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Student Perceptions of MALL from JALTCALL 2018


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My dissertation research presentation given at JALTCALL 2018 at Meijo University in Nagoya on June 9, 2018.

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Student Perceptions of MALL from JALTCALL 2018

  2. 2. NCU Proprietary REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The Literature Review was broken down into 9 categories: 2  Historical Overview  Learning Theories Supporting Mobile Language Learning in EFL  Learning Theories Applied to Current Research  Recent Research into Computer Assisted Language Learning in Japan  Mobile Devices in Japanese EFL Studies  Student Perspectives on Mobile Learning and Social Media  Student Perceptions of Smartphones in Japanese EFL Classes  Teacher Attitudes Toward Mobile Technology Integration  Teachers’ Perceptions of Smartphones in Japanese EFL Classes
  3. 3. NCU Proprietary Problem • More teachers are using MALL methods with student smartphones in EFL classes, but little research exists about how students feel about this trend Purpose • To determine how students feel about being required to use their personal smartphones for EFL classroom activities 3 Study Problem and Purpose
  4. 4. NCU Proprietary RESEARCH QUESTION How do Japanese university students perceive the requirement to use their personal smartphones to complete EFL classroom activities, tasks, and assignments? 4 Smartphone-related language tasks included: • watching videos, • listening to textbook audio clips, • recording speaking samples, • self-evaluations of speaking samples, • information retrieval, and • submission of assignments.
  5. 5. NCU Proprietary COURSE WIKI PAGE PBWiki page: 1-stop shop for all course audio and video files 5
  6. 6. NCU Proprietary Methodology Research Design • Qualitative single case study • Nine participants: • Freshmen at Japanese public university • All had completed blended EFL course with the researcher • Six female & three male (= class ratio) Data Collection • Semi-structured Interviews in Japanese • Nine questions • Nonverbal communications observed and noted in field notes as well as being added to transcripts for coding • Informed consent obtained beforehand • Audio recording consent also obtained Instrument • Nine questions adapted from similar studies related to this research (Leis et al., 2015; Lockley & Promnitz-Hayashi, 2012; Stockwell & Liu, 2015; White & Mills, 2014). Data Analysis • Interviews transcribed & translated • Analyzed using Dedoose™ Online tool • Stake’s (1995) categorical aggregation and pattern discovery methods • Validity of data triangulated using nonverbal communications (Bryman, 2003; Stake, 2003) 6
  7. 7. NCU Proprietary DEMOGRAPHICS Six female, three male (matched sample frame gender ratio of 2:1) All freshmen from various departments within university (specific data not collected) Probably from across northern Japan (Hometown and secondary school background data not collected) Ages probably between 17 and 19 based on typical freshman ages (specific data not collected) 9 participants 8
  8. 8. NCU Proprietary DATA ANALYSIS RESULTS 9 Interview Question Topic Emerging Themes Q1. Previous MALL experience in EFL studies  Most students had no previous experience  Those who did, used smartphones in high school English classes Q2. Feelings about smartphone use in English Speaking course  All participants had a good experience  Surprising at first, but they got used to it  Most thought it was helpful Q3. Perception of being required to use own smartphone in EFL class  All participants preferred it because they were used to the device’s functionality  No participant felt reluctant or forced to use their own device
  9. 9. NCU Proprietary 10 Q4. Feelings of smartphones being beneficial in EFL classes  All participants considered smartphones as helpful and beneficial  Ability to control playback of AV materials was especially important  Several stated that access to Internet for information retrieval was helpful Q5. Trouble using smartphones in EFL class  None of the participants felt that they had problems with smartphones for activities  Some connectivity issues were discussed (e.g., slowness of WiFi connection due to entire class streaming video) Q6. Opinion of other teachers having students use smartphones in EFL class  Other professors should incorporate smartphones  Especially good for listening and speaking  Less confidence in being apropos for reading and writing classes DATA ANALYSIS RESULTS
  10. 10. NCU Proprietary 11 Q7. Future use of smartphones for English study  Strong probability of continued use  Probable use of vocabulary study apps Q8. Classes with smartphones are more enjoyable than those without  All participants found it interesting, exciting, and fun  Self-control of AV materials was good Q9. Classes with smartphones are more productive than those without  Unanimously considered more productive  Self-control of AV materials was more productive  Better than using classroom AV system for video / audio playback  Enables students to look up information when needed DATA ANALYSIS RESULTS
  11. 11. NCU Proprietary IMPLICATIONS  Japanese university EFL students want more personal smartphone use in language classes  Students believe MALL is appropriate & expected; trend of student smartphone use should continue 12
  12. 12. NCU Proprietary RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE  Japanese university professors should continue to incorporate MALL methodology using student smartphones  Participants enjoy & strongly prefer using their own smartphones for interacting with & creating AV materials Bottom line: Professors should take advantage of students’ smartphones in the EFL classroom using MALL teaching methods. Use smartphones for individualized audio & video access, information retrieval, and content creation. 13
