José Protacio Mercado Rizal
Alonzo Y Realonda
Born: June 19, 1861, Calamba.
Died: Dec. 30, 1896, Manila
to dwell on Rizal’s:
• Multiracial Ancestry/Mixed
• Birth and Early Childhood
• Studies/Education in the
• The meaning of his fall
•To identify the significant
factors contributed to Rizal's
being a hero;
•To know how his parents mold
him to become a better person;
•To appreciate the qualities of
Rizal as a child to his parents,
student, champion and genius.
•Man of Letters who was an inspiration to
the Philippine nationalist movement (La
Solidaridad --- Katipunan )
•National Hero and pride of the Malayan
• Mixed Racial Origin
From his father side
– Domino Lam-Co (a full-blooded Chinese from
Amoy, China) - - Ines de la Rosa (Chinese half-
– Francisco Mercado - - Bernarda Monicha (21
– Juan Mercado - - Cirila Alejandra (14 children)
– Francisco Mercado Rizal
- Studied Latin & Philosophy at the College of San Jose
- described by Rizal as “model of fathers”
- he inherited . . . Profound sense of dignity
self-respect, seriousness and self-possession
-a successful farmer
-he loved books
-an excellent model for Rizal that molded him up into a
man of honor
- understood the world of humanity which furnished him
with greater respect for other people, and a greater
respect to the dignity of labor.
- born in Meisik, Sta. Cruz Manila.
- talented and remarkable woman
- he inherited . . . temperament of the poet and
dreamer and bravery for sacrifice
- his first teacher
- inculcated the value of knowledge and
education to the young Rizal
- a good Mathematician and Manager of
business of the Rizal family.
According to Rizal:
“My mother is not a woman of ordinary
culture. She knows literature and speaks
Spanish better than I do. She even
corrected my poems and gave me wise
advice when I was studying rhetoric. She
is a mathematician and has read many
• His mother- encouraged him to express his ideas and
sentiments in verse
• “The Story of the Moth” about the mother moth
warning its offspring of the danger of fluttering to
close to flame. The little moth did not heed the
advice, thus it was burned by the flame.
This gave him the moral lesson that if one must
succeed, he must take risks and prepare for the worst
consequences. Without courage, there will be no
Birth and Early Childhood
In Calamba, Laguna:
• 19 June 1861 – birth
• 22 June 1861 – baptized
• 1864 - learned the alphabet from his mother
• 1865 - his sister Conception (8th
died at the age of three.
Birth and Early Childhood
• 1865 – 1867 - his mother taught him how to
read and write
– Leon Monroy - taught Rizal the rudiments of Latin
– Uncle Manuel Alberto - taught the latter love for
» Usman – Rizal’s dog
– Uncle Gregorio - instilled love for education
• 1869 - "Sa Aking Mga Kabata."
Birth and Early Childhood
In Biñan, Laguna :
• 1870 - His brother Paciano brought Rizal to
– Justinian Aquino Cruz – taught Rizal Latin and Spanish
– Juancho Carrera – taught him the art of painting
• 17 December 1870 - Rizal returned to
Calamba after he finished his
studies in Biñan.
Birth and Early Childhood
Back in Calamba:
• 1871 - His mother was imprisoned in Sta. Cruz,
Laguna for allegedly poisoning the wife
of Jose Alberto
• 1872 - Cavite Mutiny on January 20, 1872; his
father forbid the words:
• In Binan
- he was 9 yrs old
- Justiniano Aquino Cruz
he studied Latin and Spanish
- Andres Salandanan ( a local painter)
he developed his initial lessons in painting
Studies in the Philippines
• got low grades
• studied Philosophy and Letters
• study medicine (ophthalmology) - did not
Studies in the Philippines
• got excellent grades
• studied bachelor of arts in 1877
• graduated as one of sobresaliente
• first professor was Fr. Jose Bech
Rizal's First Trip Abroad May 3, 1882
Rizal left Philippines for the first time Spain. He boarded
the Salvadora using a passport of Jose Mercado, which
was procured for him by his uncle Antonio Rivera,
father of Leonor Rivera. He was accompanied to the
quay where the Salvadora was moored by his uncle
Antonio, Vicente Gella, and Mateo Evangelista.
• 15 June 1882
He left Marseilles for Barcelona in an express train.
Rizal in Barcelona, Spain
• 20 August 1882
His article "Amor Patrio" was published in the
Diarong Tagalog, a Manila newspaper edited by Basilio
Teodoro. This was the First article he wrote abroad.
