Module 3 - Understanding Energy efficiency

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This training module is one of a series produced by the Australian Building Codes Board; the organisation responsible for the development and maintenance of the National Construction Code (NCC)
For the purposes of this presentation it is assumed that participants have a general understanding of the content of ABCB training Modules One and Two

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  • Welcome everyone to our training program on the Building Code of Australia energy efficiency provisions for Class 1 and 10 buildings . My name is………………………and I ’ll be presenting this program. My training and experience mainly relate to ……………… As most of you will be aware, the Building Code of Australia comprises Volume One and Two of the NCC Series and is adopted by all States and Territories of Australia as a mandatory code governing the design and construction of new buildings, as well as additions and alterations to existing buildings. This presentation titled “ Energy Efficiency Provisions for Class 1 and 10 Buildings ” has been developed to provide some fundamental information on how to effectively apply the energy efficiency provisions. As we move through the presentation there may be instances where certain information is not clearly understood - so please ask questions at any time. Proceed to the next slide
  • This presentation forms part of a diverse Training Program that has been developed as an initiative of the Australian Building Codes Board - which we ’ll now refer to as the ABCB. The ABCB is the organisation responsible for the development and ongoing maintenance of the National Construction Code - which we ’ll now refer to as the NCC . The ABCB ’s Training Program comprises a series of modules and as you can see this Module is number 3 – and there’s more to come! This presentation has been developed on the basis that you have sufficient knowledge of the BCA to effectively use the Code – i.e. while you may not have attended presentations on Modules One and Two, you should have an understanding of the general operation of the BCA. Just as a reminder, let ’s have a look at the documents that make up the NCC Series and do a quick recap of the main points covered in Modules One and Two. Proceed to the next slide
  • The NCC Series comprises the Building Code of Australia (BCA) , Volume One and Volume Two; and the Plumbing Code of Australia (PCA) , as Volume Three. To support Volume One of the BCA, the Volume One Appendices and Guide to Volume One are also produced. Today ’s presentation will focus on the application of the energy efficiency provisions of NCC Volume Two - Building Code of Australia, which we will now refer to as the BCA . Proceed to the next slide
  • If you have participated in other training sessions you may recollect that……….. Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
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  • Regulatory systems contain two types of provisions – i.e. Administrative requirements and Technical requirements ( Point to the various components, noting that the two volumes of the BCA are key technical standards). Administrative matters are contained in State or Territory legislation, typically Acts and Regulations . The BCA is adopted nationally for the purpose of establishing Technical Standards. Proceed to the next slide
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  • Now for a quick recap on Module Two…… Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
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  • You may remember this graphic representation of the structure and operation of the BCA. Remember you don ’t need to comply with the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions if you don’t wish to. You have the choice of developing your own Alternative Solution – but if you do so you'll need to convince the Certifying Authority that your design complies with the mandatory Performance Requirements . To demonstrate to the Certifying Authority that your Alternative Solution complies with the Performance Requirements , you can use one of the Assessment Methods listed Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide I must emphasise that this presentation conveys FUNDAMENTAL INFORMATION i.e. the "must have" knowledge for practitioners to work effectively with the BCA. Obviously - experience in working with the BCA will build upon the information you ’ll receive today but, without this information, your ability to produce professional outcomes can be hampered. Note – Additional information relating to the BCA energy efficiency provisions can be found on the ABCB website, www.abcb.gov.au. Proceed to next slide
  • What are we talking about when we refer to BCA energy efficiency provisions? We ’re talking about requirements that reduce the amount of energy used to operate services in a building and thereby lower the associated greenhouse gas emissions. Read the slide. Note that hot water has two types. i.e. hot water for space heating and hot water for sanitary uses . Also note that "domestic services" is a defined term, which we'll address a little later. Proceed to the next slide.
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  • This Module will be presented in three parts……….. (bring in the first text box). The first part will cover the Background to the Energy Efficiency Provisions ……….. (bring in the second text box). The second part will cover the Scope of the BCA………… (bring in the third text box). And the third part will cover the Methods of Compliance . The headings that will be addressed in these three parts include… Proceed to the next slide
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  • We've just used the term "star rating" in several of the past slides – but some of you may not appreciate what it actually means. For residences, it's a numeric scale of energy load from ZERO (no energy efficiency features or savings) to TEN (a building that does not need additional energy to heat or cool). The numbers behind the ratings vary between locations. Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
  • As with the development of any new regulations, the ABCB consulted widely with the community and the building industry to ensure that the new energy efficiency provisions would be effective and generally acceptable. Therefore the draft provisions were…………… Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
  • The activities of the ABCB are governed by an Intergovernment Agreement (IGA) that requires compliance with Council of Australian Government (COAG) general principles for the development of regulations. In essence, these principles only allow new regulations to be introduced if other means of achieving compliance with government policy can be demonstrated to have failed or give lower net benefit, e.g. market forces, consumer education or development of "guideline" documents. Therefore the development of new regulation is treated as a final option . If new regulations are required, they must be subjected to rigorous cost benefit analysis and a Regulation Impact Statement (RIS) will be required for significant regulatory proposals. For new regulation to be implemented, a RIS must demonstrate that a net benefit to the community will be achieved. Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide It should be noted that in 2003 the BCA introduced 4 star for climate zones 4 to 8 and 3.5 star for climate zones 1 to 3 for housing because of a concern over the software ’s accuracy in warmer climates. However, this differentiation in star rating requirements for different climate zones was not retained in BCA 2006 because the second generation software, e.g. AccuRate, became more reliable for hot regions. Proceed to the next slide
  • As well as assisting in the development of minimum provisions for inclusion in the BCA, DCCEE has also been working on the development of higher standards for voluntary implementation. Read the slide Click on the URL and it will take you directly to the website (provided you are linked to the Internet at the time) Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide As you can see; the BCA requirements primarily address two key issues, i.e. heat flow through the building envelope and domestic services that use energy. You can see that the terms envelope and domestic services are written in italics so that means they ’re defined terms. Let’s see what they mean for the purposes of the BCA. Proceed to the next slide.
