National Construction Code
Training Program
MODULE FOUR
Understanding
Energy Efficiency
Provisions for Class
2 to 9 Buildi...
Introduction to Module Four
• This training module is one of a series produced by the Australian
Building Codes Board; the...
Building Code
Volume Three
Guide to
Volume One
Volume One
Appendices
Volume TwoVolume One
Plumbing
Code
National Construct...
Recap on Module One
• Module One was titled: An Introduction to the Building Code of
Australia – Volume One and Two of the...
The Building Code of Australia
• The BCA established minimum standards for new building work
• The BCA:
− Is referenced in...
Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
STATE & TERRITORY
BUILDING ACTS
STATE & TERRITORY
BUILDING ...
Presentation of the BCA
• The BCA is presented in two Volumes
• This is to correlate with the historic division of the bui...
BCA Volumes One and Two
• Volume One contains requirements for the design and construction
of commercial buildings; i.e. C...
Recap on Module Two
• Module Two was titled: Understanding the BCA’s Performance
Requirements
• The object of Module Two w...
Recap on Module Two
• Volume One contains ten sections, which are identified
alphabetically, i.e. Sections A to J
• The ge...
Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
Objective of Module Four
• The objective of Module Four is to provide fundamental
information on BCA energy efficiency pro...
BCA Energy Efficiency
BCA requirements aim to reduce the use of energy from electricity, gas,
oil, or other fuels used in ...
BCA Requirements
• The BCA only addresses energy used by a building's services to
operate
• Does not include energy used i...
Background
Scope of the BCA
Methods of Compliance
Module Four
Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Complian...
Module Four
• Principles of Energy Efficiency
• General Scope of BCA Provisions
• Performance Requirements
• Deemed-to-Sat...
Background to
Energy Efficiency Provisions
General Background
• Over the past decade international awareness of greenhouse gas
(GHG) emissions and their influence on...
• Increased concentrations of GHG will cause variations to our
climate that will differ between geographic regions
• Chang...
• 1997 – the Prime Minister issued a statement on Australia’s response
to global warming that included measures to reduce ...
• It was apparent that market forces had not addressed the issue
effectively so there was a need for regulatory reform
• I...
National Background
• 2001 – In response, the Australian Greenhouse Office (AGO) and
the ABCB entered into an agreement to...
• BCA 2005
− Introduced the same star level requirements for Class 2 and 3
buildings and Class 4 parts as for housing , i....
• BCA 2010
− Enhanced the requirements for Class 5 to 9 buildings
− Further enhanced the requirements for Class 1 and nomi...
What is a House Star Rating?
Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
• A house star rating is a qua...
Draft Provisions
• Originally developed through stakeholder committees, specialist
working groups and specialist consultan...
Regulatory Impact Statement
• Under an IGA, the ABCB must only propose new regulation as a
final option
• All proposals fo...
Four Stage Process
• Using a four stage process, the ABCB has now introduced energy
efficiency requirements for all classe...
Voluntary Best Practice
• The Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE)
has also developed a series of ot...
Principles of Energy Efficiency
Objective of BCA Provisions
• The objective of the BCA energy efficiency provisions is to reduce
GHG emissions by reducing...
Definition of Envelope
Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
Envelope, means the parts of a build...
Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
= Walls of the building envelope General office: The
extern...
Definition of Service
Service, for the purposes of Part I2 and Section J, means a
mechanical or electrical system that use...
Principles of Energy Efficiency
• The efficient performance of the building envelope plus the
efficient operation of build...
Application of Requirements
• Not all of Australia has the same climate so the BCA elemental
Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions ...
Climate Zone Map
Figure A1.1
Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
Individual State and territory maps are
available on the AB...
Application of Requirements
• The primary intent of the BCA provisions is to reduce energy
required for cooling services i...
General Scope of BCA
Provisions
Sections of Volume One
• Energy efficiency provisions are primarily governed by the content of
Section A and Section J of ...
Section J – Energy Efficiency
• Section J presents both the mandatory Performance
Requirements and the optional Deemed-to-...
• Defined terms specific to the energy efficiency provisions are
presented on the following slides
• BCA users should not ...
Relevant Defined Terms
• Air-conditioning
• Climate zone
• Conditioned space
• Envelope
• Fabric
• Fan power
• Glazing
• I...
Relevant Defined Terms
Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
• Reference building
• Reflective insulation
• Renewable ene...
Energy Efficiency
Performance Requirements
Performance Requirements
• There are three mandatory Performance Requirements for
energy efficiency:
− JP1 - requires a bu...
Performance Requirement JP1
Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
Performance Requirement JP2
Introduction to Module 4
Remember this definition?
Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
Performance Requirement JP3
Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
Energy Efficiency
Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions
Parts of Section J
Part J0 – Energy Efficiency
Part J1 – Building Fabric
Part J2 – Glazing
Part J3 – Building Sealing
Part...
Specifications
• Section J also has eight Specifications –
Spec JV – Annual Energy Consumption Criteria
Spec J1.2 – Materi...
• Seven of the Specifications provide detailed information on
components of the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions and must be
s...
PART J0
ENERGY EFFICENCY
Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
Part J0
Introduction to Module 4
• For apartments – House energy rating solution
− Energy rating
− J0.3 for ceiling fans
−...
PART J1
BUILDING FABRIC
Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
Principles of Part J1
• To regulate the performance of the building fabric in order to
reduce heat gain and heat loss
• To...
Definition of Fabric
• In essence, the fabric is a general description of the primary building
elements that form the enve...
Application of Part J1
• Part J1 applies to building elements forming the envelope of a
Class 2 to 9 building other than-
...
Thermal Construction
• Specific parts of a building's envelope need to be insulated if
they do not have thermal properties...
• R-Value – means the thermal resistance (m2
.K/W) of a
component calculated by dividing its thickness by its thermal
cond...
• Total R-Value – means the sum of the R-Values of individual
components in a composite element including any building
mat...
Thermal Insulation
Thermal insulation must –
• comply with AS/NZS 4859.1; and
• be installed to form a consistent and cont...
Thermal Insulation
Thermal insulation needs to be installed so that –
• Any required air space is provided adjacent to the...
Specification J1.2
Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
ROOFS
Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
Direction of Heat Flow
• The direction of heat flow that needs to be counteracted will
depend on the climate zone
• The di...
Roof & Ceiling Construction
• Must achieve the minimum Total R-Value specified in Table J1.3a
for the direction of heat fl...
Extract of Table J1.3a
Introduction to Module 4
Table J1.3a ROOFS AND CEILINGS – MINIMUM TOTAL R-VALUE FOR EACH CLIMATE
ZO...
Typical Absorptance Values
Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
Colour Value
Slate (dark grey) 0...
Total R-Value
• Certain roofs with metal framing and cladding require a thermal
break to be installed.
• As more downlight...
Downlights Clearance
Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
ROOF LIGHTS
Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
Roof Lights
• Thermal performance of roof lights is specified in Table J1.4 in
terms of maximum SHGC and Total U-Value
• T...
Table J1.4 ROOF LIGHTS -THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF TRANSPARENT AND TRANSLUCENT
ELEMENTS
Total area of roof lights serving the ...
WALLS
Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
Walls
• As with roofs, the construction of external walls is a major factor in
the thermal efficiency of a building
• Exte...
Walls
• The general requirements for the thermal performance of external
walls are specified in Table J1.5a
• The general ...
• Requirements relate to climate zones and are expressed in Table
J1.5a in terms of –
− minimum Total R-Value
− minimum su...
• Options are available in certain climate zones if more demanding
glazing requirements are met
• Thermal breaks need to b...
Table J1.5a OPTIONS FOR EACH PART OF AN EXTERNAL WALL
Climate zone Options
(a) (i) Achieve a minimum Total R-Value of 3.3....
• Requirements relate to climate zones and are expressed in Table
J1.5b in terms of-
− minimum Total R-Value
− whether enc...
FLOORS
Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
Floors
• A floor that forms part of a building's envelope must achieve the
appropriate minimum Total R-Value in Table J1.6...
Introduction to Module 4
Location
Climate zone
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
(a) A slab on ground-
(i) without an in-slab heating or coo...
PART J2
EXTERNAL GLAZING
Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
Principles of Part J2
• Good glazing design contributes to energy efficiency in buildings by –
− utilising natural light
−...
Factors Affecting Heat Transfer
• Location of the building
• Total area of glazing
• Type of glass and frame used
• Degree...
Two Basic Considerations
• For glazing, the BCA provisions consider two main
thermodynamic effects-
− heat conduction thro...
Solar Radiation Through Glass
Introduction to Module 4
Short wave radiation
passes through glazing.
Heat is absorbed by
in...
Performance of Basic Glazing
• The insulated external wall has a Total R-Value of 2.8
• The wall contains 6 mm single laye...
High-Rise Buildings
• The building envelope of a high-rise building will often have large
glazed areas. Therefore, glazing...
A Definition of Glazing
• Glazing – for the purposes of Section J, means a transparent or
translucent element and its supp...
• Total U-Value means the thermal transmittance (W/m2.
K) of the
composite element allowing for the effect of any air spac...
• Conductance – relates to the transfer of heat.
The rate of conductance depends on the ambient temperature
either side of...
Part J2
Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions
Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
Application of Part J2
• Part J2 applies to building elements forming the envelope of a
building other than:
− a sole-occu...
Part J2.4
Glazing Calculation
Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
Glazing
• The calculation requires the assessment of glazing in each storey
for each orientation
• The method requires cal...
• The calculation also requires consideration of –
– the orientation – Figure J2.3
– the shading projection to height dime...
Orientation
• North orientation reduces summer sun and maximises winter sun
• A building facade, including the glazing it ...
Orientation Sectors – Figure J2.3
Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
Calculation of P/H
• Shading for a projection is expressed as P/H
• Refer to Part J2.5 for shading details (projection and...
First floor
P = 600mm
H = 2300mm
P/H = 0.26
Ground floor
P = 1200mm
H = 1400mm
P/H = 0.86
FIGURE J2.4
P
H
P
H
• First calculation – measure the facade area of each storey for
each orientation
• Multiply each facade area by the energ...
Table J2.4a
Introduction to Module 4
TABLE J2.4a ENERGY INDEX
Climate zone
Application
Energy
index
option 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8...
• Second calculation – measure the aggregated air-conditioning
energy value
• Apply the required formula to each individua...
A1 [ SHGC1 ( CA x SH1 + CB x SC1 ) + CC x U1] where;
A1 = the area of glazing element 1
SHGC1 = the SHGC of glazing elemen...
• A Class 5 building in climate zone 5 has a 15m x 15m footprint
and a storey height of 2.7m
• The area of each facade for...
• Firstly we need to calculate the aggregate air-conditioning energy
value for each glazing element in each facade of a ty...
North Facade Calculation
A1(SHGC1 [CA x SH1+ CB x SC1] + CC x U1)
= 2 (0.83 x [-0.06 x 0.975 + 1.46 x 0.81] + -0.02 x 7.9)...
East Facade Calculation
A1(SHGC1 [CA x SH1+ CB x SC1] + CC x U1)
= 2 (0.83 x [-0.18 x 0.935 + 1.32 x 0.885] + 0 x 7.9)
= 2...
