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PHP and MySQL : Server Side Scripting For Web Development


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PHP scripting and MySQL database are one of the worlds most popular open source techniques used to develop websites. Add an advantage of a MVC framework to it and you can develop powerful, dynamic and easy to maintain database driven websites. PHP, MySQL and CakePHP are also platform independent i.e. You can easily port a website developed on a windows machine to a Linux based apache web server with minimal to no changes. The CakePHP MVC architect also adds some additional security against threats like SQL injections, hacking etc.

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PHP and MySQL : Server Side Scripting For Web Development

  1. 1. PHP and MySQL : Server Side Scripting For Web Development View PHP & MYSQL Course at: For more details please contact us: US : 1800 275 9730 (toll free) INDIA : +91 88808 62004 Email Us : For Queries: Post on Twitter @edurekaIN: #askEdureka Post on Facebook /edurekaIN
  2. 2. Slide 2 Objectives At the end of this module, you will be able to understand:  Basics of PHP  Conditional Logic and Loops  PHP Form Handling  PHP Functions  Object Oriented Concepts  Implement MySQL with PHP
  3. 3. Slide 3 PHP & MySQL - Overview  PHP & MySQL is an open-source  PHP & MySQL are two key components in the open-source LAMP stack  It is the most appropriate tool for developing dynamic web pages. For example, we can develop informative forums, chatting platforms, e-commerce shopping carts, CRM solutions, community websites and database driven sites  PHP with MySQL is a powerful combination showing the real power of Server-Side scripting  PHP has a wide range of MySQL functions available with the help of a separate module
  4. 4. Slide 4 Benefits of PHP & MySQL PHP web development means developing websites and dynamic web pages using the versatile and capable server-side scripting language CAPABLE PLATFORM INDEPENDENT SUPPORTS ALL MAJOR WEB SERVERS SUPPORTS ALL MAJOR DATABASES FREE OF COST FASTER DEVELOPMENTS LARGE COMMUNITIES EASY PROVEN AND TRUSTED SECURE
  5. 5. Slide 5 Intricacies of PHP & MySQL Dynamic and Weak Typing Variable Variables Dynamic Arrays Dynamic Constants Dynamic Functions Dynamic Code Dynamic Includes Built-in Functions Superglobals
  6. 6. Slide 6 What is PHP?  PHP is the web development language written by and for web developers.  PHP stands for Hypertext Preprocessor.  It was originally named as Personal Home Page Tools and later on as Professional Home Page.  It is a server-side script, which can be embedded in HTML or used as a standalone program script.
  7. 7. Slide 7 Script in PHP  PHP can be embedded in HTML or can be written as stand-alone program by using special markup tags. They are: <?php //PHP code comes here ?>  We can write PHP script in always available Notepad or get some PHP specific IDE downloaded from internet.  We can call the file from web browser after saving it using .php extension in webserver directory.
  8. 8. Slide 8 PHP Example <html> <head> <title>PHP Example</title> <body> <?php echo “This is my first PHP script."; ?> </body> </html>  The rendered HTML of the above script looks like below: <html> <head> <title>PHP Example</title> <body> <p> This is my first PHP script.</p> </body> </html>
  9. 9. Slide 9 Environment Setup  To execute PHP script we need three components to be installed on our computer:  Web Server - PHP supports many web server, including Apache server and IIS.  Database - PHP supports many databases. But the extensively used is MySQL.  PHP Parser - A Parser is required to generate HTML output from PHP code.
  10. 10. Slide 10 PHP Variables  A variable in any programming language is a name to store a value that can be referenced later as required.  In PHP, Variables are defined a name preceded by a dollar sign ($). Eg. $firstName, $last_Name etc.  The type of a variable depends upon the value of its values.  Equal to (=) operator is used to assign a value to a variable name, on the left-hand side and the value on the right-hand side.  In PHP, variables are not required to be declared before assigning a value.  Data type for a variables is not required to be declared for a variable in PHP. Depending upon the value it is automatically interpreted.
