RAISING ACHIEVEMENT AND    CLOSING GAPS BETWEEN    GROUPS:    Lessons from Schools and Districts on    the Performance Fro...
America: Two Enduring Stories
1. Land of Opportunity:Work hard, and you can become  anything you want to be.
2. Generational Advancement:  Through hard work and sacrifice, each   generation of parents will be able to     assure a b...
Powerful          Pervasive           WrongSource:
Over past 30 years, earnings among the lowest income            families have declined—while biggest increases have       ...
U.S. has the fourth-highest income inequality among                           OECD nations                             Uni...
For people of          color, the past four          years have          brought an          economic          Tsunami.Sou...
Real Median Annual Income                       2007     2011     Percent                                         Change  ...
2010 Poverty Rates          Black             27%          Latino            26%          Asian             12.1%         ...
Change in Median Wealth, 2005-2009          Hispanic Households   Down 66%          Black Households      Down 53%        ...
Median Wealth of White Families          20 X     that of African Americans          18 X     that of LatinosSource:
Not just wages, but mobility as            well.
US intergenerational mobility was increasing                until 1980, and has sharply declined sinceSource: Aaronson and...
The US now has one of lowest rates of                      intergenerational mobilitySource: Hertz, Tom. Understanding Mob...
What does that mean? That we have essentially hollowed out the   middle class, and are fast becoming a country where those...
At macro level, better and moreequal education is not the only            answer. But at the individual level, it really is.
What schools and colleges do, inother words, is hugely important to    returning this country to theprinciples on which it...
So, how are we doing?
First, some good news.After more than a decade of fairly flat    achievement and stagnant or   growing gaps, we appear to ...
4th Grade Reading:           Record Performance with Gap Narrowing*Denotes previous assessment formatSource: NAEP 2008 Tre...
4th Grade Math:           Record Performance with Gap Narrowing*Denotes previous assessment formatSource: NAEP 2008 Trends...
8th Grade Reading: Recent Gap Narrowing                  for Blacks, Less for Latinos*Denotes previous assessment formatSo...
8th Grade Math:            Progress for All Groups, Some Gap Narrowing*Denotes previous assessment formatSource: NAEP 2008...
Same pattern on Main NAEP exams.                         © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST                         © 2011 THE EDU...
All groups have improved since 1990, and gaps                    between groups have narrowed*Accommodations not permitted...
Over the last decade, all groups have steadily                   improved and gaps have narrowed*Accommodations not permit...
Gains Are Not Just Among Low-Achievers:                   Increase at the Top, TooSource: Hanushek, Peterson and Woesmann....
Some gap-closing over last decade*Accommodations not permittedSource: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES (Proficient Scale Score = 2...
Some gap closing over the last decade*Accommodations not permittedSource: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES (Proficient Scale Score...
What do these changes mean for      individual children?                        © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST                ...
1996 NAEP Grade 4 MathSource: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES                                                  © 2011 THE EDUCATI...
2011 NAEP Grade 4 MathSource: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data Explorer, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsrepo...
Bottom Line:When we really focus on something, we make      progress!                     © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
Clearly, much more remains to be done   in elementary and middle school   Too many youngsters still enter high          sc...
But at least we have some traction onelementary and middle school problems.          The same is NOT true           of our...
Achievement Flat in ReadingSource: NAEP Long-Term Trends, NCES (2004)                                                © 201...
Math achievement flat over time* Denotes previous assessment formatSource: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP ...
And gaps between groups aremostly wider today than in late   eighties, early nineties                          © 2011 THE ...
12th Grade Reading: No Progress, Gaps                         Wider than 1988*Denotes previous assessment formatSource: NA...
12 Grade Math: Results Mostly Flat                        Gaps Same or Widening*Denotes previous assessment formatSource: ...
And no matter how you cut thedata, our students aren’t doing well compared to their peers in other             countries. ...
PISA Performance            U.S.A. Ranks Near Bottom, Has Mostly Fallen Since                                  2000       ...
A closer look at math                    © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
Of 29 OECD Countries, U.S.A. Ranked 24th                                            U.S.A.Source: PISA 2003 Results, OECD ...
Problems are not limited to ourhigh-poverty and high-minority         schools . . .                         © 2011 THE EDU...
U.S. Ranks Low in the Percent of Students in the Highest Achievement Level (Level 6)                                      ...
U.S. Ranks 23rd out of 29 OECD Countries in the Math Achievement of the Highest-                                  Performi...