  13. 13. NCU Proprietary RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH  Next logical step: replication studies  At both public and private universities across Japan  Seek larger sample sizes, or  Conduct a number of studies with similar sample sizes  Teacher perceptions of using smartphones in Japanese university EFL classrooms need to be explored as well.  No published studies found in reviewing the literature Bottom line: More research is needed to truly reveal student and teacher perceptions of MALL in EFL classes 14
  14. 14. NCU Proprietary Thank you for your attention. Are there any questions? 15
  15. 15. NCU Proprietary REFERENCES  Barrs, K. (2011). Mobility in learning: The feasibility of encouraging language learning on smartphones. Studies in Self-Access Learning Journal, 2(3), 228- 233. Retrieved from  Baxter, P., & Jack, S. (2008). Qualitative case study methodology: Study design and implementation for novice researchers. The Qualitative Report, 13(4), 544-559. Retrieved from  Bryman, A. (2003). Triangulation. Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. doi:  Burston, J. (2013). MALL: Future Directions for BYOD Applications. The IALLT Journal, 43(2). 89-96. Retrieved from  Burston, J. (2014). MALL: The pedagogical challenges. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 27(4), 344-357. doi: 10.1080/09588221.2014.914539  Claudia, H. I. (2014). Teaching English as a foreign language to foreigners. Annals of the University of Oradea, Economic Science Series, 23(2), 87-94.  Damico, J., & Simmons-Mackie, N. (2002). The base layer and the gaze/gesture layer of transcription. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 16(5), 317-327. doi: 10.1080/02699200210135857  Davies, R. (2015). Why tweet when you can bubble? Students’ perceptions of a voice microblog for the development of their L2 spoken production skills. The JALT CALL Journal, 11(3), 213-233. 16
  16. 16. NCU Proprietary REFERENCES (CONTINUED)  Ellis, R., & Shintani, N. (2014). Exploring language pedagogy through second language acquisition research. London: Routledge.  Garcia Mendoza, G.A. (2014). A comparative study of computer and mobile phone-mediated collaboration: The case of university students in Japan. Mobile Learning Applications in Higher Education [Special Section]. Revista de Universidad y Sociedad del Conocimiento (RUSC).11(1), 222-237. doi:  Gikas, J., & Grant, M. (2013). Mobile computing devices in higher education: Student perspectives on learning with cellphones, smartphones & social media. Internet and Higher Education, 19. 18–26. doi:  Hall, J. (2016). Student perceptions of smartphone use for EFL learning. In M. Iguchi, & L. Yoffe (Eds.), JACET Summer Seminar Proceedings: Vol. 14. Mobile Learning In and Out of the Classroom: Balancing Blended Language Learner Training (pp. 24-30).  Ilic, P. (2015). The effects of mobile collaborative activities in a second language course. International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning, 7(4), 16-37. doi: 10.4018/IJMBL.2015100102  Ko, E., Chiu, D., Lo, P., & Ho, K. (2015). Comparative study on m-Learning usage among LIS students from Hong Kong, Japan and Taiwan. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 41(5), 567-577. doi:  Leis, A., Tohei, A., & Cooke, S. (2015). Smartphone assisted language learning and autonomy. International Journal of Computer-Assisted Language Learning and Teaching, 5(3), 75-88. doi: 10.4018/IJCALLT.2015070105 17
  17. 17. NCU Proprietary  Lockley, T. (2011). Japanese students' experience of ICT and other technology prior to university: A study. The JALT CALL Journal, 7(1), 93-102.  Lockley, T. (2013). Answers to outstanding questions about Japanese student ICT competencies and a glance into a mobile future. Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 22(4), 603-617. doi: 10.1007/s40299-013-0063-3  Lockley, T., & Promnitz-Hayashi, L. (2012). Japanese university students’ CALL attitudes, aspirations, and motivations. CALL-EJ, 13(1), 1-16. Retrieved from  Milliner, B. (2017). One year of extensive reading on smartphones: A report. The JALT CALL Journal, 13(1), 49-58.  Nakaya, K., & Murota, M. (2013). Development and evaluation of an interactive English conversation learning system with a mobile device suing topics based on the life of the learner. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 8(1), 65-89.  Shibusawa, T., & Lukens, E. (2004). Analyzing qualitative data in a cross-language context. In D. K. Padgett (Ed.), The Qualitative Research Experience (pp. 179-192). Belmont, CA: Brooks / Cole Cengage Learning.  Stake, R. (1995). Case studies. In Denzin, N. K. & Lincoln, Y. (Eds.), Handbook of Qualitative Research (pp. 236-247).  Stake. R. (2003). Case studies. In Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (Eds.), (2008). Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry (2nd ed.) (pp. 134-164). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. 18 REFERENCES (CONTINUED)
  18. 18. NCU Proprietary 19  Stockwell, G., & Liu, Y. C. (2015). Engaging in mobile phone-based activities for learning vocabulary: An investigation in Japan and Taiwan. CALICO, 32(2), 299-322. doi: 10.1558/cj.v32i2.25000  Toland, S., Mills, D., & Kohyama, M. (2016). Enhancing Japanese university students’ English- language presentation skills with mobile-video recordings. The JALTCALL Journal, 12(3), 179-201.  Wang, S., & Smith, S. (2013). Reading and grammar learning through mobile phones. Language Learning & Technology, 17(3), 117–134. Retrieved from  White, J., & Mills, D. (2012). Get smart!: Smartphones in the Japanese classroom. In A. Stewart & N. Sonda (Eds.), JALT2011 Conference Proceedings. Tokyo JALT.  White, J., & Mills, D. (2014). Examining attitudes towards and usage of smartphone technology among Japanese university students studying EFL. CALL-EJ, 15(2), 1-15.  Wu, Q. (2015). Designing a smartphone app to teach English (L2) vocabulary. Computers & Education, 85, 170-179. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2015.02.013 REFERENCES (CONTINUED)