  11. 11. Slide 11 Decision Making Statements  Statements that are used to perform certain functions depending on certain conditions are called Decision making statements as given below: • If…else statement • elseif statement • Switch statement
  12. 12. Slide 12 If-else Statement <?php If($user == “Mohit”) { print “Hello Mohit.”; } else { print “You are not Mohit.”; } ?>
  13. 13. Slide 13 If-elseif Statement <?php if($day ==5) { print(“Five team members. <br>”); } elseif($day ==4) { print(“Four team members <br>”); } elseif($day ==3) { print(“Three team members <br>”); } elseif($day ==2) { print(“Two team members <br>”); } elseif($day ==1) { print(“One team members <br>”); } ?>
  14. 14. Slide 14 Switch Statement <?php switch($day) { case 3: print(“Three golden rings <br>”); break; case 2: print(“Two golden rings <br>”); break; default: print(“One golden ring <br>”); } ?>
  15. 15. Slide 15 Looping Statements  Following are the various looping statements in PHP: • For loop • Foreach loop • While loop • Do…while loop
  16. 16. Slide 16 For Statement  A for statement execution starts with evaluation of initial-expression, which is initialization of counter variable .  Then evaluation of termination-check is done. if false, the for statement concludes, and if true, the statement executes.  Finally, the loop-end-expression is executed and the loop begins again with termination–check. Example: <?php for($counter=1 //initial expression $counter<4; //termination checks $counter++ //loop-end expressions) { print(“$counter<br />”); } ?> Result: 1 2 3
  17. 17. Slide 17 Foreach Statement  We use foreach loop to iterate through arrays and objects. Example: <?php $months = array(“January", “February", “March", “April“, ”May”, ”June”, ”July”, ”August”, ”September”, ”October”, ”November”, ”December”); foreach ($months as $value) { echo "$value <br>"; } ?> Result: January February March April May June July August September October November December
  18. 18. Slide 18 While Statement  The while loop evaluates the condition expression as Boolean. if true, it executes statements and then starts again by evaluating condition. If the condition is false, the loop terminates. Example: <?php $count=1; While($counter<=6) { print(“Counter value is $counter <br>”); $counter = $counter++; } ?> Result: Count value is 1 Count value is 2 Count value is 3 Count value is 4 Count value is 5 Count value is 6
  19. 19. Slide 19 Do-While Statement  The only difference between while and do-while is that the do-while will execute the statement at least once.  The statement is executed once, and then the expression is evaluated. If the expression is true, the statement is repeated until the expression becomes false. Example: <?php $counter=50; do { print(“Counter value is $counter. <br>”); $counter = $counter + 1; } While($counter<=10) ?> Result: Counter value is 50.
  20. 20. Slide 20 Break Statement  The break command exits from the inner most loop statements that contain it. Example: <?php for($x=1; $x<10; $x++) { If($x % 2 !=0) { break; print(“$x “); } } ?> Result: The above code prints nothing because 1 is odd which terminates the for loop immediately.
  21. 21. Slide 21 Continue Statement  The continue command skips to the end of the current iteration of the innermost loop that contains it. Example: <?php for($x=1; $x<10; $x++) { if($x % 2 !=0) { continue; } print(“$x “); } ?> Result: 2 4 6 8 Here, the continue statement will skip any of odd numbers. It will print only the even numbers.
  22. 22. Slide 22 PHP Forms  Form is a web page which allows user to enter data.  Forms contains many elements like text box, text area, checkbox, radio button and submit button  User enters information in the form elements  And, the entered information are sent to the server for processing  Using HTML we can create forms and using PHP we can process form elements  Let us see an example in the upcoming slides
  23. 23. Slide 23 HTML Form  See the below example for HTML form with two text boxes and one submit button <html> <body> <form action=“save.php" method="post"> First Name: <input type="text" name=“firstname"><br> Last Name: <input type="text" name=“lastname"><br> <input type="submit"> </form> </body> </html>  The user enters the above information and clicks the submit button, the information is sent to a file called “save.php”
  24. 24. Slide 24 Processing Forms  The form data is sent to a PHP file for processing  We can send form data to server using two methods • GET method • POST method  In the previous code, we used POST method to send data. See the below example, to display the submitted data. To print the values, use the below code in save.php <?php Your First name is: <?php echo $_POST["firstname"]; ?> <br> Your Lastname is: <?php echo $_POST["lastname"]; ?> ?>
  25. 25. Slide 25 Get Method  GET method passes argument from one page to the next page.  It appends the indicated variable name(s) and values(s) to the URL. The value and the page name separated by question-mark(?) <form action=“display.php” method=“get”> Name: <input type=“text” name=“name”><br/> Email:<input type=“text” name=“email”><br/> <input type=“submit” value=“submit”> </form> <?php echo “Name: ”.$_GET*‘name’+; echo “Email: ”.$_GET*‘email’+; ?>