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  • Read the slide In combination – the regulation of the building fabric should assist the thermal efficiency of the building as well as the efficiency of the domestic services ; therefore allowing services to use less energy. In some instances, preference is given to renewable energy or energy from sources that result in the least greenhouse gas emission. Proceed to the next slide
  • While the principles of energy efficiency are relatively simple, we know that not all of Australia has the same climate and therefore we don ’t have the same requirements being applied nationally. Note that the software approach for dwellings further divides the country into about 70 climate zones. Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
  • This is a reproduction of the map contained in Volume Two Part 1.1, where it appears as Figure 1.1.4. A larger version folds out from the back cover of the BCA and is available for download online at the ABCB website. The differences in climate are shown with climate zone 1 being the orange parts in northern Australia and climate zone 8 being the small white parts in south east regions. Proceed to the next slide
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  • The BCA achieves “energy efficiency” and the reduction of GHG's, through the application of a variety of basic design concepts; these being………….. Read the slide Energy efficient buildings can be designed for various climate zones by varying the scope and degree of application of these basic design concepts. That completes the “Principles of Energy Efficiency” - so let’s move on to discussion of the actual BCA requirements. Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide It should be mentioned that because Section 1 sets the rules by which the BCA is applied, most of the content of Section 1 is also mandatory. Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the first two points Acceptable Construction Manuals (ACM) can include Australian Standards and other referenced documents that can be followed to comply with the Performance Requirements ; whilst Acceptable Construction Practice (ACP) is included in the BCA and present detailed ‘recipes’ that generally reflect traditional building practice and can also be followed to comply with the Performance Requirements . Remember – however that both ACM and ACP are optional means of complying with the relevant Performance Requirements. Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide The wording of these requirements is presented on the following slides. Proceed to the next slide
  • Here is the text of Performance Requirement 2.6.1 Read the slide The key to this requirement is the need to achieve an appropriate level of thermal performance for the building fabric in consideration of design issues (a) to (g), all of which have the ability to influence the thermal performance of the building. Proceed to the next slide
  • The second issue that the BCA energy efficiency provisions address is domestic services in buildings. There are two parts; the first is about the energy efficiency of the service. Read the lead in sentence and (a) The second part is about where the energy comes from but refers only to energy for heating. Read (b) As a reminder, the definition of domestic services is described on the next slide. Proceed to the next slide
  • Performance Requirement P2.6.2 includes "any associated distribution system and components ". What items would you expect to be included in the distribution system of a domestic service? (Suggest answers if none are offered by participants – e.g. piping or ducting) Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide In the past, the energy rating solution was included as a Verification Method in Part 2.6 but from BCA 2010 has been included at Part 3.12 to become another option in the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions. These pathways will be further explained on the following slide. Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide Please note how both options are required to comply with Part 3.12.5 for Services. Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide As would be expected, the parts listed above are consistent with the design issues listed in Performance Requirements P2.6.1 and P2.6.2. Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide In the following slides we'll be discussing all of these issues. Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide As you can see, glazing is the biggest contributor to heat gain and heat loss in a typical building. You will recall that the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions set a minimum area for natural lighting in a habitable room , which is usually provided by glazed windows. In addition, people like to take advantage of available views and often install large glazed areas in entertainment or general living rooms - so most houses have a variety of glazed openings in external walls . Glazing is popular in housing – but it facilitates heat transfer into or out of a house, depending on temperature differences. Remember your high school physics? Heat will flow toward a cooler environment. Therefore appropriate controls/treatments of glazing can significantly influence the energy efficiency of a house. Proceed to the next slide
  • Before we go much further let's look at some defined terms we're about to encounter in the elemental Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions. Read the slide Let's have a look at some typical R-Values for masonry-veneer wall construction. Proceed to the next slide
  • Information on the Total R-Value of a type of construction can be found in Tables 3.12.1.1, 3.12.1.3, and 3.12.1.5 of BCA Volume Two or alternatively using other reference material (such as Specifications J1.2, J1.5 and J1.6 of BCA Volume One). On the left side of the table you can see an image of the clay masonry veneer construction including the components of the assembly. On the right side you can see the Total R-Value for this assembly, which is 0.56 . Note – The Total R-Value for this construction was determined by adding together the R-Values for outdoor air film, wall cladding or veneer, wall cavity or airspace, internal lining and internal air film. Where a wall cavity or airspace is filled the Total R-Value should be reduced by 0.17 to take account of the loss of the cavity or airspace. Proceed to the next slide
  • Here is another term we're about to encounter. We just looked at the term R-Value , which relates to a material's ability to resist heat, and here we have the term Total U-Value which relates to an element’s ability to conduct heat. Read the slide Now let's look at some of the ways in which individual building elements are addressed in the elemental Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions. Proceed to the next slide
  • Firstly – we'll discuss "THERMAL INSULATION" Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide Now let's look at Roofing Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide Note that insulation is more effective at limiting heat flow downwards than it is against heat flow upwards Proceed to the next slide
  • During the development of the energy efficiency provisions there was debate regarding the dominant direction of heat flow in certain mild climate zones. For the purpose of the BCA it has been established on the basis of " typical hours of occupation of the building ". It takes account of the higher rate of occupancy of houses at night time rather than day time. Read the slide Now let's look at elemental Deemed-to-Satisfy Total R-Values for roof assemblies in the different climate zones. Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide As can be seen in Table 3.12.1.1a , the required Total R-Value of the roof is dependant on the climate zone (and altitude if in climate zone 2 ) and upper surface solar absorptance value of the roof. Note – Altitude means the height above the Australian Height Datum at the location where the building is to be constructed. Proceed to the next slide
  • You may have noticed in Table 3.12.1.1a on the previous slide that the higher the upper surface solar absorptance value the higher the required Total R-Value . This is because… Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
  • Here are some typical absorptance values which have been taken from the Explanatory Information in BCA Volume Two. Read the slide Note – These are absorptance values for solar radiation. They should not be confused with absorptance values for visible light Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the first two points Note – The ceiling insulation must only be increased once the “free allowance” of 0.5% of uninsulated ceiling area is exceeded. Increasing the R-Value of the remaining insulation of the ceiling compensates for the loss of insulation at lights, flues, fans etc In addition to this… Read the last point The requirement to include a thermal break is to reduce the transfer of heat through the metal framing that bridges directly between the indoors and the outer cladding. Proceed to the next slide
  • This is an extract from the Australian Standard AS/NZS 3000 for electrical installations which shows how insulation must be kept away from downlights The values in the table are worst-case values. Smaller clearances can be used if they are supported by the manufacturer’s product information Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide Part of Figure 3.12.1.1 can be seen on the next slide. Proceed to the next slide
  • (Explain the composition of the Figure, i.e. the different requirements based on ventilation and heat flow, and its use in determining the R-Value of insulation that must be added – Note that this was discussed in earlier slides ) Now let's move onto ROOF LIGHTS. Proceed to the next slide
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  • This diagram was taken from the ABCB publication "Energy Efficiency Provisions for BCA 2010 Volume Two” and explains the process required to determine a roof light shaft index. Briefly describe the method and advise that explanations are provided in the Notes to Table 3.12.1.2. We'll discuss External Walls next. Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide In Table 3.12.1.3a, low mass external walls must achieve a Total R-Value . However, in Table 3.12.3.1b, different options for compliance are provided for high mass walls. Let’s have a look at Table 3.12.1.3b for climate zones 4 and 6 and see what options are provided. Proceed to the next slide
  • As can be seen from the Table, there a three options for compliance in climate zones 4 and 6. Note how there is not a specified Total R-Value that must be achieved. Examples of typical types of wall construction are provided on the next slide. The Total R-Values of these types of construction will need to be considered when using Table 3.12.1.3a Proceed to the next slide
  • These are only two types of wall construction and other types are presented in Figure 3.12.1.3. To achieve the Total R-Value required by Table 3.12.1.3a , the cavity of the wall is likely to be completely filled with insulation. As noted in the Explanatory information below Figure 3.12.1.3, when this occurs the Total R-Value of the wall construction should be reduced by 0.17 to take account of the loss of (the insulating effect of) the cavity or airspace. The R-Value of the added insulation can then be included to calculate the Total R-Value . Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide As we mentioned before with roofs - the requirement to include a thermal break is to minimise the transfer of heat through the metal frame. Next – we'll look at provisions for FLOORS. Proceed to the next slide
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  • Emphasise that there are separate requirements for the typical types of floor construction Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide A copy of Table 3.12.1.4. is located on the next slide Proceed to the next slide
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  • This table presents inherent Total R-Values for suspended timber floor for different levels of enclosure. (Briefly explain the Table – i.e. the different levels of enclosure, direction of heat flow, the different types of construction for the enclosure etc) Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide Examples of (a) (b) and (c) are presented after the following slide. Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide Note – These requirements are only for buildings in climate zone 5. Proceed to the next slide
  • Explain the slide – point out the location of the respective "enveloping" construction for each option (a), (b), (c) (i) and (c) (ii) described on the earlier slide. Note the masonry walls required in option (c) Okay – now we'll discuss one of the most critical factors in energy efficiency – External Glazing Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide Note that glazing refers to frame and glass working together Proceed to the next slide
