"University Centers in Europe..." at University Centers conference, Sioux Falls March 2013
University Centers inEurope, Middle East and Asia Anders Norberg Skellefteå/Sioux Falls Education Strategist 2013-03-21 Campus Skellefteå +PhD student, Applied Educational Science Umeå University
My presentation• Me, Campus Skellefteå• My search for campus identity / Europe• Definition attempts + Middle East, Asia• Theory, Implications: ”University”/”Place”• Q&A• YouTube film about a planned campus in Pleven, Bulgaria, 8 min
Campus Skellefteå 2500 students, some R&D About 120 univ-employed 15 programs + 3 polytechnics Businesses, EU-projects Learning Centre Trätek www.campus.skelleftea.se
About Campus Varberg: (outside Gothenburg, Sweden)9 university programs4 polytechnical programs1100 studentsWas formed 2003 Universities at Applied research Campus Varberg Study Adult education counseling Project ideas, management, ad ministration Polytechnical Business startup educations project Library Student union Learning centre
But who are we?What is this?A local randomconstruction?Something that justhappened?What should wecall it?
Identity search for a regional learning environment?THE CENTRALIZED UNIVERSITY VOICE:• Isn it enough that we call it ”Umeå university in Skellefteå”, or ”Umeå university educations in Skellefteå”?(before ~2008)• We call it our ”Skellefteå Campus” (Luleå University of Technology)
Older identity trials• ….started as SKERIA, in the 80ies, ”Skellefteå Education and Research on Industrial Applications”• ”A study center”? ”A learning center”?• A ”college”, undefined in Sweden?• …was this a ”university hotel”, like an ”office hotel” or ”web hotel”?• …or a multi-university campus?
”Multi-university campus”…hmm…worth a web search…• Chricton Campus, Dumfries, Scotland – ”the first multi-university campus in the United Kingdom”• …and after many contacts attempts:• …Prof Rex Taylor, University of Glasgow, Director Chricton Campus : Come! We must talk about this!
”Multi-institutional campus”"A campus where two or more distant educational institutions cooperate with each other and local development agencies to create new educational and training opportunities in a locality deprived of such opportunities“(Prof Rex Taylor, Director of University of Glasgow’s operations on Crichton Campus, presentation on Campus Skellefteå October 26th, 2005)
What is a ”multi-institutional campus” (MIC)?• …or a multi-university campus?Well, it is not…• The same main campus for two universities• A multi-campus university• A university system• A university in the making• A multiversity
A MODERN HYBRID LEARNING ENVIRONMENT? An Education hub?A multi-institutional campus?A university center?
Seinäjoki Campus, Finland Kajaani Pori Lahti Mikkeli Kokkola …other MIC / Univ consortia
European Union -Interreg IVC: UNICREDS projectExchange of experiences between regions …about Triple Helix functions / dysfunctionsand alternative models for education and research access & growth in the knowledge society15 partners in 7 European regions, 2010-2012 www.unicreds.eu3 MULTI-INSTITUTIONAL CAMPUSES: Skellefteå, Seinäjoki, Cornwall
Dubai International Academic Cityhttp://www.diacedu.ae/
DIAC (Dubai International Academic City)• American University in the Emirates (AUE) • Saint-Petersburg State University of• Amity University Dubai Campus Engineering & Economics• BITS, Pilani - Dubai • Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology, Dubai (SZABIST)• Cambridge College International • The British University in Dubai (BUiD)• Canada International College • Université Saint Joseph Law School – Dubai• French Fashion University ESMOD Dubai • University of Bradford• Heriot-Watt University Dubai Campus • University of Exeter• Hult International Business School • University of Wollongong in Dubai• Imam Malik College• Institute of Management Technology, Dubai• Islamic Azad University (IAU)• JSS Education “Dubai International Academic City (DIAC)• Manchester Business School is the world’s only Free Zone dedicated to• Manipal University, Dubai Higher Education. Established in 2007 as• Michigan State University Dubai part of TECOM Investments, DIAC aims to• Middlesex University Dubai develop the region’s talent pool and• Murdoch University Dubai establish the UAE as a knowledge-based• S P Jain Center of Management• SAE Institute Dubai economy.” http://www.tecom.ae/dubai-international- academic-city/
Guangzhou Mega Education CityStart 2005: 10 000 students, 2011:150 000,Finally 350 000 – 400 000 studentsSun Yat-sen University,South China University of Technology,South China Normal University,Guangdong University of Foreign Studies,Guangdong University of Technology,Guangzhou University,Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine,Guangdong Pharmaceutical University,Xinghai Conservatory of MusicGuangzhou Academy of Fine Arts http://www.guangzhou.gov.cn/special/2006/node_969/
Guangzhou HE Mega Center: Idea?• Focus on IT industry: implementing the integration of “studies, research, production” through interactivities with the existing IT industry, and thus enhancing the comprehensive competitiveness of Guangzhou City.• Promoting academic culture and tourism : the university town is situated near by dozens of touristic attractions in Guangzhou. The rich campus culture can eventually add lustre to the existing tourism industry. http://www.upo.gov.cn/plan2007/zdxmgh/949.shtml
Guangzhou HE Mega Center: Common management• The establishment and operation of the university town is the integration of the cooperation between the government, universities and community.• Guangzhou University town’s management model – Social security and traffic communications - responsibility of the government. – Public facilities management - responsibility of municipal – logistics of service – the responsibility of the community and society.• Police station, the traffic police brigade, fire brigade are established in the university to ensure the security management is in place;• The management in the university are taken care by the municipality and the government, hence the schools could focus on their academic activities. http://www.lwlm.com/KaoChaBaoGao/201201/627882.htm
“University Town” 大学城 “Campus City”• Definition by China National Committee for Terms in Sciences and Technology“An urban (suburban) area which developsaround one or several well-knownuniversities. Such new town is constituted byone or more campuses, and is equipped withliving/residential area, sport stadium, research& development zone and large green openspace.” http://baike.baidu.com/view/46244.htm
Songjiang University town Started planning year 2000, completed year 2005
University town of Shenzhenhttp://www.utsz.edu.cn/02pic/showPicInfo.aspx?infoid=104&cateid=7
http://www.thebestcolleges.org/10-cities-becoming-education- SEE Kinser, K & Lane, J.E. (2010). Educational Hubs:destinations/ Archipelagos & Acropolises. International Higher Education, 59,
Range of MIC:s• From nearly local service for distance educations…• ….to small campuses, comparable with smaller HE institutions• …to supermarkets of universities• …to massive upscaling projects aiming at 400 000 students at the same campus – …but some characteristics in common!