Rizal in Madrid, Spain
• 2 September 1882
Rizal matriculated at the Universidad
Central de Madrid. He took the
following subjects: medical clinic, surgical
clinic, legal medicine and obstetrical clinic.
• 4 October 1882
Asked to deliver a poem by the members of
Circulo Hispano-Filipino, there together in the
effort to save the association from
disintegration, Rizal recited "Me piden
versus." The meeting was held at the house of
Pablo Ortiga y Rey.
Rizal in Paris, France
June 18, 1883
Rizal Back in Madrid
28 September 1883
He enrolled at the central Universidad de Madrid for the second
course in medicine.
Rizal in Heidelberg, Germany
22 April 1886
• While in Heidelberg experiencing the feeling of nostalgia for his
parents and his country, Rizal wrote the poem "A Las Flores de
Rizal in Berlin, Germany
21 March 1887
Copies of his novel came off the press
Rizal in Manila
• 5 August 1887
At 9:00 o’clock in the evening, Rizal arrived at Manila after five years of study
and patriotic labors in Europe.
Rizal in Hong Kong
22 February 1888
After staying in Hong Kong for almost two weeks, he left for Japan on board
• Rizal in Japan
• Rizal in America
• Rizal Bound for England
– Rizal in London
– Rizal in Paris
• Rizal Back in Spain
• Rizal in the Philippines
Rizal, the Romantic
There were at least nine women linked with Rizal; namely
• Segunda Katigbak
• Leonor Valenzuela
• Leonor Rivera
• Consuelo Ortiga
• O-Sei San
• Gertrude Beckette
• Nelly Boustead
• Suzanne Jacoby and
• Josephine Bracken.
These women might have been beguiled by his intelligence,
charm and wit.
The Women in His Life
O-Sei Kiyo San
• Segunda Katigbak and Leonor Valenzuela
Segunda Katigbak was her puppy love. Unfortunately, his first love was
engaged to be married to a town mate- Manuel Luz. After his admiration for a
short girl in the person of Segunda, then came Leonor Valenzuela, a tall girl
from Pagsanjan. Rizal send her love notes written in invisible ink, that could
only be deciphered over the warmth of the lamp or candle. He visited her on
the eve of his departure to Spain and bade her a last goodbye.
• Leonor Rivera
Leonor Rivera, his sweetheart for 11 years played the greatest influence in
keeping him from falling in love with other women during his travel.
Unfortunately, Leonor’s mother disapproved of her daughter’s relationship
with Rizal, who was then a known filibustero. She hid from Leonor all letters
sent to her sweetheart. Leonor believing that Rizal had already forgotten her,
sadly consented her to marry the Englishman Henry Kipping, her mother’s
• Consuelo Ortiga
Consuelo Ortiga y Rey, the prettier of Don Pablo Ortiga’s daughters, fell in love
with him. He dedicated to her A la Senorita C.O. y R., which became one of his
best poems. The Ortiga's residence in Madrid was frequented by Rizal and his
compatriots. He probably fell in love with her and Consuelo apparently asked
him for romantic verses. He suddenly backed out before the relationship
turned into a serious romance, because he wanted to remain loyal to Leonor
Rivera and he did not want to destroy hid friendship with Eduardo de Lete who
was madly in love with Consuelo.
• O Sei San
O Sei San, a Japanese samurai’s daughter taught Rizal the Japanese art of
painting known as su-mie. She also helped Rizal improve his knowledge of
Japanese language. If Rizal was a man without a patriotic mission, he would
have married this lovely and intelligent woman and lived a stable and happy life
with her in Japan because Spanish legation there offered him a lucrative job.
• Gertrude Beckett
While Rizal was in London annotating the Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, he
boarded in the house of the Beckett family, within walking distance of the
British Museum. Gertrude, a blue-eyed and buxom girl was the oldest of the
three Beckett daughters. She fell in love with Rizal. Tottie helped him in his
painting and sculpture. But Rizal suddenly left London for Paris to avoid
Gertrude, who was seriously in love with him. Before leaving London, he was
able to finish the group carving of the Beckett sisters. He gave the group
carving to Gertrude as a sign of their brief relationship.
• Nellie Boustead
Rizal having lost Leonor Rivera, entertained the thought of courting other
ladies. While a guest of the Boustead family at their residence in the resort city
of Biarritz, he had befriended the two pretty daughters of his host, Eduardo
Boustead. Rizal used to fence with the sisters at the studio of Juan Luna.
