Development Of Rizal’s Nationalism

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Development Of Rizal’s Nationalism

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Development Of Rizal’s Nationalism

  1. 1. Development Of Rizal’s Nationalism
  2. 2. Jose Rizal José Protacio Mercado Rizal Alonzo Y Realonda Born: June 19, 1861, Calamba. Died: Dec. 30, 1896, Manila
  3. 3. Outline: to dwell on Rizal’s: • Multiracial Ancestry/Mixed racial ancestry • Birth and Early Childhood • Studies/Education in the Philippines • Travels,lovelife,ideals, aspirations and • The meaning of his fall
  4. 4. Objectives: •To identify the significant factors contributed to Rizal's being a hero; •To know how his parents mold him to become a better person; •To appreciate the qualities of Rizal as a child to his parents, student, champion and genius.
  5. 5. Introduction: •Patriot •Physician •Man of Letters who was an inspiration to the Philippine nationalist movement (La Solidaridad --- Katipunan ) •National Hero and pride of the Malayan race
  6. 6. Ancestry • Mixed Racial Origin From his father side – Domino Lam-Co (a full-blooded Chinese from Amoy, China) - - Ines de la Rosa (Chinese half- breed) – Francisco Mercado - - Bernarda Monicha (21 children) – Juan Mercado - - Cirila Alejandra (14 children) – Francisco Mercado Rizal
  7. 7. Multiracial Ancestry • Spanish • Chinese • Japanese • Malayo-Polynesian • Negrito
  8. 8. Immediate Family • Father - Studied Latin & Philosophy at the College of San Jose (Manila) - described by Rizal as “model of fathers” - he inherited . . . Profound sense of dignity self-respect, seriousness and self-possession -a successful farmer -he loved books -an excellent model for Rizal that molded him up into a man of honor - understood the world of humanity which furnished him with greater respect for other people, and a greater respect to the dignity of labor.
  9. 9. • Mother - born in Meisik, Sta. Cruz Manila. - talented and remarkable woman - he inherited . . . temperament of the poet and dreamer and bravery for sacrifice - his first teacher - inculcated the value of knowledge and education to the young Rizal - a good Mathematician and Manager of business of the Rizal family.
  10. 10. According to Rizal: “My mother is not a woman of ordinary culture. She knows literature and speaks Spanish better than I do. She even corrected my poems and gave me wise advice when I was studying rhetoric. She is a mathematician and has read many books.”
  11. 11. Early Influences • His mother- encouraged him to express his ideas and sentiments in verse • “The Story of the Moth” about the mother moth warning its offspring of the danger of fluttering to close to flame. The little moth did not heed the advice, thus it was burned by the flame. This gave him the moral lesson that if one must succeed, he must take risks and prepare for the worst consequences. Without courage, there will be no glory.
  12. 12. Birth and Early Childhood In Calamba, Laguna: • 19 June 1861 – birth • 22 June 1861 – baptized • 1864 - learned the alphabet from his mother • 1865 - his sister Conception (8th child) died at the age of three.
  13. 13. Birth and Early Childhood • 1865 – 1867 - his mother taught him how to read and write – Leon Monroy - taught Rizal the rudiments of Latin – Uncle Manuel Alberto - taught the latter love for the nature » Usman – Rizal’s dog – Uncle Gregorio - instilled love for education • 1869 - "Sa Aking Mga Kabata."
  14. 14. Birth and Early Childhood In Biñan, Laguna : • 1870 - His brother Paciano brought Rizal to Biñan, Laguna – Justinian Aquino Cruz – taught Rizal Latin and Spanish – Juancho Carrera – taught him the art of painting • 17 December 1870 - Rizal returned to Calamba after he finished his studies in Biñan.
  15. 15. Birth and Early Childhood Back in Calamba: • 1871 - His mother was imprisoned in Sta. Cruz, Laguna for allegedly poisoning the wife of Jose Alberto • 1872 - Cavite Mutiny on January 20, 1872; his father forbid the words: – Burgos – filibustero – Cavite
  16. 16. Formal education • In Binan - he was 9 yrs old - Justiniano Aquino Cruz he studied Latin and Spanish - Andres Salandanan ( a local painter) he developed his initial lessons in painting
  17. 17. Studies in the Philippines in UST: • got low grades • studied Philosophy and Letters • study medicine (ophthalmology) - did not complete
  18. 18. Studies in the Philippines in Ateneo: • got excellent grades • studied bachelor of arts in 1877 • graduated as one of sobresaliente • first professor was Fr. Jose Bech
  19. 19. His Travels Rizal's First Trip Abroad May 3, 1882 Rizal left Philippines for the first time Spain. He boarded the Salvadora using a passport of Jose Mercado, which was procured for him by his uncle Antonio Rivera, father of Leonor Rivera. He was accompanied to the quay where the Salvadora was moored by his uncle Antonio, Vicente Gella, and Mateo Evangelista. • 15 June 1882 He left Marseilles for Barcelona in an express train. Rizal in Barcelona, Spain • 20 August 1882 His article "Amor Patrio" was published in the Diarong Tagalog, a Manila newspaper edited by Basilio Teodoro. This was the First article he wrote abroad.
