jensen, M.A. (1977). Stages of small group development revisited. Group and Organization Studies, 2: 419-427. 2. Bib Latane, Kipling Williams & Stephen Harkins (1978). Many hands make light the work: The causes and consequences of social loafing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37: 822-832. 2. Erez, A., Elms, H. & Fong, E. (2003). Lying, cheating, stealing: It happens more in groups. Paper presented at the European Business Network Annual Conference, Budapest, Hungary, August 30. 2. Robinson, S., & Kraatz, M.S. (1998). Constructing the reality of normative behavior: The use of neutralization strategies by organizational deviants. In R.W. Griffin and A.O’Leary- Kelly (eds), Dysfunctional Behavior in Organizations: Violent and Deviant Behavior. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, pp. 203-220. References S-2: Dynamics of Group Bhavior - Dr. V. Ekkirala 9