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Cross-Cultural Survey   Guidelines (CCSG) workshop               Dublin, Feb. 2012                    Prof. Edwin van Teij...
Comparative research                    Comparative studies•   Cross-national research helps one to look at    problems fr...
Cross-Cultural Survey               GuidelinesGuidelines are part of   Comparative Survey Design & Implementation (CSDI)  ...
Starter questionWhat makes a good quantitative survey? What are the characteristics of well designed and implemented surve...
A good survey consists of:•   .….•   …..•   …..•   …..www.bournemouth.ac.uk
Overview 15 chapters CCSG1.       Study, Organizational, and Operational Structure2.       Survey Quality3.       Ethical ...
CCSG Glossary        (as specifically relevant todayAdaptation• Changing existing materials (e.g., management plans,  cont...
Overview 15 chapters CCSG1.       Study, Organizational, and Operational Structure2.       Survey Quality3.       Ethical ...
CCSG: Survey Lifecyclewww.bournemouth.ac.uk
First 9 chapters CCSG1.      Study, Organizational, and Operational Structure2.      Survey Quality3.      Ethical Conside...
Shaping a Network of                 Local ResearchersCOST brings together midwifery/maternity care   researchers from a r...
Guidelines: leadershipTo establish studys overall structure & locus of control at all levels and across all aspects of stu...
II. Survey  Quality                        http://ccsg.isr.umich.edu/quality.cfmwww.bournemouth.ac.uk
II. Survey  Qualitywww.bournemouth.ac.uk
Sampling frames• As maternity services, health  systems and the was populations  are registered varies across  countries w...
8 TranslationTranslation is :A.Language;B.Culture;C.Context & system (related).Starting point cross-national survey? Trans...
8 Translation / languageA. LanguageWords have ‘meaning’ which    needs to be translated.Translations from English into    ...
8 Translation / CultureB. CultureWill we have a questionnaire in    German?OrA German questionnaire, a    Swiss questionna...
8 Translation / CultureB. CultureWill we have a questionnaire in    minority languages such as    Hindi, Urdu, Turkish, et...
8 Translation / CultureB. CultureSome colours and numbers   have special significance in   some cultures so should   perha...
8 Translation / contextC. Context• ‘Private health services’ means  something different in a state  health service system ...
Problematising TerminologyComparing like with like?• Trained nurse-midwife• Direct-entry midwife (NB: UK vs US meaning)• M...
11. Pretesting•   Test instrument•   Test research protocol•   Training researcher/ Education•   Collect preliminary data•...
Reasons for pilot studiesTest instrument:• test questions;• test possible answers for multiple  choice questions;• test or...
Reasons for pilot studiesTest research protocol:• test way of questionnaire  distribution• test process of returning them ...
Reasons for pilot studiesTraining researcher/ Education:• Project as part of training/ degree• Train new researcher on a s...
Ethics committeesGlasziou & Chalmers (2004) found that piloting of leaflet aimed at elderly to improve GP consultations ne...
Ethics committees• What if ethics committee in the UK  does not think question 17 in the  questionnaire is appropriate, bu...
Balance              Uniformity                                              Context & cultural                           ...
ReferencesGlasziou P, Chalmers I (2004) Ethics review roulette: What can we learn? Brit Med J, 328:   121-122.Hearnshaw H ...