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  • As we've done before – let's discuss some relevant terms we'll come across in the next few slides. Firstly – solar heat gain coefficient. Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
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  • As there is no Acceptable Construction Manual for External Glazing we'll go straight to discussion of Acceptable Construction Practice. Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
  • Let’s look at calculation by formulae first Read the slide A copy of Table 3.12.2.1. is provided on the next slide so we can see how the Table works. Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide Note that Table 3.12.2.1 contains two different floor types (see first column on the left). A floor in direct contact with the ground is a concrete slab on ground floor (including a concrete slab on fill). A suspended floor can be a timber or steel framed floor but also includes a suspended concrete slab. Solar heat gain allowances are lower for suspended floors. For each floor type, there are Standard or High air movement levels. Notes below Table 3.12.2.1 explain the difference and allow interpolation for values in between. Solar heat gain allowances are higher for higher air movement levels. Find the values of C U and C SHGC that apply for the chosen floor type, air movement level and climate zone . In climate zone 1 only, multiply the area of the storey (measured inside the external walls) by C U to calculate the allowance for conductance. In climate zones 2-8, the allowance is equal to C U . To calculate the solar heat gain allowance, multiply the area of the storey by C SHGC . . The calculation is the same in all climate zones . Proceed to the next slide
  • Now let's look at STEP 2 Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide U-Values can be found on manufacturers’ web-sites or in technical manuals. There are also conservative generic values in the BCA’s Explanatory Information to 3.12.2.1. Note - The area of each glazing element is measured to the outside of the frame area Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide We spoke before about the area of the window including the frame area. SHGC values can be found on manufacturers’ web-sites or in technical manuals. There are also conservative generic values in the BCA’s Explanatory Information to 3.12.2.1. The next slide addresses E s – the solar exposure factor. Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide Note: The Windows Energy Rating Scheme (WERS) database is continuously being updated as well. A large catalogue of results is available online through WERS. Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide A copy of Figure 3.12.2.1 is on the next slide Proceed to the next slide
  • Explain the structure of the chart The chart shows eight possible orientation sectors. The arrows around the circle show where each sector starts and ends to avoid confusion about their boundaries Proceed to the next slide
  • Shading contributes to the assessment of the solar exposure factor (E s ) via the P/H value Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
  • Explain the diagram demonstrating the method of measuring P and H The projection (P) is measured horizontally from the face of the glazing to the outermost projection which can cast a shadow on the face of the glazing in summer (December to February inclusive). Sometimes a gutter will be positioned to cast a shadow in summer. It need not cast that shadow in winter (June to August inclusive) to be counted for summer-time shading. The height (H) is measured from the bottom of the glazing to the underside of the shading edge used to measure P. The projection must also extend horizontally on both sides of the glazing for a distance not less than the distance of P. A shading edge can be below the top of the glazing (e.g.: in an awning) or above (e.g.: in a high set eaves). If it is more than 500mm above (G), the value of P must be halved to allow for reduced shading effectiveness. Proceed to the next slide
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  • An easier way to apply the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions for glazing is to use the ABCB Glazing Calculator. The calculator is available on the ABCB website. Explain the structure of the Glazing Calculator. Note: the calculator has some explanation boxes built in. Look for cells with red triangles in their upper right corners. Required input includes: climate zone , storey identification, floor-type, air-movement, glazing element details (orientation sector, height, width, Total U-Value , SHGC ) and shading measurements "P" and "H", as per DTS. Calculations are updated continuously during input and the result will appear in the bottom right-hand corner of the calculator. A big tick ( √) shows compliance. Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide In the next few slides we'll address each of these components of the elemental Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions. Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide Limiting unintended leakage does not mean that the building is sealed airtight. The need for controlled ventilation is recognised and protected by Part 3.8.5. Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide Explanatory information to Part 3.12.3 offers additional information. Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide As with most provisions in the BCA, individual provisions should not be read in isolation. While the energy efficiency provisions address the sealing of the chimney or flue, there are other fire safety provisions relating to chimneys and flues that may also be applicable. Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide Note – the need to seal roof lights in conditioned spaces applies in every climate zone. Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide Note the similarity to the treatment to roof lights . Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide Note the similarity to the treatment of roof lights and external windows and doors etc. Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide Note again the similarity to the treatment of roof lights , external windows and doors and exhaust fans. Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide Note the similarity to the treatment of chimneys and flues but with specific application. Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide Let's talk about each of these issues. Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide A copy of Table 3.12.4.1 is shown on the next slide Proceed to the next slide
  • Explain the structure of the Table Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide Region D is in Western Australia and can be identified from Volume Two Figure 3.10.1.4, which shows the location of national cyclonic regions. Proceed to the next slide
  • The total ventilation opening area to a habitable room must be- - connected by a breeze path to another ventilation opening in another room or space – OR - provided by at least two ventilation openings in the same room, each being no less than 25% of the requirement for the room The image on the slide presents an example of breeze paths. Please note that there are limitations on the internal openings that can be used for a breeze path and the distance between ventilation openings . Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide There are various means of complying with Part 3.12.5, i.e. complying with nominated provisions of either AS/NZS 3500.4 or AS/NZS 3500.5, or following the recipe under "Acceptable Construction Practice". Proceed to the next slide
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  • Now we'll address the various components of Deemed-to-Satisfy " Acceptable Construction Practice ". Firstly – Insulation of Services. Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide This applies to hot water systems designed to heat the building Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide Note that these requirements apply only to heaters using electric resistance heating, which is the least energy efficient form of electric heating. Electric heat pumps are not affected. Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide “ High efficacy” requires high light output for each unit of electricity consumed Proceed to the next slide
  • The ABCB has developed a lighting calculator to assist designers. This is a screen shot of a mock-up assessment of a home. Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide The conditions for using a small electric resistance water heater are in 3.12.5.6(d) Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide Some jurisdictions may have requirements for a cover approved under the Smart Approved WaterMark Scheme. Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide As you know – it's not necessary to comply with Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions and, for various reasons, designers or applicants might elect to develop an Alternative Solution . Proceed to the next slide
  • Remember this? Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
  • Part 1.0.5 of Volume Two describes how compliance with the mandatory Performance Requirements can be achieved. Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
  • As you can see from Part 1.0.5…. Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide The relevance of the views of the Certifying Authority is briefly outlined on the next slide Proceed to the next slide
  • The key to development of an appropriate Alternative Solution is preliminary consultation with the Certifying Authority. Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide We don’t have time to reiterate details of processes related to the development of Alternative Solutions but it should be acknowledged that the operation of the BCA is described in Section 1 and that there may be relevant administrative provisions applicable to these processes in each State or Territory. Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide The term Building Solution is used in Part 1.0.9 because Building Solutions can be Deemed-to-Satisfy or Alternative Solutions. While Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions offer pathways to conclusive proof of compliance with Performance Requirements it may still be necessary to demonstrate that your proposal complies with the Deemed-to-Satisfy recipe e.g. a Deemed-to-Satisfy Provision may specify values for a maximum Total U-Value and Solar Heat Gain Coefficient for a Roof Light . Therefore, an application for approval will be required to demonstrate to the Certifying Authority that the proposed roof light does achieve the nominated values and one of the assessment methods listed at Part 1.09 can be used to do so. Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide Let's talk about the first method – Evidence of Suitability Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide The term " third party" is used on the basis that the first party is an applicant, the second party is a Certifying Authority, and the third party is an independent person or authority that offers expert assistance to the process. Let's look at the list of third party mechanisms. Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide Note: open the BCA to Part 1.1 and read the defined terms for Registered Testing Authority and Certificate of Conformity Note: open the BCA to Part 1.2.2 and elaborate on the terms if necessary The last reference is to “ any form of documentary evidence ” – this is intentionally "open ended" to provide an opportunity for the applicant or Certifying Authority to assess the appropriateness of documentation offered in support of compliance. Proceed to the next slide
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  • Read the slide Other Verification Methods may involve methods not formally specified in the BCA Proceed to the next slide
  • There is one specific Verification Method set out for demonstrating compliance with the energy efficiency Performance Requirement P2.6.1 Read the slide Proceed to the next slide
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  • Proceed to the next slide
  • Read the slide Individual State and Territory administrative provisions can influence various aspects of design and construction. Therefore, it is essential that compliance with local administrative provisions relating to energy efficiency is achieved. In some States and Territories, practitioners such as private certifiers and users of energy assessment software may be required to be accredited. It should not be assumed that a practitioner accredited in one State or Territory is accredited to practice in another jurisdiction. For alterations, additions and renovations, you will need to refer to State and Territory administrations due to variations between regions. Proceed to the next slide
  • As the slide states – ARE THERE ANY QUESTIONS ?