  20. 20. Rizal in Madrid, Spain • 2 September 1882 Rizal matriculated at the Universidad Central de Madrid. He took the following subjects: medical clinic, surgical clinic, legal medicine and obstetrical clinic. • 4 October 1882 Asked to deliver a poem by the members of Circulo Hispano-Filipino, there together in the effort to save the association from disintegration, Rizal recited "Me piden versus." The meeting was held at the house of Pablo Ortiga y Rey.
  21. 21. Rizal in Paris, France June 18, 1883  Rizal Back in Madrid 28 September 1883 He enrolled at the central Universidad de Madrid for the second course in medicine.  Rizal in Heidelberg, Germany 22 April 1886 • While in Heidelberg experiencing the feeling of nostalgia for his parents and his country, Rizal wrote the poem "A Las Flores de Heidelberg.“  Rizal in Berlin, Germany 21 March 1887 Copies of his novel came off the press
  22. 22. Rizal in Manila • 5 August 1887 At 9:00 o’clock in the evening, Rizal arrived at Manila after five years of study and patriotic labors in Europe.  Rizal in Hong Kong 22 February 1888 After staying in Hong Kong for almost two weeks, he left for Japan on board the Oceanic. • Rizal in Japan • Rizal in America • Rizal Bound for England – Rizal in London – Rizal in Paris • Rizal Back in Spain • Rizal in the Philippines
  23. 23. His Lovelife Rizal, the Romantic There were at least nine women linked with Rizal; namely • Segunda Katigbak • Leonor Valenzuela • Leonor Rivera • Consuelo Ortiga • O-Sei San • Gertrude Beckette • Nelly Boustead • Suzanne Jacoby and • Josephine Bracken. These women might have been beguiled by his intelligence, charm and wit.
  24. 24. The Women in His Life Josephine Bracken Leonor Rivera Leonor Valenzuela Nelly Bousted O-Sei Kiyo San Susan Jacoby Gertrude Beckett
  25. 25. • Segunda Katigbak and Leonor Valenzuela Segunda Katigbak was her puppy love. Unfortunately, his first love was engaged to be married to a town mate- Manuel Luz. After his admiration for a short girl in the person of Segunda, then came Leonor Valenzuela, a tall girl from Pagsanjan. Rizal send her love notes written in invisible ink, that could only be deciphered over the warmth of the lamp or candle. He visited her on the eve of his departure to Spain and bade her a last goodbye. • Leonor Rivera Leonor Rivera, his sweetheart for 11 years played the greatest influence in keeping him from falling in love with other women during his travel. Unfortunately, Leonor’s mother disapproved of her daughter’s relationship with Rizal, who was then a known filibustero. She hid from Leonor all letters sent to her sweetheart. Leonor believing that Rizal had already forgotten her, sadly consented her to marry the Englishman Henry Kipping, her mother’s choice. • Consuelo Ortiga Consuelo Ortiga y Rey, the prettier of Don Pablo Ortiga’s daughters, fell in love with him. He dedicated to her A la Senorita C.O. y R., which became one of his best poems. The Ortiga's residence in Madrid was frequented by Rizal and his compatriots. He probably fell in love with her and Consuelo apparently asked him for romantic verses. He suddenly backed out before the relationship turned into a serious romance, because he wanted to remain loyal to Leonor Rivera and he did not want to destroy hid friendship with Eduardo de Lete who was madly in love with Consuelo.
  26. 26. • O Sei San O Sei San, a Japanese samurai’s daughter taught Rizal the Japanese art of painting known as su-mie. She also helped Rizal improve his knowledge of Japanese language. If Rizal was a man without a patriotic mission, he would have married this lovely and intelligent woman and lived a stable and happy life with her in Japan because Spanish legation there offered him a lucrative job. • Gertrude Beckett While Rizal was in London annotating the Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, he boarded in the house of the Beckett family, within walking distance of the British Museum. Gertrude, a blue-eyed and buxom girl was the oldest of the three Beckett daughters. She fell in love with Rizal. Tottie helped him in his painting and sculpture. But Rizal suddenly left London for Paris to avoid Gertrude, who was seriously in love with him. Before leaving London, he was able to finish the group carving of the Beckett sisters. He gave the group carving to Gertrude as a sign of their brief relationship. • Nellie Boustead Rizal having lost Leonor Rivera, entertained the thought of courting other ladies. While a guest of the Boustead family at their residence in the resort city of Biarritz, he had befriended the two pretty daughters of his host, Eduardo Boustead. Rizal used to fence with the sisters at the studio of Juan Luna. Antonio Luna, Juan’s brother and also a frequent visitor of the Bousteads, courted Nellie but she was deeply infatuated with Rizal. In a party held by Filipinos in Madrid, a drunken Antonio Luna uttered unsavory remarks against Nellie Boustead. This prompted Rizal to challenge Luna into a duel. Fortunately, Luna apologized to Rizal, thus averting tragedy for the compatriots.