  26. 26. Slide 26 Get Method (Continued)  Advantage: • It constructs an actual new and differentiable URL query string. Users can now bookmark this page  Disadvantage: • The GET method is not suitable for logins because the username and password are fully visible onscreen as well as potentially stored in the client browser’s memory as a visited page • Every GET submission is recorded in the web server log, data set included • Because the GET method assigns data to a server environment variable, the length of the URL is limited
  27. 27. Slide 27 Post Method  POST is the preferred method of form submission  The form data is included in the body of the form when it is forwarding to the processing agent. There will be no change in the URL <form action=“display.php” method=“post”> Name: <input type=“text” name=“name”><br/> Email:<input type=“text” name=“email”><br/> <input type=“submit” value=“submit”> </form>  POST Method data can be accessed using $_POST variable <?php echo “Name: ”.$_POST*‘name’+; echo “Email: ”.$_POST*‘email’+; ?>
  28. 28. Slide 28 Post Method (Continued)  Advantages: • It is more secure than GET because user-entered information is never visible in the URL • It is much larger limit on the amount of data than can be passed  Disadvantages: • The results at a given moment cannot be bookmarked • This methods can be incompatible with certain firewall setups, which strip the form data as a security measure
  29. 29. Slide 29 PHP Functions  A function is a set of codes which are used to perform some specific tasks  Its main advantage is reusability. Instead of defining a code repeatedly, we can create functions and use them when needed  The function will not execute directly when the program loads. We need to call a function  There are two types of function available in PHP • Built-in functions - The real power of PHP is its functions. PHP has more than 1000 built-in functions. They can be invoked directly • User defined functions - We can also create our own functions. We will discuss about the creation of our own functions in next slide
  30. 30. Slide 30 PHP Functions Syntax Example: function functionName() { set of code to be executed; }  Syntax to call a function: functionName();  Rules to follow while naming a function: • Function names are NOT case-sensitive • Function name starts with a letter or underscore • Function name cannot start with numbers
  31. 31. Slide 31 PHP Functions Return Value  Function can return a value. It will return one value or more than one value using array  It returns the value using the return keyword. If the return statement is found in the function it will stop execution and send the value to the callback function.
  32. 32. Slide 32 Function Parameters  Function parameters are variables passes to the function inside the parentheses. They are declared much like a typical variable would be: <?php // multiply a value by 10 and return it to the caller function multiply ($value) { $value = $value * 10; return $value; } $retval= multiply (10); Print "Return value is $retvaln"; ?>
  33. 33. Slide 33 Object Oriented Concepts  Object Oriented Programming (OOP) is a programming concept used to design our application • Applications can be of any type • Web based application • Window based application • It is used to write programming in object model structure  Advantages of Object Oriented Programming • Re-Usability of your code • Easy to Maintain • Good Level of Abstraction
  34. 34. Slide 34 Classes  Defining PHP Classes • Class is a user defined data type which includes functions and member variables • It is used to define object. It is the blueprint of the object  Class Declaration • Class is declared using class keyword followed by the name • A set of braces used to declare variables and functions • Variables can be declared using var keyword followed by $ <?php class classname { var$var1; var$var2 = "constant text"; function myfunc($arg1, $arg2) { //function code } } ?>
  35. 35. Slide 35 Creating Objects in PHP  In Object Oriented language, properties are called member variables. And, behaviors are called member functions • Once we defined our class, then we can create as many objects using the new operator • Pen is class, Hero pen, Reynolds etc are called its objects  Syntax $objectname= new classname(); Example: $hero = new Pen; $reynolds= new Pen;
  36. 36. Slide 36 Calling Member Functions  After creating objects, we can access our member functions  We can only access the member function of the class of which we created objects  Let us see how to access member functions using the objects $hero, $reynolds Example Assigning values to the object $hero by accessing its member functions $hero -> setPrice("100"); //assigns value 100 to price variable $hero -> setColor("Green"); //assigns value green to color variable $hero -> setType("Ink Pen"); //assigns value Ink Pen to type variable $hero -> setWritingcolor(“blue”); //assigns value blue to writing color of the pen