South Facade Calculation
A1(SHGC1 [CA x SH1+ CB x SC1] + CCx U1)
= 2 (0.83 x [-0.47 x 0.943 + 0.41 x 0.908] + 0.07 x 7.9)
...
West Facade Calculation
A1(SHGC1 [CA x SH1+ CB x SC1] + CC x U1)
= 2 (0.83 x [-0.28 x 0.935 + 1.13 x 0.875] + 0.02 x 7.9)
...
Summary
North Facade = 4.65
East Facade = 4.98
South Facade = 2.97
West Facade = 4.56
The allowance for each facade of eac...
Glazing Calculators
• The ABCB has developed spreadsheet calculators to assist in
designing and checking the glazing for b...
Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
PART J3
BUILDING SEALING
Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
Principles of Part J3
• Energy required for heating or cooling will be reduced if buildings
are adequately sealed to minim...
Application of Part J3
• Part J3 applies to building elements forming the envelope of a
Class 2 to 9 building other than-
...
− a building or space where the mechanical ventilation required
by Part F4 provides sufficient pressurisation to prevent
i...
Chimneys & Flues
• The chimney or flue of an open solid-fuel burning appliance must
be provided with a damper or flap that...
Roof Lights
• Roof lights must be sealed or capable of being sealed, when
serving a conditioned space or specific habitabl...
Windows & Doors
Introduction to Module 4
• Doors and openable windows must be fitted with edge seals if in –
– the envelop...
• When a main entrance door to a building opens into a conditioned
space an air lock, self-closing, revolving door or simi...
Exhaust Fans
Introduction to Module 4
• Must be fitted with a sealing device if in –
– a conditioned space; or
– a habitab...
Roofs, Walls & Floors
• Roofs, walls, floors and door and window openings that are part
of the envelope or the external fa...
Evaporative Coolers
• Evaporative coolers serving a heated space or a habitable room
or public area in climate zones 4, 5,...
PART J5
AIR-CONDITIONING AND
VENTILATION SYSTEMS
Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
Principles of Part J5
• Efficient design of air-conditioning and ventilation systems is an
essential part of building envi...
Air-Conditioning Systems
• Must be capable of being shut-down –
− when the building is not occupied
− when an external doo...
• Serving parts of a building with different needs must–
− control the temperature of each part (zone or area)
− not mix a...
• Serving a Class 3 SOU, must be capable of controlling different
temperatures for both sleeping periods and "other" perio...
Introduction to Module 4
Air-Conditioning Systems
Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
• Energy efficiency requirements for air-conditioning systems must
not inhibit –
− the smoke hazard management operation o...
Mechanical Ventilation Systems
• Must be capable of being shut-down when the building is not
occupied.
• Serving a conditi...
• With an air flow rate greater than 1000 L/s;
− have fan power to air flow rate ratio –
 0.5W/(L/s) without filters
 0....
• With an air flow rate greater than 1000 L/s;
− Serving a carpark for more than 40 vehicles, must be controlled
by an atm...
• Energy efficiency requirements for mechanical ventilation
systems must not inhibit–
− the smoke hazard management operat...
Time Switches
• A time switch complying with Specification J6 must be fitted to the
following –
− air-conditioning systems...
Heating & Cooling Systems
• Providing heating or cooling for air-conditioning must have piping,
tanks, vessels, heat excha...
• If water is circulated at greater than 2 L/s –
− Must be designed so that total pump power does not exceed
the allowance...
Introduction to Module 4
Heating & Cooling Systems
Table J5.4a MAXIMUM PUMP POWER
Maximum pump power (W/m
2
of the floor a...
• A heater for heating a space via water must achieve a thermal
efficiency complying with Table J5.4b when tested to BS 71...
• A maximum fan power is specified for –
− certain air-cooled condenser fan motors
− cooling tower fans
− closed circuit c...
Miscellaneous Exhaust Systems
• Miscellaneous exhaust systems with an air flow rate more than
1,000L/s and linked to equip...
PART J6
ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING
AND POWER
Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
Principles of Part J6
• Measures for artificial lighting and power are designed to curb
unreasonable energy use
• Artifici...
Some Defined Terms
• Lamp power density means the total of the maximum power rating
of the lamps in a space, other than th...
• Light source efficacy means the luminous flux of a lamp or the
total radiant flux in the visible spectrum weighted by th...
Application of Part J6
• Part J6 applies to all buildings except Class 8 electricity network
substations.
• Provisions rel...
Interior Artificial Lighting
• In a Class 2 or 4 sole-occupancy unit –
− the lighting power density must not exceed 5W/m2
...
• In a Class 2 or 4 sole-occupancy unit –
− the calculation must reflect the proposed installation and not
just the maximu...
Introduction to Module 4
Interior Artificial Lighting
• In a Class 3 or 5 to 9 building –
− the aggregate design illuminat...
Introduction to Module 4
Extract from Table J6.2a
Table J6.2a MAXIMUM ILLUMINATION POWER DENSITY
Space
Maximum illuminatio...
Introduction to Module 4
Extract from Table J6.2b
Table J6.2b ILLUMINATION POWER DENSITY ADJUSTMENT FACTOR
Item
Descriptio...
Controls for Artificial Lighting
• Artificial lighting of a room or space must be individually
operated by a switch or oth...
Decorative & Display Lighting
• Decorative and display lighting -
− must be controlled separately from other lighting;
− h...
Perimeter Artificial Lighting
• External perimeter lighting must be controlled by a time switch
or daylight sensor
• If th...
Water Storage Units
• Power supply to boiling or chilled water storage units must
have a time switch.
Introduction to Modu...
PART J7
HOT WATER SUPPLY, POOLS
AND SPAS
Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
Principles of Part J7
• The measures addressing hot water supply cover hot water for
food preparation, sanitary purposes a...
Hot Water Supply
• Systems for food preparation and sanitary purposes, must comply
with Section 8 of AS/NZS 3500.4.
• Main...
Pools & Spas
• Heating must be by using one of the approved energy sources
• Where some or all of the heating is by gas or...
PARTS I2 & J8
MAINTENANCE & MONITORING
Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
Maintenance
• Maintenance measures for energy efficiency installations are
contained within two Parts –
− Part J8 – Access...
PART J8
ACCESS FOR MAINTENANCE &
FACILITIES FOR MAINTENANCE
Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
Access for Maintenance
• Part J8 applies to all Class 2 to 9 buildings, except within a sole-
occupancy unit of a Class 2 ...
Facilities for Monitoring
• A building or sole-occupancy unit with a floor area more than
500m2
must have –
– facility to ...
PART I2
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
INSTALLATIONS
Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
Principles of Part I2
• Maintenance of energy efficiency installations is essential to
ensure ongoing compliance with desi...
Application of Part I2
• Part I2 does not apply to services that serve only one SOU of a
Class 2 building, or serve only a...
Components of Services
• Components must be maintained to ensure they perform to a
standard not less than they were origin...
Alternative Solutions
Option to Develop an Alternative
Solution
• To comply with BCA Performance Requirements some
practitioners will follow Dee...
Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
Remember the
BCA Structure?
Complying with the Performance
Requirements
Compliance with the Performance Requirements can only be
achieved by –
a) comp...
Design Flexibility
• The BCA provides two pathways to formulate an Alternative
Solution:
− formulating an Alternative Solu...
Flexibility in Compliance
• Either of these options can be explored to establish the most
appropriate pathway for a partic...
Consultation
• It is beneficial to discuss an Alternative Solution with the Certifying
Authority before lodging an applica...
Developing Alternative
Solutions
Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
Alternative Solutions
• The development of Alternative Solutions was covered in detail in
Module Two
• Relevant BCA provis...
Assessment Methods
Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
Assessment Methods
• Assessment methods were discussed in detail in Module Two
• Methods for assessing Building Solutions ...
Assessment Methods
Four Assessment Methods are listed in Part A0.9:
− Evidence of Suitability described in Part A2.2
− Ver...
Evidence of Suitability
Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
Evidence of Suitability
• Forms of Evidence of Suitability is listed in Part A2.2 of Volume
One
• The listed processes are...
Evidence of Suitability
• Registered Testing Authority report
• Certificate of Conformity / current Certificate of Accredi...
Verification Methods
What is a Verification Method?
• Verification Method is defined as –
– a test, inspection, calculation or other method tha...
Verification Method JV3
• Requires the use of a thermal calculation method complying with
ABCB Protocol for Building Energ...
Verification Method JV3
• Reference building means a hypothetical building that is used to
calculate the maximum allowable...
Verification Method JV3
• Requires three computer modelling runs:
Run 1 - reference building with DTS fabric and services
...
Specification JV
• Need only be used if the building operates for more than 2,500
hours per year
• Has rules for calculati...
Extract of Table 2b
Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
Summary
Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
• JV3 applies to all Class 3, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 buil...
Administrative Matters
Assessment of Designs
• Application of these energy efficiency provisions may need to be
undertaken by specialist designer...
Administrative Matters
• All State/Territory jurisdictions have administrative provisions for
the design and construction ...
That's it!
Are there any
questions?
Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
Module 4   Understanding energy effeciency provisions class 2 to 9
Module 4   Understanding energy effeciency provisions class 2 to 9
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Module 4 Understanding energy effeciency provisions class 2 to 9

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This training module is one of a series produced by the Australian Building Codes Board; the organisation responsible for the development and maintenance of the National Construction Code (NCC)

For the purposes of this presentation it is assumed that participants have a general understanding of the content of ABCB training Modules One and Two

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  • Welcome everyone to our training program on the Building Code of Australia energy efficiency provisions for Class 2 to 9 buildings As most of you will be aware, the Building Code of Australia comprises Volume One and Two of the NCC Series and is adopted by all States and Territories as a mandatory code governing the design and construction of buildings, as well as additions and alterations to existing buildings. You'll see later in the presentation that each State and Territory is responsible for establishing the scope of application of the BCA. This presentation titled “ Understanding Energy Efficiency Provisions for Class 2 to 9 Buildings ” has been developed to provide some fundamental information on how to effectively apply the respective energy efficiency requirements. As we move through the presentation there may be instances where certain information is not clearly understood - so please ask questions at any time. There may also be times when you have a story to tell that relates to the issue we ’re talking about - so if you think it will help the presentation , let’s hear your story! Proceed to the next slide
  • This presentation forms part of a diverse Training Program that has been developed as an initiative of the Australian Building Codes Board - which we ’ll now refer to as the ABCB. The ABCB is the organisation responsible for the development and ongoing maintenance of the National Construction Code – which we ’ll now refer to as the NCC . The ABCB ’s Training Program comprises a series of modules and as you can see this Module is number 4 – and there’s more to come! This presentation has been developed on the basis that you have sufficient knowledge of the BCA to effectively use the Code – i.e. while you may not have attended presentations on Modules One and Two, you should have an understanding of the general operation of the BCA Just as a reminder, let ’s have a look at the documents that make up the NCC Series and do a quick recap of the main points covered in Modules One and Two. Proceed to the next slide
  • The NCC Series comprises the Building Code of Australia (BCA) , Volume One and Volume Two; and the Plumbing Code of Australia (PCA) , as Volume Three. To support Volume One of the BCA, the Volume One Appendices and Guide to Volume One are also produced. Today ’s presentation will focus on the application of the energy efficiency provisions of NCC Volume One - Building Code of Australia, which we will now refer to as the BCA . Proceed to the next slide
  • If you have participated in other training sessions you may recall that……….. Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
  • Regulatory systems comprise two types of provisions – i.e. Administrative provisions and Technical provisions ( Point to the various components, noting that the two volumes of the BCA are key technical standards). Administrative matters are contained in State or Territory legislation, typically Acts and Regulations . The BCA is adopted nationally for the purposes of establishing Technical Standards. Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
  • Now for a quick recap on Module Two……………………… Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
  • You may remember this graphic representation of the structure and operation of the BCA. Remember you don ’t need to comply with the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions if you don’t wish to. You have the choice of developing your own Alternative Solution – but if you do so, you'll need to convince the Certifying Authority that your design complies with the mandatory Performance Requirements . To demonstrate to the Certifying Authority that your Alternative Solution complies with the Performance Requirements , you must use one of the Assessment Methods listed. Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide I must emphasise that this presentation conveys FUNDAMENTAL INFORMATION - i.e. the "must have" knowledge for practitioners to effectively work with the BCA. Obviously - experience in working with the BCA can build upon the information you ’ll receive today – but without this information your ability to produce professional outcomes could be hampered. Note – Additional information relating to the BCA energy efficiency provisions can be found on the ABCB website, www.abcb.gov.au. Proceed to next slide
  • What are we talking about when we refer to BCA energy efficiency provisions? We ’re talking about requirements that aim to reduce the amount of energy used to operate services in a building and thereby lower greenhouse gas emissions. Read the slide. Note that hot water has two types. i.e. hot water for heating and hot water for sanitary uses . Proceed to the next slide.
  • Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
  • These are typical examples of some Class 2 to 9 buildings Here we can see office buildings, commercial centres, hospitals, multi-storey residential, shopping centres, factories / warehouses etc. Proceed to the next slide
  • This Module will be presented in three parts……….. . The first part will cover the Background to the Energy Efficiency Provisions……….. (bring in the first text box) The second part will cover the Scope of the BCA………… (bring in the second text box) And the third part will cover the Methods of Compliance (bring in the third textbox) The headings that will be addressed in these three parts include… Proceed to the next slide
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  • We've just used the term "star rating" in several of the past slides – but some of you may not appreciate what it actually means. A star rating is the measure of a buildings ‘energy load’ where a ZERO stars is a building with no energy efficiency features or savings and TEN stars is a building that requires no additional energy to heat or cool. The numbers behind the rating vary between locations. Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
  • As with the development of any new regulations, the ABCB consulted widely with the community and the building industry to ensure that the new provisions would be effective and generally acceptable. Therefore; the draft provisions were…………… Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
  • The activities of the ABCB are governed by an Intergovernment Agreement (IGA) that requires it to comply with Council of Australian Government (COAG) principles for the development of regulation. In essence, these principles only allow new regulations to be introduced if other means of achieving compliance with government policy can be demonstrated to have failed, e.g. market forces, consumer education or development of a "non-regulatory handbook". Therefore the development of new regulation is treated as a final option . If new regulations are required, they must be subjected to rigorous cost benefit analysis. For significant regulatory proposals, a Regulatory Impact Statement (RIS) will be required. In order for the new regulation to be implemented, a RIS must demonstrate that a positive cost benefit to the community will be achieved. Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide It should be noted that in 2003 the BCA introduced 4 star for climate zones 4 to 8 and 3.5 star for climate zones 1 to 3 for housing because of a concern over the software ’s accuracy in warmer climates. However, this differentiation in star rating requirements for different climate zones was not retained in BCA 2006 because the second generation software e.g.: AccuRate, became more reliant for hot regions. Proceed to the next slide
  • As well as assisting in the development of minimum provisions for inclusion in the BCA, DCCEE has also been working on the development of higher standards for voluntary implementation. Read the slide Click on the URL and it will open direct to the web-site (provided you are linked to the Internet at the time) Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide As you can see; the BCA requirements primarily address two key issues, i.e. heat flow through the building envelope and services that use energy. You can see that the terms envelope and services are written in italics so that means they ’re defined terms – lets see what they mean for the purposes of the BCA. Proceed to the next slide.
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  • (Note – to interpret this graphic it may be necessary to also consider the definition of conditioned space ) The easiest way to consider this provision is to identify the areas of the building that are conditioned, can be conditioned or constitute a habitable room which is likely to be conditioned if uncomfortable. The walls, roofs, ceilings and floors that bound these spaces are considered to be the envelope if there is a non- conditioned space on the other side. The envelope can apply to both internal and external building elements, depending on the location of either the conditioned space or habitable room – (using graphic highlight this point) . Further, a building envelope is not limited to any one storey or sole-occupancy unit and can extend through multiple floors of a building and non-related tenancies. Proceed to next slide.
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  • Read the slide In combination – the regulation of the building envelope should assist the thermal efficiency of the building as well as the efficiency of the building services ; therefore allowing services to use less energy. In some instances, preference is given to renewable energy or energy from sources that result in the least greenhouse gas emission. Proceed to the next slide
  • While the principles of energy efficiency are relatively simple, we know that not all of Australia has the same climate and therefore we don ’t have the same requirements being applied nationally. Note that the software approach for dwellings further divides the country into over 70 climate zones. Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
  • This is a reproduction of the map contained in Volume One A1.1, where it appears as Figure A1.1. The differences in climate are shown with climate zone 1 being the orange parts in northern Australia and climate zone 8 being the small white parts in south east regions. Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide It should be mentioned that because Section A sets the rules by which the BCA is applied; the content of Section A is mandatory. Sections B to J present requirements relating to various aspects of design, construction and operation of buildings. Today's presentation relates specifically to Section J. Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide Later on in the presentation we'll discuss the specific content of both the Performance Requirements and the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions . Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide It would take too long to actually discuss the definition of all the terms I'm about to show so we'll simply mention them; however we will discuss selected defined terms as we move through the presentation. Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide The wording of these requirements is presented on the following slides. Proceed to the next slide
  • Here is the text of Performance Requirement JP1 Read the slide The key to this requirement is the need for the building features that facilitate the efficient use of energy in consideration of design issues (a) to (h); all of which have the ability to influence energy use in the building Proceed to the next slide
  • The second issue that Part J energy efficiency provisions address is the ability to maintain energy efficient systems and this is covered by Performance Requirement JP2. The actual maintenance is in Section I. Read the first text box As a reminder, the definition of service is presented again. Proceed to the next slide
  • The third issue that Part J energy efficiency requirements address is the need to use energy for heating from a renewable or low greenhouse emitting source and this is covered by Performance Requirement JP3. Read the first text box For your information, the definition of renewable energy is included… Read the second text box. Proceed to the next slide
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  • These are the parts of Section J with the titles abbreviated. Read the slide You will notice that there is no longer a Part J4. This was previously for the air movement associated with residences but this aspect is now addressed in Part J0 using house energy rating software. Proceed to the next slide
  • Section J also has eight Specifications Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
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  • Part J0 explains the pathways to achieving compliance for Class 2 & 4 sole-occupancy units (or apartments) and for all other parts of those buildings and all other buildings. Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
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  • Part J1 regulates the building fabric and its provisions are designed………….. Read the slide The term fabric is a defined term, which can be confused with the term envelope . However, they are different terms with different meanings – so what do you think the term fabric means? (See if someone in the group can offer a reasonable description before moving onto the next slide – which provides an answer) Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide It is important to relate the fabric to the envelope because the fabric can include internal and external building elements, e.g. an internal wall that separates a conditioned space from a non- conditioned space will form part of the envelope Glazing is not included as the heat transfer mechanism is different to that of fabric elements. Proceed to the next slide
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  • These are typical examples of insulation. Proceed to the next slide.