  • Module 3 - Understanding Energy efficiency

    1. 1. National Construction Code Training Program MODULE THREE Understanding Energy Efficiency Provisions for Class 1 and 10 Buildings
    2. 2. Introduction to Module Three • This training module is one of a series produced by the Australian Building Codes Board; the organisation responsible for the development and maintenance of the National Construction Code (NCC) • For the purposes of this presentation it is assumed that participants have a general understanding of the content of ABCB training Modules One and Two Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    3. 3. National Construction Code Series Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module Three Methods of Compliance Building Code Volume Three Guide to Volume One Volume One Appendices Volume TwoVolume One Plumbing Code
    4. 4. Recap on Module One • Module One was titled: An Introduction to the Building Code of Australia – Volume One and Two of the NCC Series • The objective of Module One was to provide information on: − the background to the development of the BCA − the operation of the BCA, and − the application of the BCA Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    5. 5. The Building Code of Australia • The BCA establishes minimum standards for new building work • The BCA: − Is referenced in State/Territory law – see next slide − Is amended annually − Requirements are intended to be cost effective − Requirements are intended to eliminate poor practice − Does not address best practice Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    6. 6. Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance STATE & TERRITORY BUILDING ACTS STATE & TERRITORY BUILDING REGULATIONS TECHNICAL STANDARDS ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS • Approvals • Appeals • Registrations • Refurbishments • Building standard Introduction to Module Three
    7. 7. Presentation of the BCA • The BCA is presented in two Volumes • This is to correlate with the historic operation of the building industry • In general, industry tends to work in either the housing sector or the commercial sector, although some large companies work in both sectors • The BCA endeavours to follow this division Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    8. 8. BCA Volumes One and Two • Volume One contains requirements for the design and construction of commercial buildings; i.e. Class 2 to 9 buildings, plus some Class 10 structures • Volume Two contains requirements for the design and construction of domestic buildings; i.e. Class 1 and 10 buildings, plus some Class 10 structures Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    9. 9. Recap on Module Two • Module Two was titled: Understanding the BCA’s Performance Requirements • The objective of Module Two was to provide information on how to comply with the BCA without using Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions – i.e. by developing an Alternative Solution which complies with the relevant Performance Requirements. Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    10. 10. The Building Code of Australia Volume Two is divided in three sections – • Section 1 – General Provisions which presents the general structure and operation of the BCA. • Section 2 – Performance Provisions which presents the mandatory technical requirements of the BCA. • Section 3 – Acceptable Construction which presents optional means of compliance to the Performance Requirements. These are expressed as Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions. Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    11. 11. Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three 1.2.2
    12. 12. Objective of Module Three • The objective of Module Three is to provide fundamental information on BCA energy efficiency provisions relating to Class 1 buildings, as well as Class 10 buildings that have a conditioned space • The information provided in this presentation relates to the national content of the BCA and does not address State or Territory variations Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    13. 13. BCA Energy Efficiency BCA requirements reduce greenhouse gas emissions from electricity, gas, oil, or other fuels used in buildings for: • Heating • Cooling • Ventilation • Artificial lighting • Hot water (space heating and sanitary) • Other domestic services Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    14. 14. BCA Requirements • The BCA only addresses energy used by a building's services to operate • Does not include energy used in manufacturing building materials or construction of a building (i.e. embodied energy) • Does not include portable appliances within a building such as computers or fridges Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    15. 15. Background Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance Module Three Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    16. 16. Content of Module Three • Principles of Energy Efficiency • General Scope of BCA provisions • Performance Requirements • Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions • Alternative Solutions • Verification Methods • Administrative Matters Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    17. 17. Background to Energy Efficiency Provisions
    18. 18. General Background • Over the past decade international awareness of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their influence on global warming has grown significantly • GHG is a natural part of the Earth’s atmosphere that capture the Sun’s warmth and keep Earth’s surface temperature at a life supporting level Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    19. 19. General Background • Increased concentrations of GHG will cause variations to our climate that will differ between geographic regions • Changes may occur to temperatures, rainfall, wind speed, vegetation and animal life • GHG emissions are increasing due to human activities such as land clearing and burning fossil fuel (e.g. coal and oil) Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    20. 20. • 1997 – the Prime Minister issued a statement on Australia’s response to global warming that included measures to reduce energy consumption in buildings • The building sector was not the largest contributor to national GHG emissions - although it contributed 27% of energy related GHG emissions and was the fastest growing source • Late 1990’s - governments considered the need for new buildings to operate in an energy efficient manner Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance National Background Introduction to Module Three
    21. 21. • It was apparent that market forces had not addressed the issue effectively so there was a need for regulatory reform • Industry generally supported the need to eliminate worst practice in building design • 2000 – Agreement by the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) to introduce energy efficiency regulations for domestic and commercial buildings Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance National Background Introduction to Module Three
    22. 22. National Background • 2001 – In response, the Australian Greenhouse Office (AGO) and the ABCB entered into an agreement to develop energy efficiency provisions and introduce these through the BCA • 2001- 2002 - Housing energy efficiency provisions developed • January 2003 - BCA Volume Two introduced 4 star energy efficiency provisions in climate zones 4 to 8 and 3.5 star in climate zones 1 to 3 for housing and associated buildings • Some States/Territories had existing provisions in place and did not adopt new BCA requirements Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    23. 23. • BCA 2005 − Introduced similar star requirements for Class 2 and 3 buildings and Class 4 parts of a building as for housing, i.e. SOU’s must achieve a minimum of 3 stars, but achieve a 4 star average in climate zones 4 to 8 and 3.5 star average in climate zones 1 to 3. • BCA 2006 − Introduced requirements for Class 5 to 9 buildings − Enhanced requirements for Class 1 and nominated Class 10a buildings from 3.5 / 4 star to 5 star Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance National Background Introduction to Module Three
    24. 24. • BCA 2010 − Enhanced the requirements for Class 5 to 9 buildings − Further enhanced the requirements for Class 1 and nominated Class 10a buildings from 5 star to 6 star − Also enhanced requirements for Class 2 buildings and Class 4 parts of a building (average 6 star, minimum 5 star) Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance National Background Introduction to Module Three
    25. 25. What is a House Star Rating? • A house star rating is a quantified benchmark used to describe the energy efficiency performance of a building’s shell based on an annual energy load • The rating is used in the BCA and is derived using computer software packages; AccuRate, BERS Pro and FirstRate 5 Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    26. 26. Draft Provisions • Originally developed through stakeholder committees, specialist working groups and specialist consultants • Proposals were refined through industry and community consultation • Latest provisions were subjected to a formal Regulation Document process and Regulation Impact Statement process Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    27. 27. Regulation Impact Statement • Under an IGA, the ABCB must only propose new regulation as a final option • All proposals for change to the BCA must be subjected to a rigorous regulatory impact assessment process that includes cost benefit analysis • The new regulation must generate the greatest net benefit for the community Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    28. 28. Four Stage Process Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance • Using a four stage process, the ABCB has now introduced energy efficiency requirements for all classes of buildings − 2003 - Class 1 & 10 (4 star / 3.5 star) − 2005 - Class 2 to 4 (4 star / 3.5 star average – 3 star minimum) − 2006 - Class 5 to 9; plus - Class 1 & 10 enhanced (Verification 5 star) − 2010 - Class 3 and 5 to 9 enhanced; and - Class 2 and 4 (6 star average – 5 star minimum) - Class 1 & 10 (6 star) Introduction to Module Three
    29. 29. Voluntary Best Practice • The Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE) has also developed a series of other programs - aimed at assisting designers to go beyond the minimum requirements of the BCA • These programs promote best practice rather than BCA minimum requirements • Information can be found at: www.climatechange.gov.au Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    30. 30. Principles of Energy Efficiency