U.S. Ranks 23rd out of 29               OECD Countries in the Math Achievement of High-SES StudentsSource: Organization fo...
Problems not limited to math,          either.                        © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
Science?           © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
PISA 2006 Science                         Of 30 OECD Countries, U.S.A. Ranked 21st                                        ...
Percent of Students                                                                       Lu                              ...
But ranks 21st out of 30 OECD countries when only                  taking into account native student* scores             ...
Even in problem-solving, somethingwe consider an American strength…                           © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
U.S.A. Ranks 24th Out of 29 OECD Countries                                  in Problem-Solving                            ...
We used to make up for at leastsome of this by sending more of  our students on to college.                         © 2011...
© 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
© 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
© 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
Only place we rank high?     Inequality.                     © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
PISA 2003: Gaps in Performance Of U.S.15 Year-Olds Are Among the Largest of OECD                Countries                 ...
Among OECD Countries, U.S.A. has the 4th Largest              Gap Between High-SES and Low-SES Students                   ...
Among OECD Countries, U.S.A. has the 5th Largest              Gap Between High-SES and Low-SES Students                   ...
These gaps begin before children arrive at the schoolhouse door.  But, rather than organizing our educational    system to...
How?By giving students who arrive with      less, less in school, too.                              © 2011 THE EDUCATION T...
Some of these “lesses” are a resultof choices that policymakers make.                            © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUS...
National Inequities in State and Local Revenue                            Per Student                                     ...
New York Inequities in State and Local Revenue                           Per Student                                      ...
In truth, though, some of the mostdevastating “lesses” are a functionof choices that we educators make.                   ...
Choices we make about what to      expect of whom…                        © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST                      ...
Students in Poor Schools Receive ‘A’s              for Work That Would Earn ‘Cs’ in                      Affluent Schools ...
Choices we make about what to        teach whom…                        © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST                        ...
African American, Latino & Native American high                    school graduates are less likely to have been enrolled ...
And choices we make about   who teaches whom…                      © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST                      © 2011 ...
More Classes in High-Poverty, High-Minority          Schools Taught By Out-of-Field Teachers    Percent of Classes Taught ...
Poor and Minority Students Get                                  More Inexperienced* Teachers                            25...
Tennessee: High poverty/high minority schools have           fewer of the “most effective” teachers and more “least       ...
Los Angeles: LOW-INCOME STUDENTS LESS LIKELY     TO HAVE HIGH VALUE-ADDED TEACHERSELA                                     ...
Results are devastating.Kids who come in a little behind,      leave a lot behind.                              © 2011 THE...
African American and Latino                         17 Year-Olds Do Math at Same Levels As White 13 Year-Olds             ...
African American and Latino                          17 Year-Olds Read at Same Levels As White 13 Year-Olds               ...
And these are the students whoremain in school through 12th grade.    Add those all up and throw in college entry and grad...
© 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
e    © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
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Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps Between Groups

  1. 1. RAISING ACHIEVEMENT AND CLOSING GAPS BETWEEN GROUPS: Lessons from Schools and Districts on the Performance FrontierNew York City Department of EducationNYC, NY January, 2012
  2. 2. America: Two Enduring Stories
  3. 3. 1. Land of Opportunity:Work hard, and you can become anything you want to be.
  4. 4. 2. Generational Advancement: Through hard work and sacrifice, each generation of parents will be able to assure a better life—and better education—for their children.
  5. 5. Powerful Pervasive WrongSource:
  6. 6. Over past 30 years, earnings among the lowest income families have declined—while biggest increases have occurred at the topSource: The College Board, “Trends in College Pricing 2011” (New York: College Board, 2010), Figure 16A. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  7. 7. U.S. has the fourth-highest income inequality among OECD nations United StatesNote: Gini coefficient ranges from 0 to 1, where 0 indicates total income equality and 1 indicates total income inequalitySource: United Nations, UNdata, http://data.un.org/DocumentData.aspx?q=gini&id=230 © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  8. 8. For people of color, the past four years have brought an economic Tsunami.Source:
  9. 9. Real Median Annual Income 2007 2011 Percent Change Black Head 35,072 31,784 - 9.4% of Household Hispanic 41,945 39,901 - 4.9% Head of Household White Head 59,111 56,320 - 4.7% of HouseholdSource: © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  10. 10. 2010 Poverty Rates Black 27% Latino 26% Asian 12.1% White 9.9%Source: © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  11. 11. Change in Median Wealth, 2005-2009 Hispanic Households Down 66% Black Households Down 53% Asian Households Down 54% White Households Down 16%Source:
  12. 12. Median Wealth of White Families 20 X that of African Americans 18 X that of LatinosSource:
  13. 13. Not just wages, but mobility as well.
