OA in Humanities and Social Sciences


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Presentation at 5th OASPA conference in Riga, 19 September 2013

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  • HSS, although they do use the library – still like to purchase their own books – there is still that link to the print….
  • Even if using the library, the predominant format is print….which is quite different from the journals area where most access and use of content is in electronic format.
  • Last 3 are drawn from free-text comments: is there a real difference between self- and no-funding? Hard to say. Respondents could choose multiple options. Core university funds are most important, although if you aggregate RC and other funders they are nearly as big. -- In HSS in the UK – the majority of researchers use core university funds – ie. their salary to undertake the research which supports their research output which is the monograph. There is less funding coming from research councils or other funders compared to STM areas. Of the 4 universities interviewed in our case studies, all of them were acutely aware of the lower amount of funding that HSS receive in comparison to STEM areas and the impact that this will have on a gold type model. The two learned societies we spoke with expressed how the curtailment of RCUK funds for travel for example, have impacted HSS researchers and they look to learned societies more to support early career research in particular. In HSS which has less riches and less of the funding pot, a lot of the work undertaken by academics in terms of editorial boards, series editors, learned societies is based on good will. The likelihood of being paid is much lower. “ Most of the Society’s activities – managing its publications, advocacy, researcher support, membership, finances, administration, events and so on – are done for free by academic officers and councillors. The editorial boards for the various publications, and the academic editors for the Studies in History series, also contribute their time for free. Some are able, in theory, to negotiate with their institutions to reclaim the time spent on these activities, but in practice this rarely works. For others, there is no possibility even of a negotiation. Certainly, most of our interviewees felt that they were doing most of the work for the Society in their own time – which, as one interviewee stressed, is a common feature of life for academics, even those who are not involved with a learned society.”
  • OA in Humanities and Social Sciences

    1. 1. OA in the Humanities and Social Sciences 5th Conference on Open Access Scholarly Publishing September 18-20, 2013, Riga Eelco Ferwerda OAPEN Foundation
    2. 2. Contents – HSS versus STM – DOAJ – P versus E – Attitudes – Anxieties – Funding – Business models in HSS – How libraries can make a difference
    3. 3. OA benefits all research ‘Whether a given line of research serves wellness or wisdom, energy or enlightenment, protein synthesis or public safety, OA helps it serve those purposes faster, better, and more universally.’ Peter Suber, ‘Open Access’ (MIT Press, 2012)
    4. 4. HSS versus STM DOAJ: –Journals: »55 % STM – 45 % HSS –How about articles? –How about APC’s? Most OA publishing in HSS works without money
    5. 5. Research output in HSS • AHRC estimates just a third of research output is in the form of articles, two-thirds is books (Humanities) • Monographs are the preferred genre • Print is the preferred format • E is growing for discovery and reading • Print remains the primary edition
    6. 6. Reading habits
    7. 7. Reading habits
    8. 8. Expanded timescales • Our workshops with authors and publishers confirmed that a book takes on average 3 years to create • Peer reviewing a book is a bigger commitment than an article • The editors in the interviews spoke of the ‘lifetimes’ authors spend on research • This is an output that reflects years of work http://oapen-uk.jiscebooks.org/
    9. 9. Business Models • Publishers often have to cost recover on the single entity of the book • Some titles are a gamble – bigger risk than an article • HSS researchers need that first book for their first job or for promotion – asking the publisher to take a risk, not as predominant in STEM
    10. 10. Anxiety Our institutional case studies, workshops and focus groups show that there is an anxiety in HSS - worried about getting published - worried about access to funding if goes gold - worried about new licensing models (even though they now retain copyright – makes them nervous)
    11. 11. • understand anxieties • address / explore them • make authors feel more confident • explain why RCUK prefers CC BY • help authors feel equipped to negotiate
    12. 12. HSS funding
    13. 13. OA business models in HSS • HSS has less access to funding, particularly central funding for ‘Gold OA’, based on OA publication funds • HSS needs other models to achieve OA: • Emergence of ‘Library side’ models – Based on libraries’ existing acquisitions budget – Three examples:
    14. 14. Knowledge Unlatched Libraries purchase OA books: • Libraries form a global consortium • Use their existing acquisitions budget • Select individually, purchase collectively • Price based on fixed or ‘first digital copy’ costs • Libraries receive value-added edition • Monographs are then published Open Access – First pilot underway – Approx. 20 publishers, 30 libraries http://www.knowledgeunlatched.org/
    15. 15. OpenEdition Libraries license OA content: – OpenEdition Freemium – Free content online (HTML) – Premium content (PDF, e-reader formats) and services for libraries – Revenues split 1/3-2/3 between OpenEdition and publishers • Intended to: – make OA content discoverable – provide a business model for OA content – help sustain platform http://www.openedition.org
    16. 16. Open Library of Humanities Libraries ‘subscribe’ to OA journal: • OLH: megajournal for HSS – Inspired by PLOS ONE – Initiative of Martin Eve & Caroline Edwards – different business model: Library Partnership Subsidy – subscription model: • Many libraries > low subsidies! https://www.openlibhums.org/
    17. 17. Opportunity for Libraries Libraries can make a difference for OA, especially in HSS, but: – We can’t sell library side models door-to-door – Libraries have been the driving force of the OA movement – They need to take another step, by organizing themselves – Getting involved in the transition to OA
    18. 18. Opportunity for Libraries • What if research libraries supporting OA: – Reserved a small, fixed percentage of their acquisitions budget for OA initiatives – Established a Strategic Library Alliance for the transition to OA – Use this budget to help develop the road to OA • (The percentage could become a moving target, a moving wall between OA and TA) Disclaimers: – We don’t expect Libraries to solve the transition by themselves – Libraries are not cash machines that will make OA work – Libraries should help determine how OA will work
    19. 19. Thank you! Eelco Ferwerda e.ferwerda@oapen.org www.oapen.org www.doabooks.org