    31. 31. Objective of BCA Provisions • The objective of the BCA energy efficiency provisions is to reduce GHG emissions by reducing operational energy use of new buildings without reducing comfort and amenity • BCA requirements primarily address: − heat flow - into and out of a building through the building envelope, and − domestic services - that use energy e.g. air-conditioning and hot water Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    32. 32. Definition of Envelope Envelope, for the purposes of Part 2.6 and Part 3.12, means the parts of a building’s fabric that separate artificially heated or cooled spaces from – (a) the exterior of the building; or (b) other spaces that are not artificially heated or cooled Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    33. 33. Definition of Domestic Services Domestic services means the basic engineering systems of a house that use energy or control the use of energy; and (a) includes heating, air-conditioning, mechanical ventilation, artificial lighting and hot water systems; but (b) excludes cooking facilities and portable appliances. Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    34. 34. Principles of Energy Efficiency • The efficient performance of the building envelope plus the building's domestic services results in reduced: − demand for a service, especially in a moderate climate zone, − size of a service, − operating time of a service, and − energy consumption of the service • The use of fuels with the lowest practical greenhouse gas intensity Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    35. 35. Application of Requirements • Not all of Australia has the same climate so the BCA elemental Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions vary across eight (8) climate zones • Climate zone 1 is hot and humid while climate zone 8 is cold • A map of the location of climate zones is provided at Figure 1.1.4 – see next slide Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    36. 36. Climate Zone Map Figure 1.1.4 Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    37. 37. Individual State and Territory maps are available on the ABCB website at: www.abcb.gov.au Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance Climate Zone Map Introduction to Module Three
    38. 38. Application of Requirements • The primary intent of the BCA provisions is to reduce energy usage for cooling services in warmer climate zones and heating services in cooler climate zones • The extent of specific requirements vary with climate zone and sometimes with the use of the building Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    39. 39. Achieving Energy Efficiency • Insulating and/or shading the building fabric • Controlling energy flow through glazing • Reducing air leakage via building fabric • Creating internal air movement for cooling • Improving the efficiency of heating, cooling, lighting, hot water systems and pools Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    40. 40. General Scope of BCA Provisions
    41. 41. Sections of Volume Two • The application of the BCA provisions is governed by the content of Sections 1 and 2 of Volume Two • Section 1 – General Provisions – presents the "general rules" by which the BCA provisions are applied • Section 2 – Performance Requirements – presents the mandatory requirements of the BCA and the Verification Methods Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    42. 42. Sections of Volume Two • Section 3 of Volume Two presents the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions • These provisions are presented as either an: − Acceptable Construction Manual or − Acceptable Construction Practice • The principal benefit of using Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions is that they are accepted as meeting the mandatory Performance Requirements Scope of the BCAIntroduction to Module Three Methods of Compliance
    43. 43. Energy Efficiency Performance Requirements Part 2.6 of Volume Two
    44. 44. Energy Efficiency Requirements • There are two mandatory Performance Requirements for energy efficiency i.e. − P2.6.1 for the thermal performance of a building’s fabric − P2.6.2 for the domestic services’ – – energy efficiency – energy source Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    45. 45. P2.6.1 Building Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    46. 46. P2.6.2 Services Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    47. 47. Domestic Services • Domestic services  means the basic engineering systems of a house that use energy or control the use of energy; and (a) includes heating, air-conditioning, mechanical ventilation, artificial lighting and hot water systems; but (b) excludes cooking facilities and portable appliances Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    48. 48. Energy Efficiency Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions
    49. 49. Part 3.12 • Part 3.12 presents the optional Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions that may be used to achieve compliance with the mandatory energy efficiency Performance Requirements • Part 3.12.0 provides two optional pathways to achieve compliance, which are – − Using a house energy rating solution, including some elemental Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions; or − Using the elemental Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions alone. Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    50. 50. Part 3.12 Option 1 Energy Rating Solution • Energy rating at 3.12.1.0 • Specific 3.12.1 provisions • 3.12.3 for Sealing Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance Option 2 Elemental Solution • 3.12.1 for Building Fabric • 3.12.2 for Glazing • 3.12.3 for Building Sealing • 3.12.4 for Air Movement 3.12.5 for Services Introduction to Module Three
    51. 51. • The elemental option Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions address the following parts of a building: − 3.12.1 Building Fabric − 3.12.2 External Glazing − 3.12.3 Building Sealing − 3.12.4 Air Movement − 3.12.5 Services Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance Part 3.12 Introduction to Module Three
    52. 52. PART 3.12.1 BUILDING FABRIC Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    53. 53. Part 3.12.1 - Building Fabric • Provisions for building fabric address: − Thermal insulation − Roofs − Roof lights − External walls − Floors − Attached Class 10a buildings Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    54. 54. Part 3.12.1 - Building Fabric • The intent of these provisions is to ensure the building envelope is an effective means of resisting unwanted heat flow • Heat flow may be either predominantly into or out of a building depending on the climate zone • A thermally efficient building envelope means less energy is needed to artificially heat or cool internal spaces Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    55. 55. Example of Envelope Performance Proportion of envelope heat gain floor 0% walls 8% roof 5% doors 0.4% glazing 87% Proportion of envelope heat loss floor 18% walls 14% doors 1% roof 18% glazing 49% Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    56. 56. Some Relevant Terms • R-Value – means the thermal resistance of a component calculated by dividing its thickness by its thermal conductivity • Total R-Value – means the sum of the R-Values of components in a composite element – it can be determined by calculation or reference Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    57. 57. Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance Some Relevant Terms • R-Value of an uninsulated clay masonry veneer wall Introduction to Module Three
    58. 58. Some Relevant Terms • Total U-Value – means the thermal transmittance of a composite element, i.e. the ability of an element to conduct heat Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    59. 59. THERMAL INSULATION Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    60. 60. Thermal Insulation Thermal insulation must – • Comply with AS/NZS 4859.1 • Be installed to form a consistent and continuous barrier, other than at studs etc, in accordance with the BCA’s and manufacturer’s requirements • Not interfere with the operation of a domestic services or fitting, such as downlights Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    61. 61. Thermal Insulation Thermal insulation may be – • Added to elements of the building fabric to achieve the required level of thermal performance • Either reflective insulation or bulk insulation Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    62. 62. Thermal Insulation Thermal insulation needs to be installed so that – • Any required airspace is provided adjacent to the reflective surface of reflective insulation • The thickness of bulk insulation is maintained as compression of insulation material can reduce the R-Value • Note: Consideration needs to be given to the risk that artificial cooling or heating of internal spaces may promote condensation within adjoining elements. Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    63. 63. ROOFS Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    64. 64. Roofs • The roof of a house is typically the largest element of external fabric exposed to solar radiation • Roofs and/or ceilings need to be insulated to achieve the required level of thermal performance • Insulation performance required will depend upon direction of heat flow, i.e. downwards or upwards Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    65. 65. Direction of Heat Flow • The direction of heat flow that needs to be counteracted will depend on the climate zone • The direction of heat flow is the dominant direction during typical hours of occupation of the building Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    66. 66. Roofs Roof assemblies must achieve the Total R-Value specified in Table 3.12.1.1a for the direction of heat flow For a pitched roof with flat ceiling: − at least 50% of the roof insulation on the ceiling Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance Table 3.12.1.1a Introduction to Module Three