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  • Read the slide Now let’s have a look at the information provided at Specification J1.2. Proceed to the next slide
  • The following is an extract from Table 2a from Specification J1.2, which lists the thermal properties of some common construction materals. Proceed to the next slide
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  • During the development of the BCA requirements there was debate regarding the dominant direction of heat flow in certain mild climate zones . For purposes of the BCA, it has been established on the basis of " typical hours of occupation of the building, " internal loads from equipment and likelihood of air conditioning. Read the slide Now let’s have a look at roof and ceiling construction. Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide Let’s have a look at an extract of Table J1.3a. Proceed to the next slide
  • Describe the Table Note that these values may also need to be increased if there are many downlights and fans installed Typically the darker the roof colour (or higher the solar absorptance), the more insulation is needed in climate zones 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Proceed to the next slide
  • Here are some typical absorptance values based on roof colour which have been taken from the Guide. Read the slide Note – These are absorptance values for solar radiation. They should not be confused with absorptance values for visible light Proceed to the next slide
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  • This is an extract from the Australian Standard AS/NZS 3000 for electrical installations which shows how insulation must be kept away from downlights The values in the table are worst-case values. Smaller clearances can be used if they are supported by the manufacturer’s product information Proceed to the next slide
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  • This is an extract of Table J1.4 Describe the Table Proceed to the next slide
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  • This is an extract from Table J1.5a. Describe the Table Proceed to the next slide
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  • This is an extract from Table J1.6. Describe the table Proceed to the next slide
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  • Many factors contribute to heat loss or gain through glazing, including………….. Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide A diagram that illustrates radiant heat gain through glazing is presented on the next slide Proceed to the next slide
  • Explain that heat gain inside the building is due to solar radiation passing through the glazing and becoming trapped inside Proceed to the next slide
  • As a simple exercise to understand the importance of glazing to the energy efficiency of a building, let ’s consider a basic insulated wall that includes a basic clear glass window. To do this lets assume… Read the first two dot points Using these assumptions we can establish that… Read the last two dot points As you can see, the performance of glazing can be a critical issue in some buildings. The more glazing there is in a building the greater the need for energy efficiency principles to be applied during the design Proceed to the next slide
  • While glazing is an important consideration in the design of most buildings, its importance can increase in high-rise buildings as a critical means of heat transfer as well as a critical source of air infiltration around its perimeter. Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
  • Now let ’s discuss some terms that we strike in the glazing provisions Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
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  • The following are a couple of terms that, whilst not defined in the BCA, are relevant to the use of Section J. Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
  • The following overview of Part J2 includes paraphrased versions of actual requirements and may not contain all details required for compliance. Therefore, when designing a building in accordance with the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions , reference must be made to the full wording of the provisions in the NCC. Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide On the next slide, we will have a look at Figure J2.4 to further clarify how to calculate P/H and determine G. Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide I should also mention that there is a note to this Figure saying that an external shading device that complies with J2.5(b) is considered to achieve a P/H value of 2. Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide We will look at an example in a moment. Proceed to the next slide
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  • This equation is a simplified expression of the thermodynamic impact of glazing on the energy used by an air-conditioning system. Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
  • Let’s look at an example. Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
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  • However – if you don't wish to do your own calculations you can use the respective Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions in the use of the ABCB Glazing Calculator Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
  • Explain the structure of the Glazing Calculator Required input includes: climate zone , storey , air-movement, glazing element details (orientation sector, height, width, Total U-Value , SHGC) shading measurements "P", "H" and head distance (G). On completion of input, calculations will be initiated and the result will appear in the bottom right-hand corner of the calculator. A big tick ( √) has been given to the demonstration design Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide Note that the capacity relates to a "unit" and not a "system" consisting of a number of units. The provision is not cost effective on a smaller unit. This comment also applies to other provisions . Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide A copy of Table J5.2 is shown on the next slide. Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide A mechanical ventilation system may be integrated with a heating or cooling system or be a separate system Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide The specific characteristics are: An energy reclaiming system that pre-conditions outside air; or The ability to automatically modulate mechanical ventilation required by Part F4 in proportion to the number of occupants Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide Let’s now have a look at Table J5.4a… Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide Miscellaneous exhaust systems may be associated with equipment such as a stove in a commercial kitchen or a chemical bath in a factory. Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide This term is used to describe the effectiveness of a lighting device. Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide Details of the exceptions are listed in the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions Proceed to the next slide
  • This is an extract from Table J6.2a… Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
  • This is an extract from Table J6.2b… Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide As you know – it's not necessary to comply with Deemed-to-Satisfy Building Solutions and for various reasons designers or applicants choose to develop an Alternative Solution . Proceed to the next slide
  • Remember this? Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
  • Part A0.5 of Volume One describes how compliance with the mandatory Performance Requirements can be achieved Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
  • As you can see from Clause A0.5…. Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide The relevance of the views of the Certifying Authority are briefly outlined on the next slide Proceed to the next slide
  • The key to development of an appropriate Alternative Solution is preliminary consultation with the Certifying Authority. Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide As details of processes related to the development of Alternative Solutions was covered in Module Two, we won’t reiterate them now, but it should be acknowledged that the operation of the BCA is described in Section A and that there may be relevant administrative provisions applicable to these processes in each State or Territory. Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide The term Building Solution is used in Part A0.9 because Building Solutions can be Deemed-to-Satisfy or Alternative Solutions. While Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions of pathways to conclusive proof of compliance with Performance Requirements it may still be necessary to demonstrate that your proposal complies with the Deemed-to-Satisfy recipe e.g. a Deemed-to-Satisfy solution may require calculations involving the Total U-Value of a glazing element. Therefore, an applicant for approval may be required to demonstrate to the Certifying Authority that the proposed element does achieve the nominated Total U-Value and an assessment method listed in Part A0.9 may be used to do so. Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide Let's talk about the first method – Evidence of Suitability Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide The term " third party" is used on the basis that the first party is an applicant, the second party is a Certifying Authority, and the third party is an independent person or authority that offers expert assistance to the process Let's look at the list of third party mechanisms Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide Note: open the BCA to Part A1 and read the defined terms for Registered Testing Authority and Certificate of Conformity Note: open the BCA to Part A2.2 and elaborate on the terms if necessary The last reference is to “ any form of documentary evidence ” – this is intentionally "open ended" to provide an opportunity for the applicant or Certifying Authority to assess the appropriateness of documentation offered in support of compliance Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide An extract of the operating profile from Table 2b is on the next slide Proceed to the next slide
  • Describe the Table – explain that this is only an extract from the full Table Refer to the BCA and describe the notes to the Table Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide Mention that this Section of the BCA is one with which some practitioners may not be familiar and may be more comfortable if the development and assessment of compliance with the Performance Requirements was undertaken by specialist practitioners Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide Individual State and Territory administrative provisions can influence various aspects of design and construction. Therefore, it is essential that compliance with administrative provisions relating to energy efficiency is achieved. In some States and Territories practitioners such as private certifiers and users of energy assessment software may be required to be accredited and it should not be assumed that a practitioner accredited in one State or Territory is accredited to practice in another jurisdiction. Proceed to the next slide
  • As the slide states – ARE THERE ANY QUESTIONS ?
  • Module 4 Understanding energy effeciency provisions class 2 to 9

    1. 1. National Construction Code Training Program MODULE FOUR Understanding Energy Efficiency Provisions for Class 2 to 9 Buildings
    2. 2. Introduction to Module Four • This training module is one of a series produced by the Australian Building Codes Board; the organisation responsible for the development and maintenance of the National Construction Code (NCC) • For the purposes of this presentation it is assumed that participants have a general understanding of the content of ABCB training Modules One and Two Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    3. 3. Building Code Volume Three Guide to Volume One Volume One Appendices Volume TwoVolume One Plumbing Code National Construction Code Series Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    4. 4. Recap on Module One • Module One was titled: An Introduction to the Building Code of Australia – Volume One and Two of the NCC Series • The object of Module One was to provide information on- − the background to the development of the BCA − the operation of the BCA, and − the application of the BCA Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    5. 5. The Building Code of Australia • The BCA established minimum standards for new building work • The BCA: − Is referenced in State /Territory law – see next slide − Is amended annually − Requirements are intended to be cost effective − Requirements are intended to eliminate poor practice − Does not address best practice Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    6. 6. Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance STATE & TERRITORY BUILDING ACTS STATE & TERRITORY BUILDING REGULATIONS TECHNICAL STANDARDS ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS • Approvals • Appeals • Registrations • Refurbishments • Building standard
    7. 7. Presentation of the BCA • The BCA is presented in two Volumes • This is to correlate with the historic division of the building industry • In general, industry tends to work in either the housing sector or the commercial sector, although some large companies work in both sectors • The BCA endeavours to follow this division Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    8. 8. BCA Volumes One and Two • Volume One contains requirements for the design and construction of commercial buildings; i.e. Class 2 to 9 buildings, plus some Class 10 structures • Volume Two contains requirements for the design and construction of domestic buildings; i.e. Class 1 and 10 buildings, plus some Class 10 structures Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    9. 9. Recap on Module Two • Module Two was titled: Understanding the BCA’s Performance Requirements • The object of Module Two was to provide information on how to comply with the BCA without using Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions – i.e. by developing an Alternative Solution which complies with the relevant Performance Requirements. Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    10. 10. Recap on Module Two • Volume One contains ten sections, which are identified alphabetically, i.e. Sections A to J • The general structure and operation of the BCA is presented at Section A, which is titled ‘General Provisions’ • Section B to J contain mandatory technical requirements, which are expressed as Performance Requirements, and optional means of compliance with the Performance Requirements. These are expressed as Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    11. 11. Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    12. 12. Objective of Module Four • The objective of Module Four is to provide fundamental information on BCA energy efficiency provisions relating to Class 2 to 9 buildings; i.e. multi-storey residential buildings and other commercial buildings • The information provided in this presentation relates to the national content of the BCA and does not address State or Territory variations Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    13. 13. BCA Energy Efficiency BCA requirements aim to reduce the use of energy from electricity, gas, oil, or other fuels used in buildings for: • Heating • Cooling • Ventilation • Artificial lighting • Hot water (heating and sanitary) • Other services Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    14. 14. BCA Requirements • The BCA only addresses energy used by a building's services to operate • Does not include energy used in manufacturing building materials or the construction of a building (i.e. embodied energy). • Does not include portable appliances within a building such as computers or fridges Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    15. 15. Background Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance Module Four Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    16. 16. Module Four • Principles of Energy Efficiency • General Scope of BCA Provisions • Performance Requirements • Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions • Alternative Solutions • Verification Methods • Administrative Matters Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    17. 17. Background to Energy Efficiency Provisions
    18. 18. General Background • Over the past decade international awareness of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their influence on global warming has grown significantly • GHG is a natural part of Earth’s atmosphere that captures the Sun’s warmth to keep Earth’s surface temperature at a life supporting level Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    19. 19. • Increased concentrations of GHG will cause variations to our climate that will differ between geographic regions • Changes may occur to temperatures, rainfall, wind speed, vegetation and animal life • GHG emissions are increasing due to human activities such as land clearing and burning fossil fuel (e.g. coal and oil) Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance General Background
    20. 20. • 1997 – the Prime Minister issued a statement on Australia’s response to global warming that included measures to reduce energy consumption in buildings • The building sector was not the largest contributor to national GHG emissions - although it contributed 27% of energy related GHG emissions and was the fastest growing source • Late 1990’s - governments considered the need for new buildings to operate in an energy efficient manner Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance National Background
    21. 21. • It was apparent that market forces had not addressed the issue effectively so there was a need for regulatory reform • Industry generally supported the need to eliminate worst practice in building design • 2000 – Agreement by the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) to introduce energy efficiency regulations for domestic and commercial buildings Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance National Background
    22. 22. National Background • 2001 – In response, the Australian Greenhouse Office (AGO) and the ABCB entered into an agreement to develop energy efficiency provisions and introduce these through the BCA • 2001- 2002 - Housing energy efficiency provisions developed • January 2003 - BCA Volume Two introduced 4 star energy efficiency provisions in climate zones 4 to 8 and 3.5 star in climate zones 1 to 3 for housing and associated buildings • Some States/Territories had existing provisions in place and did not adopt new BCA requirements Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    23. 23. • BCA 2005 − Introduced the same star level requirements for Class 2 and 3 buildings and Class 4 parts as for housing , i.e. SOU’s must achieve a minimum of 3 stars, but achieve a 4 star average in climate zones 4 to 8 and 3.5 star average in climate zones 1 to 3. • BCA 2006 − Introduced requirements for Class 5 to 9 buildings − Enhanced requirements for Class 1 and nominated Class 10a buildings from 3.5 / 4 star to 5 star Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance National Background
    24. 24. • BCA 2010 − Enhanced the requirements for Class 5 to 9 buildings − Further enhanced the requirements for Class 1 and nominated Class 10a buildings from 5 star to 6 star − Also enhanced requirements for Class 2 buildings and Class 4 parts of a building (average 6 star, minimum 5 star) Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance National Background
    25. 25. What is a House Star Rating? Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance • A house star rating is a quantified benchmark used to describe the energy efficiency performance of a building’s fabric based on an annual energy load • The rating is used in the BCA and is derived using computer software packages: AccuRate, BERS and Firstrate • It should not be confused with a Greenstar rating which is a sustainability system and includes water etc
    26. 26. Draft Provisions • Originally developed through stakeholder committees, specialist working groups and specialist consultants • Proposals were refined through industry and community consultation • Draft provisions were subject to a formal Regulation Document process and Regulatory Impact Statement process Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    27. 27. Regulatory Impact Statement • Under an IGA, the ABCB must only propose new regulation as a final option • All proposals for change to the BCA must be subjected to a rigorous regulatory impact assessment process that includes cost benefit analysis • The new regulation must generate the greatest net benefit for the community Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    28. 28. Four Stage Process • Using a four stage process, the ABCB has now introduced energy efficiency requirements for all classes of buildings − 2003 - Class 1 & 10 (4 star / 3.5 star) − 2005 - Class 2 to 4 (4 star / 3.5 star average – 3 star minimum) − 2006 - Class 5 to 9; plus - Class 1 & 10 enhanced (Verification 5 star) − 2010 - Class 3 and 5 to 9 enhanced; and - Class 2 and 4 (6 star average – 5 star minimum) - Class 1 & 10 (6 star) Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    29. 29. Voluntary Best Practice • The Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE) has also developed a series of other programs - aimed at assisting designers to go beyond the minimum requirements of the BCA • These programs promote voluntary best practice rather than BCA minimum requirements • Information can be found at: www.climatechange.gov.au Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    30. 30. Principles of Energy Efficiency
    31. 31. Objective of BCA Provisions • The objective of the BCA energy efficiency provisions is to reduce GHG emissions by reducing the operational energy use of buildings without reducing comfort and amenity • BCA requirements primarily address: − heat flow - in and out of a building through the building envelope, and − services - that use energy e.g. air-conditioning, hot water and lighting Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    32. 32. Definition of Envelope Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance Envelope, means the parts of a building’s fabric that separate a conditioned space or habitable room from – (a) the exterior of the building; or (b) a non-conditioned space including – (i) the floor of a rooftop plant room, lift-machine room or the like; and (ii) the floor above a carpark or warehouse; and (iii) the common wall with a carpark, warehouse or the like.