Antonio Luna, Juan’s brother and also a frequent visitor of the Bousteads,
courted Nellie but she was deeply infatuated with Rizal. In a party held by
Filipinos in Madrid, a drunken Antonio Luna uttered unsavory remarks against
Nellie Boustead. This prompted Rizal to challenge Luna into a duel. Fortunately,
Luna apologized to Rizal, thus averting tragedy for the compatriots.
• Suzanne Jacoby
In 1890, Rizal moved to Brussels because of the high cost of living in Paris.
In Brussels, he lived in the boarding house of the two Jacoby sisters. In
time, they fell deeply in love with each other. Suzanne cried when Rizal
left Brussels and wrote him when he was in Madrid.
• Josephine Bracken
In the last days of February 1895, while still in Dapitan, Rizal met an 18-
year old petite Irish girl, with bold blue eyes, brown hair and a happy
disposition. She was Josephine Bracken, the adopted daughter of George
Taufer from Hong Kong, who came to Dapitan to seek Rizal for eye
treatment. Rizal was physically attracted to her. His loneliness and
boredom must have taken the measure of him and what could be a better
diversion that to fall in love again. But the Rizal sisters suspected
Josephine as an agent of the friars and they considered her as a threat to
Rizal’s security. Rizal asked Josephine to marry him, but she was not yet
ready to make a decision due to her responsibility to the blind Taufer.
Since Taufer’s blindness was untreatable, he left for Hong Kong on March
1895. Josephine stayed with Rizal’s family in Manila. Upon her return to
Dapitan, Rizal tried to arrange with Father Antonio Obach for their
marriage. However, the priest wanted a retraction as a precondition
before marrying them. Rizal upon the advice of his family and friends and
with Josephine’s consent took her as his wife even without the Church
blessings. Josephine later give birth prematurely to a stillborn baby, a
result of some incidence, which might have shocked or frightened her.
They named the child Francisco.
More than a century since Dr. Jose P. Rizal
died, those who champion his ideals today
believe the national hero had it right when he
said that the youth are the country’s future.
• “They are still the hope of the nation, because
of their new and innocent ideals that we need
to nurture, so that we can use them in the
• DECEMBER 30 is the time to reflect upon the life of our
national hero Dr. Jose Rizal who at the age of 35, was
executed on the field of Bagumbayan,now Luneta.
He was a giant of a man, the like of which the human race
has yet to reproduce, a genius in all fields of both the arts
He is excellent in all endeavors, the best of his race and of
his species. But his crowning glory was his death, like that of
Jesus Christ, a glorious transfiguration of tragic failure into
the redemption of his people.
When he died in that bleak December morn, we Filipinos
felt we all died with him; but we also felt that by his death
we were born anew, as one nation and one people. His Fall
means, his career, his life, his happiness all have been
sacrificed for love of the native land.”
as His old story says: I shall always remember the
“moth that was fatally attracted to the light,” adding
that “to sacrifice one’s life for light is worthwhile.
•The Propaganda Movement was a peaceful
crusade for reforms
•It is not a revolutionary movement.
•It began in 1872, after GOMBURZA’s
execution, and ended in 1892, when Rizal was
exiled to Dapitan.
How did it stirred Sentiments of
Nationalism among Filipino?
• The Filipino sentiment of nationality aroused, and
this local incident was magnified by the Spanish
Authorities into a “National Rebellion” to Justify
• The propagandist Shows that w/o killing another
man, one can fight oppression.
• They demonstrated how the power of pen could be
stronger than the sword.
• The death Of GOMBURZA awakened strong feelings
of anger and resentment among the Filipinos.
Problems Faced by the
Filipinos were not given a voice in their own
Defective administration of Justice
• Courts were really courts of injustice.
• Spanish judges were ignorant and dishonest
• Judicial trials were slow and expensive
No equality before the law
• Spaniards were given more rights and privilege that
• Justice was for the rich and influential and not for
Many Spanish officials were corrupt,
abusive, and incompetent.
• Filipinos were maltreated and regarded as inferior
This movement was carried on and Faced by means of pen
and tongue. And Their Aims are:
• Equality of Filipinos and Spaniards before the law.
• Assimilation of the Philippines as a regular province of
• Restoration of Philippine representation in the
• Filipinization of the parishes
• Granting of individual liberties to Filipinos such as:
– Freedom of Speech
– Freedom of the press
– Freedom of assembly
– Freedom to petition for grievances