    67. 67. Solar Absorptance Values • Low solar absorptance values are associated with light coloured roof materials, such as white or cream • Light coloured roofs reduce the flow of heat from radiation better than dark coloured roofs so don’t require as high a Total R-Value. Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    68. 68. Solar Absorptance Values Colour Value Slate (dark grey) 0.90 Red, green 0.75 Yellow, buff 0.60 Zinc aluminium — dull 0.55 Galvanised steel — dull 0.55 Light grey 0.45 Off white 0.35 Light cream 0.30 Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    69. 69. Total R-Value • In climate zones 1 to 5 - the Total R-Value may be reduced if the roof space is ventilated • When the area of required insulation is reduced, as a result of downlights, flues or exhaust fans, the loss of insulation must be compensated for by increasing the R-Value of insulation in the remainder of the ceiling – See Table 3.12.1.1b • Certain roofs with metal framing and cladding require a thermal break to be installed Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    70. 70. Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance Total R-Value Introduction to Module Three
    71. 71. Typical Construction • Figure 3.12.1.1 presents Total R-Values (without insulation) for different forms of roof and ceiling construction with and without a ventilated ceiling and with “up” and “down” heat flow direction Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    72. 72. Typical Construction Figure 3.12.1.1 TOTAL R-VALUE FOR TYPICAL ROOF AND CEILING CONSTRUCTION Roof construction detail Total R-Value Ventilated Up 0.74 Down 0.23 Unventilated Up 0.56 Down 0.41 (c) Pitched roof with flat ceiling – Tiled roof Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    73. 73. ROOF LIGHTS Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    74. 74. Roof Lights • A roof light is a skylight, window or the like installed in a roof— (a) to permit natural light to enter the room below; and (b) at an angle between 0 and 70 degrees measured from the horizontal plane • BCA treats a roof light as an opening in a roof that allows heat flow in or out – so it must be protected Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    75. 75. Roof Lights • The total area of roof lights serving habitable rooms and connected spaces such as corridors is restricted • Plus the aggregate area of roof lights serving a storey must be no more than 3% of floor area • Table 3.12.1.2 specifies allowable thermal performance for roof lights Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    76. 76. • Table 3.12.1.2 sets maximum SHGC and Total U-Values for roof lights, which vary with: − the roof light shaft index, and − total area of roof lights as a % of floor area of the room or space served • Roof light shaft index is derived from the relationship of shaft length to the average internal opening • Special requirements apply where the roof light is the only means of providing required natural light Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance Roof Lights Introduction to Module Three
    77. 77. Roof cladding Roof light shaft Wall Shaft length measurement: Measured from centre of the shaft at the roof to the centre of the shaft at the ceiling level. 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 Ceiling level Roof light STEP ONE: MEASURE SHAFT LENGTH (Section view) STEP TWO: MEASURE AVERAGE INTERNAL SHAFT OPENING AT CEILING LEVEL, OR THE DIAMETER FOR A CIRCULAR SHAFT (Plan view) Roof light shaft X Y Average internal opening = (X + Y) / 2 STEP THREE: DIVIDE THE CENTRE SHAFT LENGTH (STEP ONE) BY THE AVERAGE INTERNAL SHAFT OPENING (STEP TWO) Roof light shaft index = Roof light shaft length / Average internal opening at ceiling level
    78. 78. EXTERNAL WALLS Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    79. 79. External Walls • As with roofs, the construction of external walls is a major factor in the thermal efficiency of a building • External walls don’t necessarily need to achieve a minimum Total R- Value to comply • Less insulation is required for high mass walls • Table 3.12.1.3a (low mass walls) and 3.12.1.3b (high mass walls) present options for wall construction within each climate zone Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    80. 80. External Walls
    81. 81. Typical Types of Wall Construction Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance (a) Weatherboard (b) Fibre cement sheet Total R-Value 0.48 Total R-Value 0.42 Introduction to Module Three
    82. 82. External Walls • If the wall construction cannot comply – glazing in the same storey might be allowed to compensate • Metal framed walls with light weight external cladding require a thermal break • A significant amount of Explanatory Information is provided in BCA Volume Two Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    83. 83. FLOORS Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    84. 84. Floors • There are separate requirements for: − Suspended floors - timber or concrete − Suspended floors with a built-in heating or cooling system − Slab-on-ground with a built-in heating or cooling system • Suspended floors in climate zones 1-3 inclusive must achieve a Total R-Value for heat flow in the upwards direction. • In climate zones 4-8, the Total R-Value is for heat flow downwards Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    85. 85. Suspended Floors • Table 3.12.1.4 (next slide) sets minimum Total R-Values for suspended floors • Table 3.12.1.4 does not differentiate between enclosed and unenclosed suspended floors • The effects of enclosure are included when calculating the Total R- Value of the floor construction Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    86. 86. Table 3.12.1.4 SUSPENDED FLOOR – MINIMUM TOTAL R-VALUE Climate zone 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Direction of heat flow Upwards Downwards Minimum Total R- Value 1.5 1.0 1.5 2.25 1.0 2.25 2.75 3.25 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance Suspended Floors Introduction to Module Three
    87. 87. • Table 3.12.1.5 – presents typical Total R-Values for suspended floors • Table 3.12.1.5 has separate parts for suspended timber floors and suspended concrete floors • Total R-Values are shown for four types of subfloor enclosure Suspended Floors
    88. 88. Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance Suspended Floors Extract of Table 3.12.1.5 – Introduction to Module Three
    89. 89. ATTACHED CLASS 10a BUILDINGS Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    90. 90. Attached Class 10a Buildings • A Class 10a building may include a garage, pool enclosure, etc. • A Class 10a should not compromise the thermal performance of the Class 1 building • Design options are described on the next slide Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    91. 91. • A Class 10a attached to a Class 1 must either- (a) have external fabric that achieves required level of performance for the Class 1, OR (b) be separated by construction that achieves required level of performance for the Class 1, OR (c) in climate zone 5 only – see over Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance Attached Class 10a Buildings Introduction to Module Three
    92. 92. Climate zone 5 only • be enclosed with masonry walls - other than for doors and glazing; AND • be separated from the Class 1 building - by a masonry wall extending to a ceiling or roof; AND • achieve a Total R-Value in the roof - equal to that required for the Class 1 building; AND • achieve the required garage door orientation or the glazing of the Class 1 complies using a reduced SHGC allowance. Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance Attached Class 10a Buildings Introduction to Module Three
    93. 93. Class 10a Class 1 Attached Class 10a Building Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three Class 10a Class 1 Class 1Class 10a Class 1Class 1 Class 10a Class 1 Option (a) Option (c)(i) Option (c)(ii) Option (b)
    94. 94. PART 3.12.2 EXTERNAL GLAZING Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    95. 95. Part 3.12.2 - External Glazing • Good design of glazing in external walls can provide the greatest gains in energy efficiency in housing • The intent is to control the amount of energy entering or leaving a building • The provisions address both external glazing and shading of glazing Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    96. 96. Definition of Glazing • Glazing - for the purposes of Part 2.6 and Part 3.12 means: "a transparent or translucent element and its supporting frame located in the external fabric of the building, and includes a window other than a roof light” Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    97. 97. • Location of the building (climate zone) • Total area of glazing • Degree of exposure to the sun – orientation and shading • Type of frame and glass used • The likelihood of the building being air-conditioned Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance Factors Affecting Heat Transfer Introduction to Module Three
    98. 98. Some Relevant Terms • Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) – a measure of the proportion of solar energy (or radiation) that passes through glazing • High SHGC values - allow more solar energy into a room Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    99. 99. • Total U-Value - a measure of the ability of a material to conduct heat • Low Total U-Value means the material is a poor conductor of heat - this is good Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance Some Relevant Terms Introduction to Module Three
    100. 100. • Glazing provisions require: − calculation of allowed heat flows through glazing; and − calculation of actual heat flows through glazing • For Deemed-to-Satisfy designs actual heat flows must not exceed the allowed heat flows • Part 3.12.2.1. provides formulae for calculations OR • You can use the ABCB Glazing Calculator Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance Acceptable Construction Practice Introduction to Module Three
    101. 101. Acceptable Construction Practice • Part 3.12.2.1 – A two step process • Step 1 • Use Table 3.12.2.1 to calculate the allowances for: − conductance − solar heat gain for the glazing in each storey of the building Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    102. 102. Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance Acceptable Construction Practice Table 3.12.2.1 CONSTANTS FOR CONDUCTANCE AND SOLAR HEAT GAIN Floor construction Air movement (refer notes) Constant Climate zone 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Floor in direct contact with the ground Standard CU 1.650 18.387 14.641 7.929 13.464 6.418 5.486 3.987 CSHGC 0.063 0.074 0.062 0.097 0.122 0.153 0.189 0.234 High CU 1.650 18.387 14.641 7.929 13.464 6.418 5.486 3.987 CSHGC 0.069 0.081 0.068 0.107 0.134 0.168 0.208 0.257 Suspended floor Standard CU 1.485 16.548 13.177 7.136 12.118 5.776 4.937 3.588 CSHGC 0.057 0.067 0.056 0.087 0.110 0.138 0.170 0.211 High CU 1.485 16.548 13.177 7.136 12.118 5.776 4.937 3.588 CSHGC 0.063 0.074 0.062 0.096 0.121 0.152 0.187 0.232 Introduction to Module Three