    33. 33. Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance = Walls of the building envelope General office: The external walls, roof and floor above a carpark bounding the general office are treated as part of the building envelope under the BCA definition because all rooms are conditioned. Corridor: This area is also inside the envelope because it is conditioned. Plant Room General Office (Conditioned) Private Office Access Stair General Office (Conditioned) Public Corridor (Conditioned) Definition of Envelope
    34. 34. Definition of Service Service, for the purposes of Part I2 and Section J, means a mechanical or electrical system that uses energy to provide air- conditioning, mechanical ventilation, hot water supply, artificial lighting, vertical transport and the like within a building, but which does not include – (a) systems used solely for emergency purposes; and (b) cooking facilities; and (c) portable appliances Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    35. 35. Principles of Energy Efficiency • The efficient performance of the building envelope plus the efficient operation of building services results in reduced - − demand for a service, i.e. in moderate climate zones, − size of a service, − operating time of a service, and − energy consumption of the service • The use of fuels with the lowest practical greenhouse gas intensity Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    36. 36. Application of Requirements • Not all of Australia has the same climate so the BCA elemental Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions vary across eight (8) climate zones • Climate zone 1 is hot and humid while climate zone 8 is cold • A map of the location of the various climate zones is provided as Figure A1.1 – see next slide Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    37. 37. Climate Zone Map Figure A1.1 Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    38. 38. Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance Individual State and territory maps are available on the ABCB website at: http://www.abcb.gov.au Climate Zone Map
    39. 39. Application of Requirements • The primary intent of the BCA provisions is to reduce energy required for cooling services in warmer climate zones and heating services in cooler climate zones • The extent of specific requirements will generally vary depending on the use of the building and the climate zone in which it is located Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    40. 40. General Scope of BCA Provisions
    41. 41. Sections of Volume One • Energy efficiency provisions are primarily governed by the content of Section A and Section J of Volume One • Section A – General Provisions – presents the general rules by which BCA is applied and is addressed in detail in Module One • Section A also contains Part A1 – Interpretation, which presents defined terms within the BCA Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    42. 42. Section J – Energy Efficiency • Section J presents both the mandatory Performance Requirements and the optional Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions for energy efficiency in Class 2 to 9 buildings • While compliance with the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions is optional, the main benefit of following this form of Building Solution is the certainty of compliance with the mandatory Performance Requirements Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module 4
    43. 43. • Defined terms specific to the energy efficiency provisions are presented on the following slides • BCA users should not assume the meaning of new terms and should refer to the definitions until familiar with the energy efficiency provisions Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance Relevant Defined Terms Introduction to Module 4
    44. 44. Relevant Defined Terms • Air-conditioning • Climate zone • Conditioned space • Envelope • Fabric • Fan power • Glazing • Illuminance Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance • Illumination power density • Lamp power density • Latent heat gain • Light source efficacy • Outdoor air economy cycle • Piping • Pump power • R-Value Introduction to Module 4
    45. 45. Relevant Defined Terms Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance • Reference building • Reflective insulation • Renewable energy • Roof light • Sensible heat gain • Service • Solar Heat Gain Coefficient • Thermal calculation method • Total R-Value • Total U-Value Introduction to Module 4
    46. 46. Energy Efficiency Performance Requirements
    47. 47. Performance Requirements • There are three mandatory Performance Requirements for energy efficiency: − JP1 - requires a building & its services to have features that facilitate the efficient use of energy − JP2 - requires a building, including its services, to have features that facilitate the maintenance of systems and components appropriate to the function and use of the building − JP3 - requires services to use energy from low greenhouse emitting sources where possible Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    48. 48. Performance Requirement JP1 Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    49. 49. Performance Requirement JP2 Introduction to Module 4 Remember this definition? Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    50. 50. Performance Requirement JP3 Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    51. 51. Energy Efficiency Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions
    52. 52. Parts of Section J Part J0 – Energy Efficiency Part J1 – Building Fabric Part J2 – Glazing Part J3 – Building Sealing Part J5 – Air-Conditioning and Ventilation Systems Part J6 – Artificial Lighting and Power Part J7 – Hot Water Supply & Pool & Spa Plant Part J8 – Access for Maintenance & Monitoring Facilities Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    53. 53. Specifications • Section J also has eight Specifications – Spec JV – Annual Energy Consumption Criteria Spec J1.2 – Material Properties Spec J1.3 – Roof and Ceiling Construction Spec J1.5 – Wall Construction Spec J1.6 – Floor Construction Spec J5.2 – Ductwork Insulation and Sealing Spec J5.4 – Insulation of Piping, Vessels etc Spec J6 – Lighting and Power Control Devices Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    54. 54. • Seven of the Specifications provide detailed information on components of the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions and must be satisfied in order to comply with the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions • Alternative Solutions can be developed as another option to compliance instead of any aspect of Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions Introduction to Module 4 Specifications Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    55. 55. PART J0 ENERGY EFFICENCY Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    56. 56. Part J0 Introduction to Module 4 • For apartments – House energy rating solution − Energy rating − J0.3 for ceiling fans − Specific J1 provisions for materials & construction − J3 for sealing − J5, J6, J7 and J8 for services • For other areas & all other buildings − J1 to J8 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    57. 57. PART J1 BUILDING FABRIC Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    58. 58. Principles of Part J1 • To regulate the performance of the building fabric in order to reduce heat gain and heat loss • To reduce the need for thermal conditioning of spaces within buildings Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    59. 59. Definition of Fabric • In essence, the fabric is a general description of the primary building elements that form the envelope • Note that the BCA definition of fabric does not include glazing Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    60. 60. Application of Part J1 • Part J1 applies to building elements forming the envelope of a Class 2 to 9 building other than- − a Class 7, 8 or 9b building that does not have a conditioned space, or − an atrium or solarium that is not a conditioned space and is separated from the remainder of the building by an envelope. Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    61. 61. Thermal Construction • Specific parts of a building's envelope need to be insulated if they do not have thermal properties required for the climate zone in which the building is located • Insulation must be installed to form a consistent and continuous barrier in conjunction with building members • Gaps in the barrier allow heat in or out and reduce the efficiency of the barrier Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    62. 62. • R-Value – means the thermal resistance (m2 .K/W) of a component calculated by dividing its thickness by its thermal conductivity • In essence – the R-Value represents the ability of a material to resist heat flow Introduction to Module 4 Other Important Terms Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    63. 63. • Total R-Value – means the sum of the R-Values of individual components in a composite element including any building material, insulating material, air space and associated surface resistances Introduction to Module 4 Other Important Terms Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    64. 64. Thermal Insulation Thermal insulation must – • comply with AS/NZS 4859.1; and • be installed to form a consistent and continuous barrier, other than at studs etc, in accordance with the BCA’s and manufacturer’s requirements. Thermal insulation may be either reflective insulation or bulk insulation Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    65. 65. Thermal Insulation Thermal insulation needs to be installed so that – • Any required air space is provided adjacent to the reflective surface of reflective insulation • The thickness of bulk insulation is maintained as compression of insulation material can reduce the R-Value • Note: Consideration needs to be given to the risk that artificial cooling or heating of internal spaces may promote condensation within adjoining elements. Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    66. 66. Specification J1.2 Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    67. 67. ROOFS Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    68. 68. Direction of Heat Flow • The direction of heat flow that needs to be counteracted will depend on the climate zone • The direction of heat flow is the dominant direction during typical hours of occupation of the building Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    69. 69. Roof & Ceiling Construction • Must achieve the minimum Total R-Value specified in Table J1.3a for the direction of heat flow • Some reductions apply to some buildings in selected climate zones • Specification J1.3 presents the thermal performance of some common forms of (uninsulated) roof and ceiling construction. Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    70. 70. Extract of Table J1.3a Introduction to Module 4 Table J1.3a ROOFS AND CEILINGS – MINIMUM TOTAL R-VALUE FOR EACH CLIMATE ZONE Climate Zone 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 6 7 8 Direction of heat flow Downwards Upwards Minimum Total R-Value for a roof or ceiling with a roof upper surface absorptance value of not more than 0.4 3.2 3.2 3.7 4.8 Minimum Total R-Value for a roof or ceiling with a roof upper surface absorptance value of not more than 0.6 3.7 3.2 3.7 4.8 Minimum Total R-Value for a roof or ceiling with a roof upper surface absorptance value of more than 0.6 4.2 3.2 3.7 4.8 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    71. 71. Typical Absorptance Values Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance Colour Value Slate (dark grey) 0.90 Red, green 0.75 Yellow, buff 0.60 Zinc aluminium — dull 0.55 Galvanised steel — dull 0.55 Light grey 0.45 Off white 0.35 Light cream 0.30
    72. 72. Total R-Value • Certain roofs with metal framing and cladding require a thermal break to be installed. • As more downlights and fans are installed in a ceiling, the loss of insulation must be compensated for by increasing the R-Value of insulation in the remainder of the ceiling – See Table J1.3b Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    73. 73. Downlights Clearance Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    74. 74. ROOF LIGHTS Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    75. 75. Roof Lights • Thermal performance of roof lights is specified in Table J1.4 in terms of maximum SHGC and Total U-Value • The application of the Table depends on the area of roof lights as a percentage of the floor area of the room or space served by the roof light Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    76. 76. Table J1.4 ROOF LIGHTS -THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF TRANSPARENT AND TRANSLUCENT ELEMENTS Total area of roof lights serving the room or space as a percentage of the floor area of the room or spaceRoof light shaft index (see Note 1) Up to 2% More than 2% and up to 3% More than 3% and up to 4% More than 4% and up to 5% Less than 0.5 SHGC of not more than 0.83 and a Total U-Value of not more than 8.5 SHGC of not more than 0.57 and a Total U-Value of not more than 5.7 SHGC of not more than 0.43 and a Total U-Value of not more than 4.3 SHGC of not more than 0.34 and a Total U-Value of not more than 3.4 0.5 to less than 1.0 SHGC of not more than 0.83 and a Total U-Value of not more than 8.5 SHGC of not more than 0.72 and a Total U-Value of not more than 5.7 SHGC of not more than 0.54 and a Total U-Value of not more than 4.3 SHGC of not more than 0.43 and a Total U-Value of not more than 3.4 1.0 to less than 2.5 SHGC of not more than 0.83 and a Total U-Value of not more than 8.5 SHGC of not more than 0.83 and a Total U-Value of not more than 5.7 SHGC of not more than 0.69 and a Total U-Value of not more than 4.3 SHGC of not more than 0.55 and a Total U-Value of not more than 3.4 2.5 and above SHGC of not more than 0.83 and a Total U-Value of not more than 8.5 SHGC of not more than 0.83 and a Total U-Value of not more than 5.7 SHGC of not more than 0.83 and a Total U-Value of not more than 4.3 SHGC of not more than 0.83 and a Total U-Value of not more than 3.4 Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    77. 