Mechanisms?• Higher education access needed• Life-Long Learning increases• The symbolic importance of places• Regions take their fate in own hands• Fast education up-scaling by outsourcing• Differentiation of regional education provision in a world of institutional specialization
First medieval universitieswere communities and corporations of masters and students
Identification between ”University” & ”Campus”
”University” & ”campus” sliding apart• A ”University” becomes more of a specialized international brand of research ….and education?• A ”Campus” develops into a customizeable local / regional platform for universities and other organizations, filling a local function
Two perspectives in MIC backgrounds1) University outreach perspective2) Regional development perspective
1. University outreach perspectiveLearning centres Branch campuses Main campus International campus SL campus …and there are 17000+ universities… (source:Webometrics)
..so universities international campusessometimes happens to co-exist in the sameinfrastructures elsewhere……which often is the idea itself from theregional perspectiveBut MIC:s are not easily visible from thecentralized university / hierarchical horizon?
2. Regional development perspective• Regions, subregions, cities, villages are trying to become competitive in the global knowledge economy• Belief in “Triple Helix” cooperation and innovation, “the Knowledge triangle”, “The Entrepreneurial university”, etc…but what if there is no university present?
…regional development perspective• …a university presence, or a local campus, is very valuable for development purposes…at almost any cost?• …but a university can demand 50+ years to form• …and we have a tension between old national provision and current regional demand• …university presence /representation is becoming a necessity in all communities?
Zayed University, Abu Dhabi, UAE True? And it comes now in all sizes: ..there are no future-confident regions that lack higher education, research and innovation?
Lets sum up: MIC – “recipe” / European• >1 regional university with decentralised F2F (face-to-face) classes• Learning centre with support to flexible learning students• Local R&D, development projects, mm• Vocational and polytechnical education• Science Park, Business labs & business startup• Local coordination organisation often needed• Local construction and ownership of buildings and infrastructure? Or is there an older useful infrastructure?= concentration of development factors in one place, a MIC – representing the direction towards the future?
MIC PROBLEM AREAS• Very dependent on the universities• Must attract students• Expensive for the local region/city• Hard to understand at first glance• Education-heavy, research-poor
MIC POSSIBILITIES• Very flexible• Very scalable• Can offer university presence without a new university• Can support local business development• If one university leaves, another can replace it• Synergy effects between universities possible• The MIC recruits mostly students that won t move to a big campus – and these students will often stay in the area after exam –if, but only if, there are jobs…
Alternatives for local representation of a university on a MUC• Research and teaching department?• Regional office?• Only educations?• Franchise construction?• Subcontractor?• …and often is a regional development organisation important as a coordinator and catalyst
University-University-relations on a MUC• Parallelism? Policy agreement?• Coordination? Consortium document? Deal?• Cooperation? “Agreement”? “Tolerance”?• Competition?• Coopetition?• Vertical relation – to mother university• Horisontal relation – to other universities and stakeholders on the MIC
University internal motivations• Possibility to specialize more on academic matters (as someone else helps manage campus infrastructure)• Specialization in global research makes a university handicapped in broadness of local education offerings in the long run, will increasingly need cooperation in education• Local / regional interests pay some infrastructure costs
Multi-institutional campus as HETEROTOPIA”/ ”Of Other Spaces”? (Foucault 1967)• “We are in the epoch of simultaneity: we are in the epoch of juxtaposition, the epoch of the near and far, of the side-by-side, of the dispersed.”• “We may still not have reached the point of a practical de-sanctification of space…”• ”…something like counter-sites, a kind of effectively enacted utopia in which the real sites…are simultaneously represented, contested, and inverted.”• “The heterotopia is capable of juxtaposing in a single real place several spaces…in themselves incompatible.” http://foucault.info/documents/heteroTopia/foucault.heteroTopia.en.html
Wrapping up MIC…with speculations:• Will most campuses in the future be of a multi- institutional character?• And will perhaps regional organizations run practical management?
Thanks for your attention! Anders.firstname.lastname@example.org…now researching ”Blended Learning andEducational Logistics”; the landscapebeyond the campus/distance dichotomy.Time, space and education, combinations