www.bournemouth.ac.uk
Thank you!                        Edwin van Teijlingenwww.bournemouth.ac.uk
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Cross cultural survey_workshop_dublin_2012

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Presented as part of a workshop on cross-cultural surveys

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Cross cultural survey_workshop_dublin_2012

  1. 1. Cross-Cultural Survey Guidelines (CCSG) workshop Dublin, Feb. 2012 Prof. Edwin van Teijlingenwww.bournemouth.ac.uk
  2. 2. Comparative research Comparative studies• Cross-national research helps one to look at problems from a different angle, questioning current practice, warn against side effects, etc. I.e. there exist ways of doing things which have not been considered in the UK (or Germany or Finland or …..) .• Cognitive psychology recognises that cognition is a situated process and that knowledge is a collaborative, culture-bounded effort. www.bournemouth.ac.uk
  3. 3. Cross-Cultural Survey GuidelinesGuidelines are part of Comparative Survey Design & Implementation (CSDI) Guidelines Initiative.Initiative promotes internationally recognized guidelines that highlight best practice for the conduct of comparative survey research across cultures and countries.Designed for researchers planning or engaged in cross- cultural or cross-national research. http://ccsg.isr.umich.edu/index.cfm www.bournemouth.ac.uk
  4. 4. Starter questionWhat makes a good quantitative survey? What are the characteristics of well designed and implemented survey?• How do student midwives in Ireland see the job market in their field developing over the coming five years?www.bournemouth.ac.uk
  5. 5. A good survey consists of:• .….• …..• …..• …..www.bournemouth.ac.uk
  6. 6. Overview 15 chapters CCSG1. Study, Organizational, and Operational Structure2. Survey Quality3. Ethical Considerations in Surveys4. Tenders, Bids, and Contracts5. Sample Design6. Questionnaire Design7. Adaptation of Survey Instruments8. Translation9. Instrument Technical Design10. Interviewer Recruitment, Selection, and Training11. Pretesting12. Data Collection13. Data Harmonization14. Data Processing and Statistical Adjustment15. Data Dissemination www.bournemouth.ac.uk
  7. 7. CCSG Glossary (as specifically relevant todayAdaptation• Changing existing materials (e.g., management plans, contracts, training manuals, questionnaires, etc.) by deliberately altering some content or design component to make the resulting materials more suitable for another socio-cultural context or a particular population.Coordinating centre• A research centre that facilitates and organises cross- cultural or multi-site research activities. www.bournemouth.ac.uk
  8. 8. Overview 15 chapters CCSG1. Study, Organizational, and Operational Structure2. Survey Quality3. Ethical Considerations in Surveys4. Tenders, Bids, and Contracts5. Sample Design6. Questionnaire Design7. Adaptation of Survey Instruments8. Translation9. Instrument Technical Design10. Interviewer Recruitment, Selection, and Training11. Pretesting12. Data Collection13. Data Harmonization14. Data Processing and Statistical Adjustment15. Data Dissemination www.bournemouth.ac.uk
  9. 9. CCSG: Survey Lifecyclewww.bournemouth.ac.uk
  10. 10. First 9 chapters CCSG1. Study, Organizational, and Operational Structure2. Survey Quality3. Ethical Considerations in Surveys4. Tenders, Bids, and Contracts5. Sample Design6. Questionnaire Design7. Adaptation of Survey Instruments8. Translation9. Instrument Technical Design www.bournemouth.ac.uk
  11. 11. Shaping a Network of Local ResearchersCOST brings together midwifery/maternity care researchers from a range of different academic disciplines working across Europe.To conduct a cross-national survey there has to be a balance between (a) standardisation of implementation and (b) adaptation of the cultural context.This needs ‘leadership’/coordinating centre.www.bournemouth.ac.uk
  12. 12. Guidelines: leadershipTo establish studys overall structure & locus of control at all levels and across all aspects of studys design & implementation, and to communicate this structure to each participating countrys survey organization.www.bournemouth.ac.uk
  13. 13. II. Survey Quality http://ccsg.isr.umich.edu/quality.cfmwww.bournemouth.ac.uk
  14. 14. II. Survey Qualitywww.bournemouth.ac.uk
