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  1. 1. Googling to the MaxHow to do better searches usingyour favorite search engine. 1
  2. 2. Today’s Goals – To learn How Google really works. How to construct better searches. How to use Google’s advanced searching feature And to explore some of the newest Google features 2
  3. 3. Google Corporate Background “Googles mission is to organize the worlds information and make it universally accessible and useful.” Googles founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin developed Google in a Stanford University dorm room and it is currently the worlds largest search engine. "Googol" is the mathematical term for a 1 followed by 100 zeros. Source: 3
  4. 4. How Google Finds New Pages • Google has special programs called spiders (a.k.a. “Google bots”) that constantly search the Internet looking for new or updated Web pages. • When a spider finds a new or updated page, it reads that entire page, reports back to Google, and then visits all of the other pages to which that new page links.Image source: 4
  5. 5. Paging Miss Muffet When the spider reports back to Google, it doesn’t just tell Google the new or updated page’s URL. The spider also sends Google a complete copy of the entire Web page – HTML, text, images, etc. Google then adds that page and all of its content to Google’s cache. 5
  6. 6. So What? When you search Google, you’re actually searching Google’s cache of Web pages. And because of this, you can search for more than text or phrases in the body of a Web page. Google has some secret, advanced search operators that let you search specific parts of Web pages or specific types of information. Source: Google Hacks,6p. 5
  7. 7. How Google works When you search for multiple keywords, Google first searches for all of your keywords as a phrase. So, if your keywords are disney fantasyland pirates, any pages on which those words appear as a phrase receive a score of X. 7
  8. 8. How Google Works - Adjacency  Google then measures the adjacency between your keywords and gives those pages a score of Y.  What does this mean in English? Well … Image source: Google Source: Google Hacks, p. 21 8
  9. 9. How Adjacency WorksA page that says “My favorite Disney attraction, outside ofFantasyland, is Pirates of the Caribbean”will receive a higher adjacency score than apage that says “Walt Disney was a both a genius and ataskmaster. The team at WDI spent manysleepless nights designing Fantasyland. Butnothing could compare to the amount ofImagineering work required to create Piratesof the Caribbean.” 9
  10. 10. How Google Works - Weights Then, Google measures the number of times your keywords appear on the page (the keywords’ “weights”) and gives those pages a score of Z. A page that has the word disney four times, fantasyland three times, and pirates seven times would receive a higher weights score than a page that only has those words once. Source: Google Hacks, p. 21 10
  11. 11. Putting it All Together Google takes  The phrase hits (the Xs),  The adjacency hits (the Ys),  The weights hits (the Zs), and  About 100 other secret variables Throws out everything but the top 2,000 Multiplies each remaining page’s individual score by it’s “PageRank” And, finally, displays the top 1,000 in order. 11
  12. 12. PageRankPageRank? There is a premise in higher education that the importance of a research article can be judged by the number of citations to it from subsequent articles in the same field. Google applies this premise to the Web: the importance of a Web page can be judged by the number of hyperlinks pointing to it from other pages. Google Toolbar’s PageRank icon indicates the relative importance of the page. Source: Google Hacks, p. 294 12
  13. 13. All Search Engines use Boolean Search Strategy a AND b a disney AND pirates b c c OR d dfantasyland OR adventureland b NOT d c pirates NOT fantasyland b 13
  14. 14. Google’s Boolean Default is AND If you search for more than one keyword at a time, Google will automatically search for pages that contain ALL of your keywords. A search for disney fantasyland pirates is the same as searching for disney AND fantasyland AND pirates But, if you try to use AND on your own, Google yells at you:  “The "AND" operator is unnecessary -- we include all search terms by default.” Source: 14
  15. 15. Phrases To search for a phrase, put it in quotes. For example, disney fantasyland “pirates of the caribbean”  This would show you all the pages in Google’s index that contain the word disney AND the word fantasyland AND the phrase pirates of the caribbean (without the quotes) By the way, while this search is technically perfect, the choice of keywords contains a (deliberate) factual mistake. Can you spot it? Source: 15
  16. 16. Tharr, She Blows!  Pirates of the Caribbean isn’t in Fantasyland, it’s in Adventureland in Orlando and New Orleans Square in Anaheim.  So searching for disney AND fantasyland AND “pirates of the caribbean” probably isn’t a good idea. Image source: 16
  17. 17. Boolean OR Sometimes the default AND gets in the way. That’s where OR comes in. The Boolean operator OR is always in all caps and goes between keywords. For example, an improvement over our earlier search would be disney fantasyland OR “pirates of the caribbean”  This would show you all the pages in Google’s index that contain the word Disney AND the word fantasyland OR the phrase pirates of the caribbean (without the quotes) Source: 17
  18. 18. Three Ways to OR at Google Just type OR between keywords  disney fantasyland OR “pirates of the caribbean” Put your OR statement in parentheses  disney (fantasyland OR “pirates of the caribbean”) Use the | (“pipe”) character in place of the word OR  disney (fantasyland | “pirates of the caribbean”) All three methods yield the exact same results. Source: Google Hacks, p. 3 18
  19. 19. OR, She Blows!  Just remember, Google’s Boolean default is AND  Sometimes the default AND gets in the way. That’s where OR comes in. Image source: 19
  20. 20. Other Google searching Google won’t accept more than 10 keywords at a time. Searching is not case sensitive. Google doesn’t support stemming. (stem*) or truncation. Source: Google Hacks, 20 19 p.
  21. 21. How Google Works  When you conduct a search at Google, it searches for  Phrases, then  Adjacency, then  Weights.  Because Google searches for phrases first, the order of your Image source: Google keywords matters. Source: Google Hacks, p. 20-22 21
  22. 22. For Example A search for disney fantasyland pirates yields the same number of hits as a search for fantasyland disney pirates, but the order of those hits – especially the first 10 – is noticeably different. 22
  23. 23. Knowledge is Power Those who understand how Google works can manipulate the end results. Type “miserable failure” and hit “I’m feeling lucky” button. This is called Google bombing. Linda J. Goff - Fall 2005 - 23
  24. 24. Part Two: In Summary Google’s Boolean default is AND. Capitalization does not matter. Google has a hard limit of 10 keywords. Google doesn’t support truncation or stemming. The order of your keywords matters. Linda J. Goff - Fall 2005 - 24
  25. 25. Part Three:Advanced Searching Using Advanced Search Google Services and Google Tools 25
  26. 26. 26
  27. 27. Google Tools 27
  28. 28. Google Services 28
  29. 29. Google Web Search Features 29
  30. 30. Google Print  Google has made deals with publishers to make new books searchable online.  Search link to books containing your search terms, as well as other information about the title.  Click one of the links under "Buy this Book" and youll go straight to a bookstore selling that book online. Source: 30
  31. 31. Google’s Digital Library Google has made a deal with large libraries to scan thousands of out of print library books to put them online. Association of American Publishers (AAP), has sued in federal court to stop Google. Publishers charge that by making electronic copies, the search giant is committing massive copyright infringement. We still recommend using real books!Source: 31
  32. 32. So let’s give it a try Open 32