77. WALLS Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    78. 78. Walls • As with roofs, the construction of external walls is a major factor in the thermal efficiency of a building • External walls are generally required to achieve a minimum Total R-Value, with or without other features • Concessions to the minimum Total R-Value are provided for specified conditions Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    79. 79. Walls • The general requirements for the thermal performance of external walls are specified in Table J1.5a • The general requirements for the thermal performance of internal walls are specified in Table J1.5b • Exceptions apply to nominated elements and openings Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    80. 80. • Requirements relate to climate zones and are expressed in Table J1.5a in terms of – − minimum Total R-Value − minimum surface density (weight of 1 m2 of wall) − incorporation of a cavity − shading projections − specific glazing energy index options − wall orientation and solar absorptance Introduction to Module 4 External Walls Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    81. 81. • Options are available in certain climate zones if more demanding glazing requirements are met • Thermal breaks need to be provided in certain metal framed lightweight walls with a single framing member in the direction of heat flow • Specification J1.5 presents the thermal performance of some common forms of (uninsulated) external wall construction. Introduction to Module 4 External Walls Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    82. 82. Table J1.5a OPTIONS FOR EACH PART OF AN EXTERNAL WALL Climate zone Options (a) (i) Achieve a minimum Total R-Value of 3.3. (ii) The minimum Total R-Value in (i) is reduced- (A) for a wall with a surface density of not less than 220 kg/m 2 , by 0.5; and (B) for a wall that is- (aa) facing the south orientation as described in Figure J2.3, by 0.5; or (bb) shaded with a projection shade angle in accordance with Figure J1.5 of- (AA) 15 degrees to not more than 45 degrees, by 0.5; or (BB) more than 45 degrees, by 1.0; and (C) if the outer surface solar absorptance value is not more than 0.6, by 0.5. 1, 2 and 3 (b) Where the only space for insulation is provided by a furring channel, top hat section, batten or the like— (i) achieve a minimum Total R-Value of 1.4; and (ii) satisfy glazing energy index Option B of Table J2.4a; and Introduction to Module 4 External Walls Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    83. 83. • Requirements relate to climate zones and are expressed in Table J1.5b in terms of- − minimum Total R-Value − whether enclosed − amount of any mechanical ventilation − amount of glazing Introduction to Module 4 Internal Walls Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    84. 84. FLOORS Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    85. 85. Floors • A floor that forms part of a building's envelope must achieve the appropriate minimum Total R-Value in Table J1.6. • A floor with an in-slab heating or cooling system must be insulated around the vertical edge of its perimeter with insulation having an R-Value of not less than 1.0. This requirement also applies if the floor is located in climate zone 8. • In climate zones 1 to 6 – the Total R-Value for a floor can be reduced if the Total R-Value for roof and ceiling construction is increased. Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    86. 86. Introduction to Module 4 Location Climate zone 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 (a) A slab on ground- (i) without an in-slab heating or cooling system (ii) with an in-slab heating or cooling system Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil 1.0 2.0 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 2.25 (b) A suspended floor without an in-slab heating or cooling system and with the non-conditioned space - (i) enclosed; and (ii) if mechanically ventilated, by not more than 1.5 air changes per hour of outside air. 1.0 1.0 Nil Nil 1.0 1.0 1.5 2.5 (c) For a suspended floor with an in-slab heating or cooling system and the non-conditioned space - (i) enclosed; and (ii) if mechanically ventilated, by not more than 1.5 air changes per hour of outside air. 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.75 2.75 (d) For other than (a), (b) or (c) 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 3.5 Table J1.6 FLOOR MINIMUM TOTAL R-VALUE Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    87. 87. PART J2 EXTERNAL GLAZING Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    88. 88. Principles of Part J2 • Good glazing design contributes to energy efficiency in buildings by – − utilising natural light − enhancing solar heat gains in southern winters − restricting heat losses in southern winters and − restricting unwanted heat gains in summer or in hotter climates Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    89. 89. Factors Affecting Heat Transfer • Location of the building • Total area of glazing • Type of glass and frame used • Degree of exposure to the sun – influenced by orientation to the sun and shading • Use of air-conditioning to condition the space Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    90. 90. Two Basic Considerations • For glazing, the BCA provisions consider two main thermodynamic effects- − heat conduction through the glazing due to temperature differences on either side of the glazing, and − solar radiation directly through the glazing into the building Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    91. 91. Solar Radiation Through Glass Introduction to Module 4 Short wave radiation passes through glazing. Heat is absorbed by interior surfaces and re-radiated. Re-radiated long wave radiation is trapped inside the building Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    92. 92. Performance of Basic Glazing • The insulated external wall has a Total R-Value of 2.8 • The wall contains 6 mm single layer clear glazing in aluminum frames • The thermal resistance of the glazing would equate to a total R- Value of around 0.17 • Therefore the required wall insulates against heat transfer around 16 times better than basic glazing Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    93. 93. High-Rise Buildings • The building envelope of a high-rise building will often have large glazed areas. Therefore, glazing can become the greatest source of heat transfer and air infiltration for a conditioned space. • Also, the higher a conditioned space is located above ground level, the greater the wind pressure and the potential for air infiltration. Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    94. 94. A Definition of Glazing • Glazing – for the purposes of Section J, means a transparent or translucent element and its supporting frame located in the envelope, and includes a window other than a roof light. Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    95. 95. • Total U-Value means the thermal transmittance (W/m2. K) of the composite element allowing for the effect of any air spaces and surface resistances. • Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) – means the fraction of incident irradiance on the transparent or translucent element of a glazing system that adds heat to a building’s space. • In essence – a measure of how well the glazing system limits the heat energy of the sun – the lower the number the less energy it transmits. Introduction to Module 4 Other Relevant Terms Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    96. 96. • Conductance – relates to the transfer of heat. The rate of conductance depends on the ambient temperature either side of the glazing and Total U-Value of the glazing. • Solar heat gain – is heat gain caused by solar radiation passing through glazing. Depends on: − the SHGC of the glazing unit, and − its exposure to solar radiation, e.g. location, shading and orientation Introduction to Module 4 Other Relevant Terms Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    97. 97. Part J2 Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    98. 98. Application of Part J2 • Part J2 applies to building elements forming the envelope of a building other than: − a sole-occupancy unit of a Class 2 building or Class 4 part of a building; or − a Class 7, 8 or 9b building that does not have a conditioned space; or − an atrium or solarium that is not a conditioned space and is separated from the remainder of the building. Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    99. 99. Part J2.4 Glazing Calculation Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    100. 100. Glazing • The calculation requires the assessment of glazing in each storey for each orientation • The method requires calculation of- − allowable air-conditioning energy value; and − aggregated air-conditioning energy value • Aggregated values must not exceed allowable values for each storey in each orientation Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    101. 101. • The calculation also requires consideration of – – the orientation – Figure J2.3 – the shading projection to height dimensions (P/H) – Figure J2.4 – the projection to glazing head dimensions (G) – Figure J2.4 – shading details – Part J2.5 Introduction to Module 4 Glazing Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    102. 102. Orientation • North orientation reduces summer sun and maximises winter sun • A building facade, including the glazing it contains, is considered to face North if it faces any direction in the North orientation sector of Figure J2.3 – see the next slide • The orientations of other facades, including the glazing they contain, are determined in a similar way Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    103. 103. Orientation Sectors – Figure J2.3 Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    104. 104. Calculation of P/H • Shading for a projection is expressed as P/H • Refer to Part J2.5 for shading details (projection and shading device) • P is a horizontal measurement from the external face of the glazing to the edge of the shading projection • H is the vertical measurement from the glazing sill to the underside of the shading projection Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    105. 105. First floor P = 600mm H = 2300mm P/H = 0.26 Ground floor P = 1200mm H = 1400mm P/H = 0.86 FIGURE J2.4 P H P H
    106. 106. • First calculation – measure the facade area of each storey for each orientation • Multiply each facade area by the energy index obtained from Table J2.4a • “Option A” values apply unless “Option B” values are used to comply with J1.5 • The resulting values are the allowances for the actual design Introduction to Module 4 Glazing Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    107. 107. Table J2.4a Introduction to Module 4 TABLE J2.4a ENERGY INDEX Climate zone Application Energy index option 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A 0.067 0.132 0.091 0.086 0.092 0.090 0.059 0.027 Class 3 and 9c building B 0.060 0.124 0.078 0.063 0.071 0.061 0.037 Not applicable A 0.180 0.217 0.221 0.227 0.257 0.220 0.170 0.046Display glazing in a shop or showroom B 0.173 0.209 0.208 0.204 0.236 0.191 0.148 Not applicable A 0.130 0.181 0.172 0.142 0.175 0.116 0.083 0.023Glazing in other than a Class 3 or 9c building or display glazing in a shop or showroom B 0.123 0.173 0.159 0.113 0.145 0.082 0.058 Not applicable Note: Option A applies to all glazing other than where compliance with Option B is required by Table J1.5a. Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    108. 108. • Second calculation – measure the aggregated air-conditioning energy value • Apply the required formula to each individual glazing element of a storey at each orientation – see next slide • Add individual glazing values to achieve the aggregate air- conditioning energy value for the storey and orientation Introduction to Module 4 Glazing Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    109. 109. A1 [ SHGC1 ( CA x SH1 + CB x SC1 ) + CC x U1] where; A1 = the area of glazing element 1 SHGC1 = the SHGC of glazing element 1 CA CBCC = the energy constants A, B and C for the specific orientation from Table J2.4b SH1 = the heating shading multiplier for glazing element 1 obtained from Table J2.4c SC1 = the cooling shading multiplier for glazing element 1 obtained from Table J2.4d U1 = the Total U-Value of glazing element 1 Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    110. 110. • A Class 5 building in climate zone 5 has a 15m x 15m footprint and a storey height of 2.7m • The area of each facade for each storey is 15 x 2.7 = 40.5 m2 • Energy Index from Table J2.4a for Option B in climate zone 5 is 0.145 • The allowed aggregate air-conditioning energy value for each facade of each storey is 5.87 Introduction to Module 4 Example Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    111. 111. • Firstly we need to calculate the aggregate air-conditioning energy value for each glazing element in each facade of a typical storey • Each facade has three windows 2m wide x 1m high with a U- Value of 7.9 and a SHGC of 0.83 (clear in aluminium) • Shading projection of 450 mm, 300 mm above the glazing head, i.e. P/H = 0.35 Introduction to Module 4 Example Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    112. 112. North Facade Calculation A1(SHGC1 [CA x SH1+ CB x SC1] + CC x U1) = 2 (0.83 x [-0.06 x 0.975 + 1.46 x 0.81] + -0.02 x 7.9) = 2 (0.83 x [-0.0585 + 1.1826] + -0.158) = 2 (0.83 x [1.124] + -0.158) = 2 (0.933 + -0.158) = 1.55 There are three equal windows on typical storey of North facade – so total North is 4.65 Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    113. 113. East Facade Calculation A1(SHGC1 [CA x SH1+ CB x SC1] + CC x U1) = 2 (0.83 x [-0.18 x 0.935 + 1.32 x 0.885] + 0 x 7.9) = 2 (0.83 x [- 0.1683 + 1.1682] + 0) = 2 (0.83 x [0.9999] + 0) = 2 (0.8299) = 1.66 There are three equal windows on typical storey of East facade – so total East is 4.98 Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    114. 