Tell why I chose this topic Japanese university students more comfortable with mobile phones than with computers (Lockley, 2011, 2013; Stockwell & Liu, 2015) Many teachers in Japanese universities require students to use personal smartphones in EFL classrooms (Barrs, 2011; Burston, 2013; Gikas & Grant, 2013; Milliner, 2017; Wang & Smith, 2013; White & Mills, 2012, 2014) Stockwell & Liu (2015) and White & Mills (2012, 2014) investigated students’ perceptions of smartphone use in university EFL language learning in prestigious, private universities: found positive perceptions Several researchers recommend further research into student perceptions (Hall, 2016; Ilic, 2015; Stockwell & Liu, 2015; White & Mills, 2012, 2014)
Very briefly explain the salient points of the following literature review sections:
Recent research into CALL in Japan
Mobile devices in Japanese EFL
Japanese university student perspectives on smartphones use in EFL classes
The problem is: - EFL teachers require students to use their smartphones to perform language learning activities (Barrs, 2011; Burston, 2013; Davies, 2015; Garcia Mendoza, 2014; Lockley, 2013; Nakaya & Murota, 2013; Toland et al., 2016),
- little is known about public univ. student perceptions of using student-owned smartphones for language classroom exercises (Stockwell & Liu, 2015; White & Mills, 2012, 2014).
- Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) methods are prevalent in Japanese university EFL classes (Davies, 2015; Garcia Mendoza, 2014; Ilic, 2015; Nakaya & Murota, 2013; Toland et al., 2016) Students use smartphones in m-learning to study English on their own (Barrs, 2011; Ilic, 2015; Lockley, 2013; Stockwell & Liu, 2015)
- Stockwell and Liu (2015) learned that Japanese university students are increasingly willing to use their smartphones in EFL learning activities, and that smartphones allow users to perform comparably to computers on language learning activities—confirming findings of Wang and Smith (2013)
- White and Mills (2012, 2014) reported that student perceptions toward EFL learning using smartphones in MALL methods continue to improve.
- Lockley and Promnitz-Hayashi (2012) revealed that Japanese university students expressed a desire for MALL activities in their EFL classes.
The purpose is: To investigate how average Japanese university students feel about being required to use their smartphone in EFL classrooms, thereby providing a better picture of how trends in m-learning may be impacting the general population of Japanese university students. If this study were not conducted, Japanese university instructors may continue to unknowingly adversely affect their students’ English learning motivation by requiring the students to use their personal smartphones for EFL classroom activities as recommended by Hall (2016), Ilic (2015), Stockwell and Liu (2015), White and Mills (2012, 2014).
If this study were not conducted, Japanese university instructors may continue to unknowingly adversely affect their students’ English learning motivation by requiring the students to use their personal smartphones for EFL classroom activities. Failure to investigate student perceptions of personal smartphone use in language classes could lead to a long-term negative impact on students’ learning. Negative perceptions of being required to use their own devices for classroom activities could cause students to develop animosity towards EFL and m-learning methods
Data collection employed in-depth interviews to gather college student experiences with being required to use their personal smartphones in the course. Nine questions guided the semi-structured interviews. Secondary data were gathered by collecting nonverbal cues observed during the interviews to confirm the students’ feelings as expressed in their verbal interview responses (Damico & Simmons-Mackie, 2002). Responses in Japanese were translated by the researcher and verified by two bilingual, native Japanese-speaking colleagues as recommended by Shibusawa and Lukens (2004). Data analysis involved Stake’s (1995) categorical aggregation and pattern discovery methods (Stake, 1995, 2003) using the Dedoose™ qualitative analysis software to determine emergent themes. The study results may inform higher education professors who intend to incorporate student smartphone use in university EFL classrooms to exploit student technical resources for language learning.
Responses in Japanese were transcribed by native Japanese speaking research assistants. The transcripts were then translated by the researcher and verified by two bilingual, native Japanese-speaking colleagues as recommended by Shibusawa and Lukens (2004). Data analysis involved Stake’s (1995) categorical aggregation and pattern discovery methods (Stake, 1995, 2003) using the Dedoose™ qualitative analysis software to determine emergent themes. The study results may inform higher education professors who intend to incorporate student smartphone use in university EFL classrooms to exploit student technical resources for language learning.
The sampling frame included approximately 30 students in EFL courses in regular, public, non-prestigious, Japanese universities. Purposeful sampling was used to gather a minimum sample of nine students from a sampling frame of one university EFL class at one public university in northern Japan (Baxter & Jack, 2008; Stake, 1995, 2003).
Japanese university students have little experience with MALL instructional methods prior to university classes - 2/3 of participants had never used smartphone for EFL - Findings confirm Lockley (2013)
Students see the benefit of, and even prefer using their personal smartphones for language learning activities in EFL classes - Gives them more control of their learning - Allows them to continue their studies more easily outside of the classroom
Participants indicated strong preference for using their smartphones - Watching and listening to AV materials - Creating their own videos and audio clips
Research supports having students create videos and audio clips in their EFL classes to practice their English language skills - Allows for individualized feedback on students’ language abilities.
Participants support their professors requiring them to use their personal smartphones for: Watching and listening to AV materials Creating AV materials Searching for content on the Internet
Findings in line with those of previous research in the field which support the use of students’ personal smartphones in MALL activities in the EFL classroom.
Study addressed the gap in research identified by Hall (2016), Ilic (2015), Stockwell and Liu (2015), and White and Mills (2012, 2014) into the perceptions of Japanese university students about using their personal smartphones in EFL classes.