  27. 27. • Suzanne Jacoby In 1890, Rizal moved to Brussels because of the high cost of living in Paris. In Brussels, he lived in the boarding house of the two Jacoby sisters. In time, they fell deeply in love with each other. Suzanne cried when Rizal left Brussels and wrote him when he was in Madrid. • Josephine Bracken In the last days of February 1895, while still in Dapitan, Rizal met an 18- year old petite Irish girl, with bold blue eyes, brown hair and a happy disposition. She was Josephine Bracken, the adopted daughter of George Taufer from Hong Kong, who came to Dapitan to seek Rizal for eye treatment. Rizal was physically attracted to her. His loneliness and boredom must have taken the measure of him and what could be a better diversion that to fall in love again. But the Rizal sisters suspected Josephine as an agent of the friars and they considered her as a threat to Rizal’s security. Rizal asked Josephine to marry him, but she was not yet ready to make a decision due to her responsibility to the blind Taufer. Since Taufer’s blindness was untreatable, he left for Hong Kong on March 1895. Josephine stayed with Rizal’s family in Manila. Upon her return to Dapitan, Rizal tried to arrange with Father Antonio Obach for their marriage. However, the priest wanted a retraction as a precondition before marrying them. Rizal upon the advice of his family and friends and with Josephine’s consent took her as his wife even without the Church blessings. Josephine later give birth prematurely to a stillborn baby, a result of some incidence, which might have shocked or frightened her. They named the child Francisco.
  28. 28. His Ideals More than a century since Dr. Jose P. Rizal died, those who champion his ideals today believe the national hero had it right when he said that the youth are the country’s future. • “They are still the hope of the nation, because of their new and innocent ideals that we need to nurture, so that we can use them in the future,”
  29. 29. His Fall
  30. 30. • DECEMBER 30 is the time to reflect upon the life of our national hero Dr. Jose Rizal who at the age of 35, was executed on the field of Bagumbayan,now Luneta. He was a giant of a man, the like of which the human race has yet to reproduce, a genius in all fields of both the arts and sciences. He is excellent in all endeavors, the best of his race and of his species. But his crowning glory was his death, like that of Jesus Christ, a glorious transfiguration of tragic failure into the redemption of his people. When he died in that bleak December morn, we Filipinos felt we all died with him; but we also felt that by his death we were born anew, as one nation and one people. His Fall means, his career, his life, his happiness all have been sacrificed for love of the native land.” as His old story says: I shall always remember the “moth that was fatally attracted to the light,” adding that “to sacrifice one’s life for light is worthwhile.
  31. 31. ANYANY QUESTIONS?QUESTIONS?
  32. 32. The Propaganda Movement
  33. 33. •The Propaganda Movement was a peaceful crusade for reforms •It is not a revolutionary movement. •It began in 1872, after GOMBURZA’s execution, and ended in 1892, when Rizal was exiled to Dapitan.
  34. 34. How did it stirred Sentiments of Nationalism among Filipino? • The Filipino sentiment of nationality aroused, and this local incident was magnified by the Spanish Authorities into a “National Rebellion” to Justify mass reprisals. • The propagandist Shows that w/o killing another man, one can fight oppression. • They demonstrated how the power of pen could be stronger than the sword. • The death Of GOMBURZA awakened strong feelings of anger and resentment among the Filipinos.
  35. 35. Problems Faced by the Propagandist: Filipinos were not given a voice in their own government. Defective administration of Justice • Courts were really courts of injustice. • Spanish judges were ignorant and dishonest • Judicial trials were slow and expensive No equality before the law • Spaniards were given more rights and privilege that Filipinos • Justice was for the rich and influential and not for the poor.
  36. 36. Many Spanish officials were corrupt, abusive, and incompetent. • Filipinos were maltreated and regarded as inferior beings.
  37. 37. This movement was carried on and Faced by means of pen and tongue. And Their Aims are: • Equality of Filipinos and Spaniards before the law. • Assimilation of the Philippines as a regular province of Spain. • Restoration of Philippine representation in the Spanish Cortes. • Filipinization of the parishes • Granting of individual liberties to Filipinos such as: – Freedom of Speech – Freedom of the press – Freedom of assembly – Freedom to petition for grievances
  38. 38. Thank You For Listening ^_^
  39. 39. Presented By: • Maria Elisa B. Belarso • Eleonor Ogatis • Zandra Isabel Aguirre • Keyrich Ann Bangquillo • Criza Sheena Cristobal • Ma. Cristy Pearl Delariarte

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