114. South Facade Calculation A1(SHGC1 [CA x SH1+ CB x SC1] + CCx U1) = 2 (0.83 x [-0.47 x 0.943 + 0.41 x 0.908] + 0.07 x 7.9) = 2 (0.83 x [-0.443 + 0.372] + 0.553) = 2 (0.83 x [-0.071] + 0.553) = 2 (-0.059 + 0.553) = 0.99 There are three equal windows on typical storey of South facade – so total South is 2.97 Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    115. 115. West Facade Calculation A1(SHGC1 [CA x SH1+ CB x SC1] + CC x U1) = 2 (0.83 x [-0.28 x 0.935 + 1.13 x 0.875] + 0.02 x 7.9) = 2 (0.83 x [-0.262 + 0.989] +0.158) = 2 (0.83 x [0.727] + 0.158) = 2 (0.603 + 0.158) = 1.52 There are three equal windows on typical storey of West facade – so total West is 4.56 Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    116. 116. Summary North Facade = 4.65 East Facade = 4.98 South Facade = 2.97 West Facade = 4.56 The allowance for each facade of each storey is 5.87 so the proposed design complies with Part J2.4 as the value for each facade is less than the allowance. Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    117. 117. Glazing Calculators • The ABCB has developed spreadsheet calculators to assist in designing and checking the glazing for both residential and commercial buildings • Calculators require the input data related to the specific building • Calculators are available from the ABCB website Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    118. 118. Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    119. 119. PART J3 BUILDING SEALING Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    120. 120. Principles of Part J3 • Energy required for heating or cooling will be reduced if buildings are adequately sealed to minimise – − loss of conditioned air in a building − entry of unconditioned air into a conditioned space Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    121. 121. Application of Part J3 • Part J3 applies to building elements forming the envelope of a Class 2 to 9 building other than- − a building in climate zones 1, 2, 3 and 5 where the only means of air-conditioning is by using an evaporative cooler; or − a permanent ventilation opening, in a space where a gas appliance is located, that is necessary for the safe operation of a gas appliance; or − a Class 6, 7, 8 and 9b building that does not have a conditioned space; or Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    122. 122. − a building or space where the mechanical ventilation required by Part F4 provides sufficient pressurisation to prevent infiltration; or − an atrium or solarium that is not a conditioned space and is separated from the remainder of the building by an envelope. Introduction to Module 4 Application of Part J3 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    123. 123. Chimneys & Flues • The chimney or flue of an open solid-fuel burning appliance must be provided with a damper or flap that can be closed to seal the chimney or flue Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    124. 124. Roof Lights • Roof lights must be sealed or capable of being sealed, when serving a conditioned space or specific habitable rooms and must be constructed with – − an imperforate ceiling diffuser; or − a weatherproof seal; or − an occupant operated shutter system. Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    125. 125. Windows & Doors Introduction to Module 4 • Doors and openable windows must be fitted with edge seals if in – – the envelope of a conditioned space; or – the external fabric of a habitable room or public area in climate zones 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8. • Edge seals may be compressible or fibrous strips • External swing doors must have a draft protection device fitted to the bottom edge. • Compliance with AS 2047 is acceptable Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    126. 126. • When a main entrance door to a building opens into a conditioned space an air lock, self-closing, revolving door or similar must be installed • Exemptions apply for specific small conditioned spaces and open fronted cafes/restaurants that incorporate other provisions Introduction to Module 4 Windows & Doors Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    127. 127. Exhaust Fans Introduction to Module 4 • Must be fitted with a sealing device if in – – a conditioned space; or – a habitable room in climate zones 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8. • A sealing device includes – – a self-closing damper; or – a filter – such as in a kitchen rangehood. Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    128. 128. Roofs, Walls & Floors • Roofs, walls, floors and door and window openings that are part of the envelope or the external fabric of specific habitable rooms or public areas, must be sealed to minimise air leakage • Exemptions apply to openings required for smoke hazard management Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    129. 129. Evaporative Coolers • Evaporative coolers serving a heated space or a habitable room or public area in climate zones 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 must be fitted with a sealing device, such as a self-closing damper. Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    130. 130. PART J5 AIR-CONDITIONING AND VENTILATION SYSTEMS Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    131. 131. Principles of Part J5 • Efficient design of air-conditioning and ventilation systems is an essential part of building environment management • Increasing demands for internal thermal comfort drive the need for energy efficient systems • The NCC has a range of measures that remove poor practice from new installations and encourage efficient system design. Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    132. 132. Air-Conditioning Systems • Must be capable of being shut-down – − when the building is not occupied − when an external door of a Class 3 SOU is left open. • If fitted with motorised outside air and return dampers; those dampers must close when system is shutdown. • Must have ductwork insulated and sealed. Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    133. 133. • Serving parts of a building with different needs must– − control the temperature of each part (zone or area) − not mix actively heated or cooled air − limit reheating of air. • If they provide the required mechanical ventilation, must have an outdoor air economy cycle when unit capacity is over – − 35kWr in climate zones 4 to 8; and − 50kWr in climate zones 2 & 3 (Exemptions apply). Introduction to Module 4 Air-Conditioning Systems Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    134. 134. • Serving a Class 3 SOU, must be capable of controlling different temperatures for both sleeping periods and "other" periods. • Fans must have variable speed control when the supply quantity is varied. • Fan power must not exceed the limits in Table J5.2 where air flow rate is over 1000L/s (Exemptions apply). Introduction to Module 4 Air-Conditioning Systems Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    135. 135. Introduction to Module 4 Air-Conditioning Systems Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    136. 136. • Energy efficiency requirements for air-conditioning systems must not inhibit – − the smoke hazard management operation of the system; and − essential ventilation for specific enclosures. Introduction to Module 4 Air-Conditioning Systems Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    137. 137. Mechanical Ventilation Systems • Must be capable of being shut-down when the building is not occupied. • Serving a conditioned space; must not exceed the requirements of Part F4 by more than 20% (Exemptions apply). Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    138. 138. • With an air flow rate greater than 1000 L/s; − have fan power to air flow rate ratio –  0.5W/(L/s) without filters  0.75W/(L/s) with filters − if serving a conditioned space in other than climate zone 2, where the occupant density is less than 1person/m2 , must have special characteristics. Introduction to Module 4 Mechanical Ventilation Systems Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    139. 139. • With an air flow rate greater than 1000 L/s; − Serving a carpark for more than 40 vehicles, must be controlled by an atmospheric contaminant monitoring system in accordance with AS 1668.2 (1991 edition) Introduction to Module 4 Mechanical Ventilation Systems Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    140. 140. • Energy efficiency requirements for mechanical ventilation systems must not inhibit– − the smoke hazard management operation of the system − essential ventilation for specific enclosures. Introduction to Module 4 Mechanical Ventilation Systems Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    141. 141. Time Switches • A time switch complying with Specification J6 must be fitted to the following – − air-conditioning systems greater than 10kWr − ventilation systems with an air flow rate greater than 1000L/s − heating systems greater than 10Kwheating Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    142. 142. Heating & Cooling Systems • Providing heating or cooling for air-conditioning must have piping, tanks, vessels, heat exchangers and other components containing heated or chilled fluid, insulated as per Specification J5.4. Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    143. 143. • If water is circulated at greater than 2 L/s – − Must be designed so that total pump power does not exceed the allowance in Table J5.4a; and − Must have the pump capable of varying its speed when the pump power is greater than 3kW. • If the system has more than one water heater, chiller or coil, it must be capable of stopping the flow of water to those components not operating. Introduction to Module 4 Heating & Cooling Systems Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    144. 144. Introduction to Module 4 Heating & Cooling Systems Table J5.4a MAXIMUM PUMP POWER Maximum pump power (W/m 2 of the floor area of the conditioned space) Cooling or heating load (W/m 2 of the floor area of the conditioned space) Chilled water Condenser water Heating water Up to 100 1.3 0.9 1.0 101 to 150 1.9 1.2 1.3 151 to 200 2.2 2.2 1.7 201 to 300 4.3 3.0 2.5 301 to 400 5.0 3.6 3.2 More than 400 5.6 5.6 3.6 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    145. 145. • A heater for heating a space via water must achieve a thermal efficiency complying with Table J5.4b when tested to BS 7190. • Heaters for heating a space other than via water must use one of the fuels specified. • Outdoor heaters must satisfy specific requirements. • Package air-conditioning equipment with a capacity of not less than 65kWr must achieve an energy efficiency ratio (Table J5.4d). • A refrigerant chiller up to 350 kWr must achieve a minimum energy efficiency ratio when determined in accordance with AHRI 550/590 (Table J5.4e). Introduction to Module 4 Heating & Cooling Systems Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    146. 146. • A maximum fan power is specified for – − certain air-cooled condenser fan motors − cooling tower fans − closed circuit cooler fans − evaporative condenser fans, and − spray water pump of a closed circuit cooler or evaporative condenser Introduction to Module 4 Heating & Cooling Systems Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    147. 147. Miscellaneous Exhaust Systems • Miscellaneous exhaust systems with an air flow rate more than 1,000L/s and linked to equipment with variable demand, must be designed to minimise exhausting conditioned air and provide means for - − lowering energy use (e.g. fan speed controls); and − stopping the motor when the system is not needed. • Exemptions apply Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    148. 148. PART J6 ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING AND POWER Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    149. 149. Principles of Part J6 • Measures for artificial lighting and power are designed to curb unreasonable energy use • Artificial lighting also places additional load on air-conditioning systems due to the heat generated • Minimum limitations on artificial lighting contribute to a reduction in energy use Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    150. 150. Some Defined Terms • Lamp power density means the total of the maximum power rating of the lamps in a space, other than those plugged into socket outlets, divided by the area of the space. • Illumination power density means the total of the power that will be consumed by the lights in a space, including any lamps, ballasts, current regulators and control devices other than those plugged into socket outlets, divided by the area of the space. Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    151. 151. • Light source efficacy means the luminous flux of a lamp or the total radiant flux in the visible spectrum weighted by the spectral response of the eye, divided by the electric power that will be consumed by the lamp but excluding ballast and control gear power losses. Introduction to Module 4 Some Defined Terms Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    152. 152. Application of Part J6 • Part J6 applies to all buildings except Class 8 electricity network substations. • Provisions relate to the specific Class of building and the use of the room. • Specific provisions relate to either interior artificial lighting or artificial lighting around the perimeter of a building. Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    153. 153. Interior Artificial Lighting • In a Class 2 or 4 sole-occupancy unit – − the lighting power density must not exceed 5W/m2 (4W/m2 on balconies); OR − the illumination power density must not exceed 5W/m2 (4W/m2 on balconies) other than when adjusted for one of the control devices in Table J6.2b. Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    154. 154. • In a Class 2 or 4 sole-occupancy unit – − the calculation must reflect the proposed installation and not just the maximum electrical load of a batten holder − halogen lamps must be separately switched from fluorescent lamps Interior Artificial Lighting Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    155. 155. Introduction to Module 4 Interior Artificial Lighting • In a Class 3 or 5 to 9 building – − the aggregate design illumination power load must not exceed the sum of the allowances obtained by multiplying –  the area of each space; and  the maximum illumination power density in Table J6.2a. • Exceptions apply, including emergency lighting in accordance with Part E4. Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    156. 156. Introduction to Module 4 Extract from Table J6.2a Table J6.2a MAXIMUM ILLUMINATION POWER DENSITY Space Maximum illumination power density (W/m2 ) Auditorium, church and public hall 10 Board room and conference room 10 Carpark – general 6 Carpark – entry zone (first 20 m of travel) 25 Common rooms, spaces and corridors in a Class 2 building 8 Control room, switch room, and the like 9 Courtroom 12 Dormitory of a Class 3 building used only for sleeping 6 Dormitory of a Class 3 building used for sleeping and study 9 Entry lobby from outside the building 15 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    157. 157. Introduction to Module 4 Extract from Table J6.2b Table J6.2b ILLUMINATION POWER DENSITY ADJUSTMENT FACTOR Item Description Illumination power density adjustment factor Lighting timer in accordance with Specification J6 For corridor lighting 0.7 Motion detector in accordance with Specification J6 (a) Where— (i) at least 75% of the area of a space is controlled by one or more motion detectors; or (ii) an area of less than 200 m2 is switched as a block by one or more detectors. 0.9 (b) Where up to 6 lights are switched as a block by one or more detectors. 0.7 (c) Where up to 2 lights are switched as a block by one or more detectors. 0.55 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    158. 158. Controls for Artificial Lighting • Artificial lighting of a room or space must be individually operated by a switch or other control device. • In a Class 3 SOU, other than accommodation for the aged, a device must be provided to cut power to lights and air-conditioners etc when the SOU is not occupied • Particular characteristics and the operation of artificial lighting switches are specified • Exemptions to control requirements are specified Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    159. 159. Decorative & Display Lighting • Decorative and display lighting - − must be controlled separately from other lighting; − have manual switches for each area; and − have a time switch if the lighting load exceeds 1 kW. • Window display lighting must be controlled separately from other display lighting. Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    160. 160. Perimeter Artificial Lighting • External perimeter lighting must be controlled by a time switch or daylight sensor • If the total lighting load exceeds 100 W, the lighting is to – − have an average light source efficacy no less than 60 Lumens/W; or − be controlled by a motion detector. • Have a separate time switch if used for decoration Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    161. 161. Water Storage Units • Power supply to boiling or chilled water storage units must have a time switch. Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    162. 162. PART J7 HOT WATER SUPPLY, POOLS AND SPAS Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    163. 163. Principles of Part J7 • The measures addressing hot water supply cover hot water for food preparation, sanitary purposes and pool or spa heating. • The intent of the provisions is to – – reduce heat loss from hot water systems/storage water heaters; and – limit energy supply, the amount of energy used and heat loss from pools and spas. • Reduced heat loss will produce energy savings. Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    164. 164. Hot Water Supply • Systems for food preparation and sanitary purposes, must comply with Section 8 of AS/NZS 3500.4. • Main requirements are insulation and a heat trap. • Solar systems in climate zones 1, 2 and 3 are exempt. Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    165. 165. Pools & Spas • Heating must be by using one of the approved energy sources • Where some or all of the heating is by gas or heat pump, a swimming pool or spa which shares a pool reticulation system must have – – a cover; and – a time switch to control the operation of the heater. • Swimming pools, and spas with a capacity of more than 680 L, must be provided with a time switch to control the operation of a circulation pump. Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    166. 166. PARTS I2 & J8 MAINTENANCE & MONITORING Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    167. 167. Maintenance • Maintenance measures for energy efficiency installations are contained within two Parts – − Part J8 – Access for maintenance & facilities for monitoring − Part I2 – Energy efficiency installations Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    168. 168. PART J8 ACCESS FOR MAINTENANCE & FACILITIES FOR MAINTENANCE Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    169. 169. Access for Maintenance • Part J8 applies to all Class 2 to 9 buildings, except within a sole- occupancy unit of a Class 2 or a Class 4 part of a building. • Access must be provided to all plant, equipment and components that require maintenance in accordance with Part I2. Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    170. 170. Facilities for Monitoring • A building or sole-occupancy unit with a floor area more than 500m2 must have – – facility to record the consumption of gas and electricity. • A building with a floor area of more than 2500m² must have facility to individually record the energy consumption of – − Air-conditioning plant − Artificial lighting − Appliance power Introduction to Module 4 − Central hot water supply − Lifts, escalators etc − Ancillary plant Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    171. 171. PART I2 ENERGY EFFICIENCY INSTALLATIONS Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    172. 172. Principles of Part I2 • Maintenance of energy efficiency installations is essential to ensure ongoing compliance with design standards. • Part I2 seeks to ensure that equipment and installations required under Section J continue to operate in an effective manner. Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    173. 173. Application of Part I2 • Part I2 does not apply to services that serve only one SOU of a Class 2 building, or serve only a Class 4 part of a building Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    174. 174. Components of Services • Components must be maintained to ensure they perform to a standard not less than they were originally required to achieve. • A list of typical components to be maintained is provided in Part I2. Introduction to Module 4 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance
    175. 175. Alternative Solutions
    176. 176. Option to Develop an Alternative Solution • To comply with BCA Performance Requirements some practitioners will follow Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions. • However – it’s often preferable to design something different to Deemed-to-Satisfy and to develop an Alternative Solution. Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    177. 177. Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance Remember the BCA Structure?
    178. 178. Complying with the Performance Requirements Compliance with the Performance Requirements can only be achieved by – a) complying with the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions, or b) formulating an Alternative Solution which- (i) complies with the Performance Requirements, or (ii) is shown to be at least equivalent to the Deemed-to- Satisfy Provisions; or a) a combination of a) and b) Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    179. 179. Design Flexibility • The BCA provides two pathways to formulate an Alternative Solution: − formulating an Alternative Solution to meet the Performance Requirements; or − formulating an Alternative Solution to at least equate to Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions. Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    180. 180. Flexibility in Compliance • Either of these options can be explored to establish the most appropriate pathway for a particular Alternative Solution • A decision regarding the most appropriate pathway may be influenced by the views of the Certifying Authority Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    181. 181. Consultation • It is beneficial to discuss an Alternative Solution with the Certifying Authority before lodging an application for approval • Also discuss the scope of supporting documentation needed to be provided • The Certifying Authority can advise on likely Assessment Methods but should not become involved in development of the design Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    182. 182. Developing Alternative Solutions Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    183. 183. Alternative Solutions • The development of Alternative Solutions was covered in detail in Module Two • Relevant BCA provisions can be found in Section A of Volume One Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    184. 184. Assessment Methods Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    185. 185. Assessment Methods • Assessment methods were discussed in detail in Module Two • Methods for assessing Building Solutions are listed in Part A0.9 • The Certifying Authority will assess compliance of Alternative Solutions • The applicant is required to demonstrate compliance with the relevant Performance Requirements Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    186. 186. Assessment Methods Four Assessment Methods are listed in Part A0.9: − Evidence of Suitability described in Part A2.2 − Verification Methods − Comparison with Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions − Expert Judgement Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    187. 187. Evidence of Suitability Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    188. 188. Evidence of Suitability • Forms of Evidence of Suitability is listed in Part A2.2 of Volume One • The listed processes are generally third party mechanisms that may be used to assist either the formulation or assessment of Building Solutions Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    189. 189. Evidence of Suitability • Registered Testing Authority report • Certificate of Conformity / current Certificate of Accreditation • Certification from appropriately qualified persons • Certification from a body accredited by the Joint Accreditation System of Australia and New Zealand (JAS-ANZ) • Any other form of documentary evidence Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    190. 190. Verification Methods
    191. 191. What is a Verification Method? • Verification Method is defined as – – a test, inspection, calculation or other method that determines whether a Building Solution complies with the relevant Performance Requirements • This definition allows a broad range of processes to be used to verify compliance • One Verification Method is offered for energy efficiency requirements Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    192. 192. Verification Method JV3 • Requires the use of a thermal calculation method complying with ABCB Protocol for Building Energy Analysis Software • Applies to all Class 3, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 buildings. • Applies the thermal calculation method to verify that the annual energy consumption of the proposed building does not exceed the annual energy consumption of a reference building. Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    193. 193. Verification Method JV3 • Reference building means a hypothetical building that is used to calculate the maximum allowable annual energy load, or maximum allowable annual energy consumption for the proposed building. • Criteria to be used within the calculations of annual energy consumption are specified, including compliance with Specification JV in some cases. Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    194. 194. Verification Method JV3 • Requires three computer modelling runs: Run 1 - reference building with DTS fabric and services Run 2 - proposed building with proposed services Run 3 - proposed building with proposed envelope and Deemed-to-Satisfy services • Runs 2 and 3 are then compared with Run 1 • The annual energy consumption from Run 2 and 3 must be no larger than the allowance for Run 1. Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    195. 195. Specification JV • Need only be used if the building operates for more than 2,500 hours per year • Has rules for calculating annual energy consumption: − Tables 2a to 2g specify daily occupancy and operation profiles for buildings − Table 2h specifies internal heat gains from appliances and equipment − Table 2i specifies hot water supply rates Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    196. 196. Extract of Table 2b Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    197. 197. Summary Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance • JV3 applies to all Class 3, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 buildings • Models building fabric and services; and • Compares the annual energy consumption of the proposed building with that of a reference building
    198. 198. Administrative Matters
    199. 199. Assessment of Designs • Application of these energy efficiency provisions may need to be undertaken by specialist designers • Similarly – assessment of design proposals may need input from specialists • Certifying Authorities may need specialist training or require certification of compliance by specialists Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    200. 200. Administrative Matters • All State/Territory jurisdictions have administrative provisions for the design and construction of buildings. • Energy efficiency is an issue for which specific administrative processes may exist, e.g. energy efficiency assessors may be required to be accredited. • Practitioners need to be aware of relevant processes and ensure they comply. • How the NCC applies to alterations, additions and renovations can vary between State and Territories. Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance
    201. 201. That's it! Are there any questions? Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module 4 Methods of Compliance

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