  14. 14. US intergenerational mobility was increasing until 1980, and has sharply declined sinceSource: Aaronson and Mazumder. Intergenerational Economic Mobility in the U.S.. 1940-2000. Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago WP 2005-12: Dec. 2005. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  15. 15. The US now has one of lowest rates of intergenerational mobilitySource: Hertz, Tom. Understanding Mobility in America. Center for American Progress: 2006. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  16. 16. What does that mean? That we have essentially hollowed out the middle class, and are fast becoming a country where those at the top stay at thetop and those at the bottom stay there, too.
  17. 17. At macro level, better and moreequal education is not the only answer. But at the individual level, it really is.
  18. 18. What schools and colleges do, inother words, is hugely important to returning this country to theprinciples on which it was founded.
  19. 19. So, how are we doing?
  20. 20. First, some good news.After more than a decade of fairly flat achievement and stagnant or growing gaps, we appear to be turning the corner. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  21. 21. 4th Grade Reading: Record Performance with Gap Narrowing*Denotes previous assessment formatSource: NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  22. 22. 4th Grade Math: Record Performance with Gap Narrowing*Denotes previous assessment formatSource: NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  23. 23. 8th Grade Reading: Recent Gap Narrowing for Blacks, Less for Latinos*Denotes previous assessment formatSource: NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  24. 24. 8th Grade Math: Progress for All Groups, Some Gap Narrowing*Denotes previous assessment formatSource: NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  25. 25. Same pattern on Main NAEP exams. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  26. 26. All groups have improved since 1990, and gaps between groups have narrowed*Accommodations not permittedSource: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES (Proficient Scale Score = 249) © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  27. 27. Over the last decade, all groups have steadily improved and gaps have narrowed*Accommodations not permittedSource: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES (Proficient Scale Score = 299) © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  28. 28. Gains Are Not Just Among Low-Achievers: Increase at the Top, TooSource: Hanushek, Peterson and Woesmann. “US Math Performance in Global Perspective; November, 2010 ©© 2011 THEEDUCATION TRUST 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  29. 29. Some gap-closing over last decade*Accommodations not permittedSource: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES (Proficient Scale Score = 238) © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  30. 30. Some gap closing over the last decade*Accommodations not permittedSource: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES (Proficient Scale Score = 281) © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  31. 31. What do these changes mean for individual children? © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  32. 32. 1996 NAEP Grade 4 MathSource: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  33. 33. 2011 NAEP Grade 4 MathSource: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data Explorer, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/ © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  34. 34. Bottom Line:When we really focus on something, we make progress! © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  35. 35. Clearly, much more remains to be done in elementary and middle school Too many youngsters still enter high school way behind. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  36. 36. But at least we have some traction onelementary and middle school problems. The same is NOT true of our high schools. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  37. 37. Achievement Flat in ReadingSource: NAEP Long-Term Trends, NCES (2004) © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  38. 38. Math achievement flat over time* Denotes previous assessment formatSource: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  39. 39. And gaps between groups aremostly wider today than in late eighties, early nineties © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  40. 40. 12th Grade Reading: No Progress, Gaps Wider than 1988*Denotes previous assessment formatSource: NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  41. 41. 12 Grade Math: Results Mostly Flat Gaps Same or Widening*Denotes previous assessment formatSource: NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  42. 42. And no matter how you cut thedata, our students aren’t doing well compared to their peers in other countries. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  43. 43. PISA Performance U.S.A. Ranks Near Bottom, Has Mostly Fallen Since 2000 2000 Rank 2003 Rank 2006 Rank 2009 Rank Subject (out of 26) (out of 26) (out of 26) (out of 26) Tied Math 17th 22nd 22nd 20th Science 13th Tied for 17th 19th 13th Rankings are for the 26 OECD countries participating in PISA in 2000, 2003, and 2006. Tied Reading 14th 14th n/a 10thSource: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), PISA 2006 Results, http://www.oecd.org/ THE EDUCATION TRUST © 2011