    103. 103. • Step 2 Calculate actual: − Aggregate conductance − Aggregate solar heat gain of the glazing in each storey • Each glazing element must be assessed individually and added to establish the aggregate value for each storey Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance Acceptable Construction Practice Introduction to Module Three
    104. 104. Step 2 – Aggregate Conductance • In climate zone 1 only, calculate the aggregate conductance by multiplying the: − Area for each glazing element − Total U-Value for each glazing element • Add the results for each glazing element to find aggregate • In climate zones 2 to 8, the calculation is more complex with the Ew (winter exposure factor – see Table 3.12.2.2a) and the SHGC of each glazing element considered to balance potential solar heat gains and heat loss by conduction in these climate zones. Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    105. 105. Step 2 – Aggregate Solar Heat Gain • Calculate aggregate solar heat gain by multiplying: − Area for each glazing element − SHGC for each glazing element − Es (summer solar exposure factor) for each glazing element • Add the results for each glazing element to get an aggregate value Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    106. 106. • Es (summer solar exposure factor) can be found using Table 3.12.2.2b (for each climate zone) • To use the Table you will need to determine- − the orientation of each glazing element using Figure 3.12.2.1 – discussed later − the P/H ratio of shading projections – using Figure 3.12.2.2 and Part 3.12.2.2 – discussed later Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance Step 2 – Aggregate Solar Heat gain Introduction to Module Three
    107. 107. Step 2 – Notes • Total U-Values and SHGCs might be included on glazing element labels or can be obtained from manufacturers • Total U-Values and SHGCs must be for the glass and the frame combined • Total U-Values and SHGCs must be Australian Fenestration Rating Council (AFRC) ratings Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    108. 108. Orientation • North orientation minimises summer sun and maximises winter sun • A glazing element is considered to face North if it faces any direction in the North orientation sector of Figure 3.12.2.1 • The orientation of other glazing elements is determined in a similar way Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    109. 109. Figure 3.12.2.1 Orientation Sector Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    110. 110. Shading • Shading required in order to comply with Part 3.12.2.1 must comply with Part 3.12.2.2 • Shading can be provided by- − external permanent projections such as a verandah or carport; or − external shading devices such as shutters, blinds or screens • External shading devices must be capable of restricting at least 80% of the summer solar radiation, and if adjustable, able to be controlled by the building occupants. Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    111. 111. Figure 3.12.2.2 Measuring P and H Notes: 1. An external shading device that complies with 3.12.2.2(b) is considered to achieve a P/H value of 2.00. 2. Where G exceeds 500mm, the value of P must be halved. Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    112. 112. Compare the Results • Once aggregate conductance and aggregate solar heat gain values are calculated - compare the actual values against the allowances for each storey • Aggregate values must not be greater than the allowances in both cases for Deemed-to-Satisfy designs Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    113. 113. Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    114. 114. PART 3.12.3 BUILDING SEALING Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    115. 115. Part 3.12.3 - Building Sealing • Provisions for Building Sealing address: − Chimneys and flues − Roof lights − External windows and doors − Exhaust fans − Construction of roofs, walls and floors − Evaporative coolers Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    116. 116. • Limiting unwanted air leakage into and out of a building can have a major impact on stabilising temperature inside a building • Sealing openings, joints and gaps is also an effective means of controlling drafts which can make occupants feel the temperature is lower than it actually is Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance Part 3.12.3 - Building Sealing Introduction to Module Three
    117. 117. • Sealing provisions generally apply to Class 1 buildings and Class 10a buildings with a conditioned space; other than: − Where the only means of air-conditioning is an evaporative cooler in climate zones 1, 2, 3 and 5 − Permanent ventilation openings for safe operation of gas appliances − Class 10a building accommodating vehicles Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance Part 3.12.3 - Building Sealing Introduction to Module Three
    118. 118. Chimneys & Flues • Chimneys or flues of solid fuel burning appliances (e.g. timber, coal etc) must have a damper or flap that can be closed to seal the chimney or flue • The general provisions of Part 3.7.3 "Heating Appliances" should also be considered Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    119. 119. Roof Lights Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance • Roof lights serving a conditioned space or a habitable room in climate zones 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 must be– − sealed or capable of being sealed; and − have an imperforate ceiling diffuser; or − a weatherproof seal; or − an occupant operated shutter system Introduction to Module Three
    120. 120. External Windows and Doors • Must be fitted with edge seals if in: − a conditioned space; or − a habitable room in climate zones 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 • The bottom edge of an external swing door must be fitted with a draft protection device • Other required edge seals for doors and windows may be compressible or fibrous strips • Compliance with AS 2047 is acceptable for windows Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    121. 121. Exhaust Fans • Must be fitted with a sealing device if in- − a conditioned space; or − a habitable room in climate zones 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 • A sealing device includes- − a self-closing damper; or − a filter – such as in a kitchen range hood Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    122. 122. Roofs, External Walls and External Floors • Must be constructed to minimise air leakage if part of the external fabric of – − a conditioned space; or − a habitable room in climate zones 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 • Construction must incorporate internal lining systems sealed by skirting, architraves, cornices, caulking or the like Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    123. 123. Evaporative Coolers • Must be fitted with a self-closing damper or similar when serving- − a heated space; or − a habitable room in climate zones 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    124. 124. PART 3.12.4 AIR MOVEMENT Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    125. 125. Part 3.12.4 - Air Movement • Provisions for Air Movement address: − Ventilation openings location and size − Breeze paths between ventilation openings − Ceiling fans and evaporative coolers Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    126. 126. • The intent of these provisions is to: − Maximise the cooling effects of natural air movement − Facilitate internal cross-flow ventilation − Reduce demand for air-conditioning Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance Part 3.12.4 - Air Movement Introduction to Module Three
    127. 127. • Provisions apply to habitable rooms in Class 1 buildings in climate zones 1 to 5 • Provisions are separate to Part 3.8.5 • Table 3.12.4.1 sets minimum total ventilation opening area as a % of the floor area of the habitable room based on: − Climate zone − Provision of a ceiling fan or an evaporative cooler Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance Part 3.12.4 - Air Movement Introduction to Module Three
    128. 128. Table 3.12.4.1 Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance Climate zones Minimum total ventilation opening area as a percentage of the floor area for each habitable room Without a ceiling fan or evaporative cooler With a ceiling fan With an evaporative cooler 1 10% 7.5% 10% (see Note) 2 10% 7.5% 10% (see Note) 3 10% 7.5% 7.5% 4 10% 5% 5% 5 7.5% 5% 7.5% (see Note) 6, 7 and 8 As required by Part 3.8.5 Introduction to Module Three
    129. 129. • Table 3.12.4.1 does not apply to Class 1 buildings in REGION D – Severe Tropical Cyclone areas – subject to specific circumstances • Air movement may be provided from openings in certain adjoining rooms, including an enclosed verandah Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance Part 3.12.4 - Air Movement Introduction to Module Three
    130. 130. Ventilation Openings Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three LIVING DINING KITCHEN L’DRY W.C. BATH BED 3 BED 1BED 2