  15. 15. Sampling frames• As maternity services, health systems and the was populations are registered varies across countries we may have to deal with different sampling frames across COST countries.www.bournemouth.ac.uk
  16. 16. 8 TranslationTranslation is :A.Language;B.Culture;C.Context & system (related).Starting point cross-national survey? Translate from Dutch into German / French / English. www.bournemouth.ac.uk
  17. 17. 8 Translation / languageA. LanguageWords have ‘meaning’ which needs to be translated.Translations from English into other European languages take more space.Miles & lbs & pints………www.bournemouth.ac.uk
  18. 18. 8 Translation / CultureB. CultureWill we have a questionnaire in German?OrA German questionnaire, a Swiss questionnaire and an Austrian questionnaire?www.bournemouth.ac.uk
  19. 19. 8 Translation / CultureB. CultureWill we have a questionnaire in minority languages such as Hindi, Urdu, Turkish, etc. and use same questionnaire in Hindi different European countries?www.bournemouth.ac.uk
  20. 20. 8 Translation / CultureB. CultureSome colours and numbers have special significance in some cultures so should perhaps be avoided answers to multiple choice questions.www.bournemouth.ac.uk
  21. 21. 8 Translation / contextC. Context• ‘Private health services’ means something different in a state health service system such as in the UK than in a health- insurance system such as the Netherlands or Germany. www.bournemouth.ac.uk
  22. 22. Problematising TerminologyComparing like with like?• Trained nurse-midwife• Direct-entry midwife (NB: UK vs US meaning)• Midwifery assistant / maternity care assistant• Maternity benefits• Economic migrant• etc.www.bournemouth.ac.uk
  23. 23. 11. Pretesting• Test instrument• Test research protocol• Training researcher/ Education• Collect preliminary data• Impress (potential) funders• Help calculate sample sizewww.bournemouth.ac.uk
  24. 24. Reasons for pilot studiesTest instrument:• test questions;• test possible answers for multiple choice questions;• test order of questions;• test colour of paper;• etc.• etc.www.bournemouth.ac.uk
  25. 25. Reasons for pilot studiesTest research protocol:• test way of questionnaire distribution• test process of returning them to you• test intervening factors (gate keepers, etc.)• try out different incentives to increase response rateswww.bournemouth.ac.uk
  26. 26. Reasons for pilot studiesTraining researcher/ Education:• Project as part of training/ degree• Train new researcher on a study• Train researcher in new techniquewww.bournemouth.ac.uk
  27. 27. Ethics committeesGlasziou & Chalmers (2004) found that piloting of leaflet aimed at elderly to improve GP consultations needed ethical review, in Belgium, Slovenia and UK, but not in Austria, France, Germany and Switzerland, whilst UK has one of most complicated ethical processes (Hearnshaw 2004). www.bournemouth.ac.uk
  28. 28. Ethics committees• What if ethics committee in the UK does not think question 17 in the questionnaire is appropriate, but ethics committee in Belgium and in xxxx has accepted the questionnaire as it stands?• What do we do?www.bournemouth.ac.uk
  29. 29. Balance Uniformity Context & cultural sensitivityBalance between the need to keep surveyas uniform as possible to be able to makecross-national comparisons AND the needto be as sensitive as possible to the localcontext, culture & health system! www.bournemouth.ac.uk
  30. 30. ReferencesGlasziou P, Chalmers I (2004) Ethics review roulette: What can we learn? Brit Med J, 328: 121-122.Hearnshaw H (2004) Comparisons of requirements of research ethics committees in 11 European countries for a non-invasive interventional study. Brit Med J, 328: 140-141.Survey Research Center. (2010). Guidelines for Best Practice in Cross-Cultural Surveys. Ann Arbor, MI: Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan. Retrieved Feb. 2012 from http://www.ccsg.isr.umich.edu/van Teijlingen ER, Sandall J, Wrede S, Benoit C, DeVries R, Bourgeault I. (2003) Comparative studies in maternity care RCM Midwives J 6: 338-40.Peat J et al. (2002), Health Science Research: A Handbook of Quantitative Methods, London: Sage.Teijlingen van, E., Hundley, V. (2001) The importance of pilot studies, Social Research Update Issue 35, http://www.soc.surrey.ac.uk/sru/SRU35.html www.bournemouth.ac.uk
  31. 31. www.bournemouth.ac.uk
  32. 32. Thank you! Edwin van Teijlingenwww.bournemouth.ac.uk

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