  44. 44. A closer look at math © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  45. 45. Of 29 OECD Countries, U.S.A. Ranked 24th U.S.A.Source: PISA 2003 Results, OECD © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  46. 46. Problems are not limited to ourhigh-poverty and high-minority schools . . . © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  47. 47. U.S. Ranks Low in the Percent of Students in the Highest Achievement Level (Level 6) in MathSource: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), PISA 2003 Results, data available at http://www.oecd.org/ © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  48. 48. U.S. Ranks 23rd out of 29 OECD Countries in the Math Achievement of the Highest- Performing Students* * Students at the 95th PercentileSource: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), PISA 2003 Results, data available athttp://www.oecd.org/ © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  49. 49. U.S. Ranks 23rd out of 29 OECD Countries in the Math Achievement of High-SES StudentsSource: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), PISA 2003 Results, data available athttp://www.oecd.org/ © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  50. 50. Problems not limited to math, either. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  51. 51. Science? © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  52. 52. PISA 2006 Science Of 30 OECD Countries, U.S.A. Ranked 21st U.S.A. Higher than U.S. average Not measurably different from U.S. average Lower than U.S. averageSource: NCES, PISA 2006 Results, http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/pisa/ © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  53. 53. Percent of Students Lu 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 0.0% xem Sw bo u itze rg rl Au a nd Ne s w Z tral ia ea la Un Ca nd it e na da dS t Ge ates rm a Be ny l giu Au m str U.S.A. Fra ia Ne th e nce rla OE Sw nds C e Un D Av de n it e e d K ra geSource: OECD, PISA 2006 Results, table 4.2c, http://www.oecd.org/ i ng d De om nm a Gr rk 2nd Generation ee ce Sp a No in rw Po ay rt u g Ire al OECD countries lan d Ita 1st Generation Cz M ly e c exi c hR o ep u Ice b la n Hu d ng a Fi n ry lan Slo Tu d vak rkey Re pu Ja b pa Po n l an d of immigrants and children of immigrants than most Immigrants? The U.S.A. does have a larger percentage © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  54. 54. But ranks 21st out of 30 OECD countries when only taking into account native student* scores PISA 2006 Science U.S.A.*Students born in the country of assessment with at least one parent born in the same countrySource: OECD, PISA 2006 Results, table 4.2c, http://www.oecd.org/ © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  55. 55. Even in problem-solving, somethingwe consider an American strength… © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  56. 56. U.S.A. Ranks 24th Out of 29 OECD Countries in Problem-Solving U.S.A.Source: PISA 2003 Results, OECD © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  57. 57. We used to make up for at leastsome of this by sending more of our students on to college. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  58. 58. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  59. 59. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  60. 60. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  61. 61. Only place we rank high? Inequality. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  62. 62. PISA 2003: Gaps in Performance Of U.S.15 Year-Olds Are Among the Largest of OECD Countries Rank in Performance Gaps Between Highest and Lowest Achieving Students * Mathematical Literacy 8th Problem Solving 6th*Of 29 OECD countries, based on scores of students at the 5th and 95thpercentiles. Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), PISA 2003 Results, data available at http://www.oecd.org/ © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  63. 63. Among OECD Countries, U.S.A. has the 4th Largest Gap Between High-SES and Low-SES Students U.S.A.Source: PISA 2006 Results, OECD, table 4.8b © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  64. 64. Among OECD Countries, U.S.A. has the 5th Largest Gap Between High-SES and Low-SES Students U.S.A. OECDSource: PISA 2009 Results, OECD, Table II.3.1 © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  65. 65. These gaps begin before children arrive at the schoolhouse door. But, rather than organizing our educational system to ameliorate this problem, we organize it to exacerbate the problem. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  66. 66. How?By giving students who arrive with less, less in school, too. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  67. 67. Some of these “lesses” are a resultof choices that policymakers make. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  68. 68. National Inequities in State and Local Revenue Per Student Gap High Poverty vs. –$773 Low Poverty Districts per student High Minority vs. –$1,122 Low Minority Districts per studentSource: Education Trust analyses based on U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Census Bureau data for the 2005-06 school year. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  69. 69. New York Inequities in State and Local Revenue Per Student Gap High Poverty vs. –$3,068 Low Poverty Districts per student (#1) High Minority vs. –$2,902 Low Minority Districts per student (#1)Source: Education Trust analyses based on U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Census Bureau data for the 2005-06 school year. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  70. 70. In truth, though, some of the mostdevastating “lesses” are a functionof choices that we educators make. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  71. 71. Choices we make about what to expect of whom… © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  72. 72. Students in Poor Schools Receive ‘A’s for Work That Would Earn ‘Cs’ in Affluent Schools 100 87 Seventh Grade Math Percentile - CTBS4 56 41 35 34 22 21 11 0 A B C D Grades Low-poverty schools High-poverty schoolsSource: Prospects (ABT Associates, 1993), in “Prospects: Final Report on Student Outcomes”, PES, DOE, 1997. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  73. 73. Choices we make about what to teach whom… © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  74. 74. African American, Latino & Native American high school graduates are less likely to have been enrolled in a full college prep track 50 46 39 percent in college prep 25 22 21 0 African Asian Latino Native White American American Full College Prep track is defined as at least: 4 years of English, 3 years of math, 2 years of natural science, 2 years of social science and 2 years of foreign languageSource: Jay P. Greene, Public High School Graduation and College Readiness Rates in the United States,Manhattan Institute, September 2003. Table 8. 2001 high school graduates with college-prep THE EDUCATION TRUST © 2011 curriculum.