Most students have a desire for more of their EFL professors to incorporate the use of MALL teaching methods in their English classes (as also found in Lockley & Promnitz-Hayashi, 2012).
Remember: some students still prefer to primarily use textbooks and paper-based materials for studying English, so teachers must remember that not all students are ready to rely solely on MALL methods and need to be accommodated appropriately.
2. Because of the ability they had to research information and content online whenever necessary
1. In the investigation of Japanese university student perceptions of personal smartphone use in their EFL classes…
Student Perceptions of MALL from JALTCALL 2018
A QUALITATIVE CASE STUDY OF JAPANESE
UNIVERSITY STUDENTS AND PERSONAL
SMARTPHONE USE IN ENGLISH AS A
FOREIGN LANGUAGE CLASSES
DR. EDO FORSYTHE
HIROSAKI GAKUIN UNIVERSITY
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
The Literature Review was broken down into 9 categories:
Learning Theories Supporting Mobile Language Learning in EFL
Learning Theories Applied to Current Research
Recent Research into Computer Assisted Language Learning in
Mobile Devices in Japanese EFL Studies
Student Perspectives on Mobile Learning and Social Media
Student Perceptions of Smartphones in Japanese EFL Classes
Teacher Attitudes Toward Mobile Technology Integration
Teachers’ Perceptions of Smartphones in Japanese EFL Classes
• More teachers are using
MALL methods with
student smartphones in EFL
classes, but little research
exists about how students
feel about this trend
• To determine how students
feel about being required to
use their personal
smartphones for EFL
Study Problem and Purpose
How do Japanese university students perceive the
requirement to use their personal smartphones to
complete EFL classroom activities, tasks, and
Smartphone-related language tasks included:
• watching videos,
• listening to textbook audio clips,
• recording speaking samples,
• self-evaluations of speaking samples,
• information retrieval, and
• submission of assignments.
COURSE WIKI PAGE
1-stop shop for
all course audio
and video files
• Qualitative single case study
• Nine participants:
• Freshmen at Japanese public university
• All had completed blended EFL course
with the researcher
• Six female & three male (= class ratio)
• Semi-structured Interviews in Japanese
• Nine questions
• Nonverbal communications observed
and noted in field notes as well as being
added to transcripts for coding
• Informed consent obtained beforehand
• Audio recording consent also obtained
• Nine questions adapted from similar studies
related to this research (Leis et al., 2015;
Lockley & Promnitz-Hayashi, 2012;
Stockwell & Liu, 2015; White & Mills, 2014).
• Interviews transcribed & translated
• Analyzed using Dedoose™ Online tool
• Stake’s (1995) categorical aggregation and
pattern discovery methods
• Validity of data triangulated using
nonverbal communications (Bryman, 2003;
Six female, three male
(matched sample frame gender
ratio of 2:1)
All freshmen from various
departments within university
(specific data not collected)
Probably from across northern
(Hometown and secondary school
background data not collected)
Ages probably between 17 and 19
based on typical freshman ages
(specific data not collected)
DATA ANALYSIS RESULTS
Interview Question Topic Emerging Themes
Q1. Previous MALL experience in EFL studies Most students had no previous
Those who did, used smartphones in
high school English classes
Q2. Feelings about smartphone use in
English Speaking course
All participants had a good experience
Surprising at first, but they got used to it
Most thought it was helpful
Q3. Perception of being required to use own
smartphone in EFL class
All participants preferred it because they
were used to the device’s functionality
No participant felt reluctant or forced to
use their own device
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Q4. Feelings of smartphones being beneficial
in EFL classes
All participants considered smartphones
as helpful and beneficial
Ability to control playback of AV materials
was especially important
Several stated that access to Internet for
information retrieval was helpful
Q5. Trouble using smartphones in EFL class None of the participants felt that they
had problems with smartphones for
Some connectivity issues were discussed
(e.g., slowness of WiFi connection due to
entire class streaming video)
Q6. Opinion of other teachers having
students use smartphones in EFL class
Other professors should incorporate
Especially good for listening and speaking
Less confidence in being apropos for
reading and writing classes
DATA ANALYSIS RESULTS
NCU Proprietary 11
Q7. Future use of smartphones for English
Strong probability of continued use
Probable use of vocabulary study apps
Q8. Classes with smartphones are more
enjoyable than those without
All participants found it interesting,
exciting, and fun
Self-control of AV materials was good
Q9. Classes with smartphones are more
productive than those without
Unanimously considered more
Self-control of AV materials was more
Better than using classroom AV system
for video / audio playback
Enables students to look up information
DATA ANALYSIS RESULTS
Japanese university EFL students want more
personal smartphone use in language classes
Students believe MALL is appropriate & expected;
trend of student smartphone use should continue
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE
Japanese university professors should continue to
incorporate MALL methodology using student smartphones
Participants enjoy & strongly prefer using their own
smartphones for interacting with & creating AV materials
Bottom line: Professors should take advantage of students’
smartphones in the EFL classroom using MALL teaching
methods. Use smartphones for individualized audio & video
access, information retrieval, and content creation.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE
Next logical step: replication studies
At both public and private universities across Japan
Seek larger sample sizes, or
Conduct a number of studies with similar sample sizes
Teacher perceptions of using smartphones in Japanese
university EFL classrooms need to be explored as well.
No published studies found in reviewing the literature
Bottom line: More research is needed to truly reveal student
and teacher perceptions of MALL in EFL classes
Thank you for your attention.
Are there any questions?
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