  37. 37. Slide 37 Constructor Functions  Constructor is a special type of function  It is automatically invoked when an object is created. So we can use this function for initialization  To define a constructor, PHP provides a special function called __construct(). We can pass any number of arguments to this function  A function can also become a constructor, if it defined by the same name of the class  Two ways to declare constructors • __construct() function • Define function using same class name
  38. 38. Slide 38 Constructor Functions (Continued) Method 1: class classname { function __construct(p1, p2, ..., pN]){ /* Class initialization code */ } } Method 2: class classname { function classname(p1, p2, ..., pN]){ /* Class initialization code */ } }
  39. 39. Slide 39 Inheritance  Inheritance is the method of inheriting one class properties to other class  We can achieve this by using ‘extends’ keyword Class parentclass { //parent class definition } Class childclass extends parentclass { //child class definition }
  40. 40. Slide 40 Function Overriding  Function overriding is nothing but overriding the function of parent class to child class and modify those functions  Using overriding, we can alter function definition in child class  To override, we need to create same function in sub class which it is in base class
  41. 41. Slide 41 class baseclass { public function one() { echo “First function”; } public function two() { echo “second function”; } } class childclass extends baseclass { function two($text) //overriding function2 { echo "$text "; } } $text = new childclass(); $text->two("Sachin");//it will print Sachin Function Overriding  Example:
  42. 42. Slide 42 Access Modifiers  Access modifiers is nothing but the level of access and the visibility of the member variables and member functions  We can use this access modifiers to show or hide data  We have three access modifiers in PHP • Private • Protected • Public
  43. 43. Slide 43 Final Keyword  Final is a keyword  If we define the class as final then we cannot extend the class  If we declare the method as final we cannot override the method  Syntax for Defining Function as Final final public function functioname() { //function definition comes here }  Syntax for Defining Class as Final final class classname { //class definition comes here }
  44. 44. Slide 44 Database  A database is a unique application that organizes a group of data  Each database application has one or more APIs for creating, managing, accessing, searching and duplicating the data it holds  Hence, the data can easily be accessed, managed, and updated
  45. 45. Slide 45 MySQL Introduction  MySQL is a database system which is used on the web and runs on the server  It uses standard SQL  It is very fast, reliable and easy to use and also it is ideal for both small and large applications
  46. 46. Slide 46 MySQL Connection  Using PHP Script • Using mysql_connect() function we can open a database connection • This function requires five parameters and all are optional  Syntax mysql_connect(server,user,pass,new_link,client_flag);
  47. 47. Slide 47 MySQL Disconnect  Using PHP Script • Using mysql_close() function we can disconnect from MySQL server • This function takes single parameter  Syntax mysql_close(resource $link_identifier);  If we did not specify any parameter then the last opened database is closed
  48. 48. Slide 48 Execute MySQL Queries  Using PHP function mysql_query() we can run a MySQL query.  This function needs two parameters and returns Boolean value  Function Syntax mysql_query(sql_query, connection);  First parameter is mandatory. sql_query parameter is mandatory. It specifies the original query to be executed  The second parameter is optional. It is the connection parameter. If we did not specified, it takes the last opened connection  Consider we are going to create a database ‘student_details’ to store student information
  49. 49. Slide 49 Fetching Data  Select Query • Data Manipulation –Select Query • Select statement is used to fetch data from the database • Fetching data can be simple queries or complex queries  To select data using PHP script, we can use mysql_query() function • Write the select query inside the mysql_query() function • This function is used to execute MySQL queries • To fetch the selected data using select query we can use two functions mysql_fetch_array() mysql_fetch_assoc()
  50. 50. Questions Slide 50 @edurekaIN, Facebook /edurekaIN, use #AskEdureka for Questions
  51. 51. Slide 51 Course Topics  Module 1 » PHP Basics and Conditional Logic  Module 2 » Functions and Error Handling  Module 3 » Object Oriented Programming  Module 4 » MySQL Installation and Basics  Module 5 » Advance Queries and Data Manipulation using PHP Module 6 » MVC Infrastructure Basics & Introduction to CakePHP Module 7 » CakePHP Controller, Views and Layout  Module 8 » Models and Database Interaction in CakePHP  Module 9 » Creating Dynamic Forms using CakePHP Html Helpers  Module 10 » Using MVC & CakePHP to develop a website
  52. 52. Slide 52 LIVE Online Class Class Recording in LMS 24/7 Post Class Support Module Wise Quiz Project Work Verifiable Certificate How it Works?