  75. 75. And choices we make about who teaches whom… © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  76. 76. More Classes in High-Poverty, High-Minority Schools Taught By Out-of-Field Teachers Percent of Classes Taught by Out 50% 34% of Field Teachers 29% 21% 19% 0% High poverty Low poverty High minority Low minorityNote: High Poverty school-50% or more of the students are eligible for free/reduced price lunch. Low-poverty school -15% orfewer of the students are eligible for free/reduced price lunch.High-minority school - 50% or more of the students are nonwhite. Low-minority school- 15% or fewer of the students arenonwhite.*Teachers lacking a college major or minor in the field. Data for secondary-level core academic classes.Source: Richard M. Ingersoll, University of Pennsylvania. Original analysis for the Ed Trust of 1999-2000 Schools and Staffing Survey. TRUST © 2011 THE EDUCATION
  77. 77. Poor and Minority Students Get More Inexperienced* Teachers 25% Percent of Teachers Who Are 21% 20% Inexperienced 11% 10% 0% High poverty Low poverty High minority Low minority *Teachers with 3 or fewer years of experience. Note: High poverty refers to the top quartile of schools with students eligible for free/reduced price lunch. Low poverty- bottom quartile of schools with students eligible for free/reduced price lunch. High minority-top quartile; those schools with the highest concentrations of minority students. Low minority-bottom quartile of schools with the lowest concentrations of minority studentsSource: National Center for Education Statistics, “Monitoring Quality: An Indicators Report,” December 2000. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  78. 78. Tennessee: High poverty/high minority schools have fewer of the “most effective” teachers and more “least effective” teachersNote: High Poverty/High minority means at least 75% qualify for FRPL and at least 75% are minority.Source: Tennessee Department of Education 2007. “Tennessee’s Most Effective Teachers: Are they assigned to the schools that need themmost?” http://tennessee.gov/education/nclb/doc/TeacherEffectiveness2007_03.pdf © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  79. 79. Los Angeles: LOW-INCOME STUDENTS LESS LIKELY TO HAVE HIGH VALUE-ADDED TEACHERSELA MATHA low-income A student from a relatively In math, a student from a A low-student is more affluent background is relatively more affluent incomemore than 62% more likely to get a high background is 39% more student istwice as likely value-added ELA teacher. likely to get a high value- 66% moreto have a low added math teacher. likely tovalue-added have a lowteacher for value-ELA added teacher. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  80. 80. Results are devastating.Kids who come in a little behind, leave a lot behind. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  81. 81. African American and Latino 17 Year-Olds Do Math at Same Levels As White 13 Year-Olds 100% Percent of Students 0% 200 250 300 350 Average Scale Score White 13 Year-Olds African American 17 Year-Olds Latino 17-Year OldsNote: Long-Term Trends NAEPSource: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  82. 82. African American and Latino 17 Year-Olds Read at Same Levels As White 13 Year-Olds 100% Percent of Students 0% 150 200 250 300 350 Average Scale Score White 13 Year-Olds African American 17 Year-Olds Latino 17 Year-OldsNote: Long-Term Trends NAEPSource: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  83. 83. And these are the students whoremain in school through 12th grade. Add those all up and throw in college entry and graduation, and… © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  84. 84. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
  85. 85. e © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST

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