    131. 131. Ceiling Fans & Evaporative Coolers • Ceiling fans & evaporative coolers used to establish the size of ventilation openings under Table 3.12.4.1 must- − be permanently installed and − have a speed controller and − for ceiling fans, have-  900mm minimum diameter for up to 15 m2 coverage  1200mm minimum diameter for up to 25 m2 coverage Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    132. 132. PART 3.12.5 SERVICES Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    133. 133. Part 3.12.5 - Services • Provisions for domestic services address: − Acceptable construction manuals for hot water − Acceptable construction practice for:  Insulation of services  Hot water supply  Central heating water piping  Heating and pumping for pools  Heating and cooling ductwork or spas  Electric resistance space heating  Artificial lighting Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    134. 134. Services • The intent is to minimise energy lost through operation of systems for: − Air-conditioning − Central heating − Hot water supply − Lighting − Pool & spa heating and pumping • The Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions apply to domestic services in both Class 1 and Class 10a buildings and Class 10b swimming pools. Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    135. 135. Acceptable Construction Manual • Two manuals are referenced • Compliance with Section 8 of AS/NZS 3500.4 OR Clause 3.38 of AS/NZS 3500.5 is deemed to satisfy P2.6.2 in regard to design and installation of a hot water supply system • Solar hot water systems in climate zones 1, 2 or 3 are not required to comply Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    136. 136. Insulation of Services • Thermal insulation for piping and ductwork must- − comply with AS/NZS 4859.1 − be protected against detrimental effects of weather and sunlight; and − withstand temperatures to which they will be exposed Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    137. 137. Central Heating Water Piping • Piping not located in the conditioned space served must be insulated to achieve a minimum material R-Value specified in Table 3.12.5.1 • Material R-Value depends on- − the exposure of the piping to the outdoors; and − the climate zone Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    138. 138. Heating and Cooling Ductwork • Heating and cooling ductwork located outside the insulated building envelope must - − achieve the material R-Value in Table 3.12.5.2 − be sealed against air loss • Duct insulation must – − form a continuous and consistent barrier − be protected from damp in certain locations Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    139. 139. Heating and Cooling Ductwork • Table 3.12.5.2 material R-Values depend on – − the climate zone − the type of heating and/or cooling system • Required material R-Values are higher for ductwork than for fittings Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    140. 140. Electric Space Heating • An electric resistance space heating system that serves more than one room must have - − separate isolating switches for each room; and − separate temperature/time controls for each zone; and − power loads of not more than –  110 W/m2 for living areas; and  150 W/m2 for bathrooms Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    141. 141. Artificial Lighting • Artificial lighting must not exceed specified power allowances • The power allowance can be increased if there are sophisticated lighting controls • Halogens must be separately switched from fluorescents • Outside lighting must be controlled by a motion sensor or be of high efficacy Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    142. 142. Artificial Lighting Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    143. 143. Supply Water Heaters Supply water heaters in a hot water supply system must be - • solar (efficiency depending upon size) • heat pump (efficiency depending upon size) • gas (5 star) • electric resistance only for small units with other conditions applying Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    144. 144. Pool & Spa Heating & Pumping Swimming pools – • heating by solar only – no electric resistance boosting • if less than 680L, must have a time switch for the pump Spas (sharing a water recirculation system with a swimming pool) – • heating by solar, gas, heat pump or a combination • if any of the heating is by gas or heat pump, the spa must have- − a cover; and − push button and time switch control of the heater Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    145. 145. ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS
    146. 146. Option to Develop an Alternative Solution • To comply with BCA Performance Requirements some practitioners will follow the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions just described • However – it’s often preferable to design something different from Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions and to develop an Alternative Solution Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    147. 147. Remember the BCA Structure? Developing Alternative Solutions Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three 1.2.2
    148. 148. Complying with the Performance Requirements • Compliance with the Performance Requirements can only be achieved by: a) complying with the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions; or b) formulating an Alternative Solution which - (i) complies with the Performance Requirements; or (ii) is shown to be at least equivalent to the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions; or a) a combination of a) and b) Developing Alternative Solutions Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    149. 149. Design Flexibility • The BCA provides two pathways to formulate an Alternative Solution – − formulating an Alternative Solution to meet the Performance Requirements; or − formulating an Alternative Solution to at least equate to Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions. Developing Alternative Solutions Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    150. 150. Flexibility in Compliance • Either of these options can be explored to establish the most appropriate pathway for a particular Alternative Solution • A decision regarding the most appropriate approach may be influenced by the views of the Certifying Authority Developing Alternative Solutions Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    151. 151. Consultation • It is beneficial to discuss an Alternative Solution with the Certifying Authority before lodging an application for approval • Also discuss the scope of supporting documentation needed • The Certifying Authority can advise on likely Assessment Methods but should not become involved in development of the design Developing Alternative Solutions Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    152. 152. DEVELOPING ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS
    153. 153. Alternative Solutions • The development of Alternative Solutions was covered in detail in Module Two • Relevant BCA provisions can be found in Section 1 of Volume Two Developing Alternative Solutions Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    154. 154. ASSESSMENT METHODS
    155. 155. Assessment Methods • Assessment methods were discussed in detail in Module Two • Methods for assessing Building Solutions are listed at Part 1.0.9 • The Certifying Authority will assess compliance of Alternative Solutions • The applicant is required to demonstrate compliance with the relevant Performance Requirements Developing Alternative Solutions Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    156. 156. Four Assessment Methods are listed at Part 1.0.9: • Evidence of Suitability described in Part 1.2.2 • Verification Methods • Comparison with Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions • Expert Judgement Developing Alternative Solutions Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance Assessment Methods Introduction to Module Three
    157. 157. Evidence of Suitability Developing Alternative Solutions Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    158. 158. Evidence of Suitability • Forms of Evidence of Suitability are listed in Part 1.2.2 of Volume Two • The listed documents generally involve third party mechanisms that may be used to assist either the formulation or assessment of Building Solutions Developing Alternative Solutions Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    159. 159. • Registered Testing Authority report • Certificate of Conformity / current Certificate of Accreditation • Certification from appropriately qualified persons • Certification from a body accredited by the Joint Accreditation System of Australia and New Zealand (JAS-ANZ) • Any other form of documentary evidence Developing Alternative Solutions Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance Evidence of Suitability Introduction to Module Three
    160. 160. VERIFICATION METHODS
    161. 161. Verification Methods • A Verification Method is defined as: − a test, inspection, calculation or other method that determines whether a Building Solution complies with the relevant Performance Requirements • The definition allows a broad range of processes to be used to verify compliance Developing Alternative Solutions Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    162. 162. Verification Methods Part 2.6 contains two Verification Methods – • One for energy efficiency of the building shell (V2.6.2.2 – Verification using a reference building) • One for a supply water heater (V2.6.3) • Remember - other Verification Methods may be used Developing Alternative Solutions Scope of the BCA Methods of ComplianceIntroduction to Module Three
    163. 163. • V2.6.2.2 for a building’s shell applies to: − a whole Class 1 building − a whole Class 1 building that incorporates attached and enclosed Class 10a parts, such as attached garages • It does not apply to detached garages or to open carports Developing Alternative Solutions Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance Verification Method V2.6.2.2 Introduction to Module Three
    164. 164. • Allows the use of a broad range of Australian and international energy analysis software • Requires a thermal calculation to show that relevant cooling or heating loads are not greater than than those of the reference building • Relevant loads vary between climate zones – so check what’s required Developing Alternative Solutions Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance Verification Method V2.6.2.2 Introduction to Module Three
    165. 165. • The Method presents specific criteria to be used for modelling • Criteria are either individually specified, such as space temperature settings, or one of the complying Deemed-to-Satisfy solutions Developing Alternative Solutions Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance Verification Method V2.6.2.2 Introduction to Module Three
    166. 166. • Does not cover domestic services – they must be DTS or be demonstrated to comply with P2.6.2 using another Assessment Method • Uses a reference building • Requires two computer modelling runs; − one to set the energy load target(s) − another to show that each target isn’t exceeded Developing Alternative Solutions Scope of the BCA Methods of Compliance Verification Method V2.6.2.2 Introduction to Module Three
    167. 167. ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS
    168. 168. Administrative Matters • All State/Territory jurisdictions have administrative provisions for the design and construction of buildings • Energy efficiency is an issue for which specific administrative processes may exist; e.g. accreditation of energy efficiency assessors may be required • Practitioners need to be aware of relevant processes and ensure they comply • Alterations, additions and renovations
    169. 169. That's it! Are there any questions?

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