Teaching religious education


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Teaching religious education

  1. 1. Teaching Religious Education
  2. 2. Related Titles eDUCATION FOR smsc dEVELOPMENT-rON bEST Education, Spirituality and the Whole Child_Ron Best Meditation in Schools _Clive Erricker and Jane Erricker
  3. 3. Researchers in the Classroom Julian Stern Acontinuum Teaching Religious Education
  4. 4. Thanks to Westhill Endowment, a Charitable Trust, sponsors of six research and classroom seminars, which stimulated each chapter of this book. Continuum International Publishing Group The Tower Building 80 Maiden Lane 11 York Road Suite 704 London SE1 7NX New York NY 10038 © L.J. Stern 2006 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or byanymeans, electronic or mechanical, includ- ing photocopying, recording, or any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publishers. Reprinted 2007 Julian Stern has asserted his right under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, to be identified asAuthor of this work. British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is availablefrom the BritishLibrary. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A catalogrecord for this book is available from the Libraryof Congress. ISBN: 978-0-8264-8767-4(paperback) Typeset by Sends Filmsetting Ltd, Manchester Printed andbound in GreatBritain byBiddies Ltd., King’sLynn, Norfolk
  5. 5. Contents Acknowledgements viii Preface ix Introduction: Inclusive RE:search 1 Westhill is alive with the sound of RE 1 What is research? 2 What is RE? 3 Teaching RE: researchersin the classroom 5 Investigating text and context 7 Introduction 7 Exploring the Bible: the Biblos project 9 Exercise 2.1: What to do with the Bible? 12 Approaching the Qur’an 13 Exercise 2.2: Using Muslim sacred texts 15 The Bhagavad Gita and young children 16 Exercise 2.3: Story-telling from the BhagavadGita 17 Conclusion 18 Dialogue within and between 21 Introduction 21 Dialogue in RE across Europe 23 Exercise 3.1: What more can we do? 26 Exercise 3.2: Dialogue now 27 Exercise 3.3: Inside out 30 Dialogue and children's voices 31 Exercise 3.4: Friendship, membership and thought 38 Conclusion 39 Inclusions and RE 40 Introduction: The church of inclusion'? 40 Exercise 4.1: How inclusive is the RE curriculum? 44 1 2 3 4
  6. 6. VI CONTENTS Exercise 4.2: How inclusive is RE pedagogy? 47 RE and the range of pupil needs 49 Exercise 4.3: Salmon Line 55 RE, inclusion and exclusion, and new religious movements 56 Exercise 4.4: When do you feel more included? 57 Conclusion 60 Exercise 4.6: Moksha Chitram 61 5 Teachers and pupils: teaching and learning 63 Introduction 63 Research on RE 64 Exercise 5.1: What does religiousness mean? 66 Research on pedagogy 67 Exercise 5.2: What is typically said? 71 The varieties of RE pedagogy 73 Six ways around Easter: a pedagogical fantasy 74 Exercise 5.3: Evidence for perspectives 78 Conclusion 79 6 RE and human rights, values and citizenships 80 Introduction 80 Values and citizenship 81 Exercise 6.1: Worldwide debate on religion 84 Research into the impact of RE and citizenship education 85 Exercise 6.2: The value of RE 89 Religion within citizenship and human rights education 90 Exercise 6.3: The religion police 93 Conclusion 93 7 Ethnographic research in communities 95 Introduction 95 Ethnography, pluralism and RE 96 Exercise 7.1: Respect map 98 Ethnography, Muslim diversity and RE 98 Exercise 7.2: Reverse ethnography: drawing with people 101
  7. 7. CONTENTS vii Conclusion 102 Exercise 7.3: Blogging for RE 102 The future of RErsearch 104 Introduction 104 Research and sincerity 105 Sincerity in phenomenological research 106 Sincerity in positivistic research 109 Sincerity in RE research 110 Participants in the Westhill Trust Seminars 113 Bibliography 117 Glossary of acronyms 130 Index 132 8
  8. 8. Acknowledgements The Westhill Trust sponsored the series of seminars on which this book is based. Many thanks should go to all the trustees, especially Colin Johnson who attended most of the seminars, both for spon- soring and for helping organize the series. LatBlaylock of RE Today Services was the chief organizer of the seminars (helped by Midhat Riaz) and of the arrangements for the publication of this book: his wisdom and knowledge of the world of RE is invaluable. Lat is also a member of the CE Research Committee, which proposed the seminar series, and the whole of that group, including its chair Ian Birnie, should be thanked. All the presenters and participants in the seminars will, I hope, find themselves in the book. I hope I have not misrepresented or ignored too many of their views, and thank them anyway for their ideas and good company. Pupils in a number of schools contributed to this book, especially those quoted in Chapter 3 (largely from Ipgrave's research), Chapter 4 (largely from my own research), and in the various chapter headings (largely from the PCfRE RE festival database, www.pcfre.org.uk/db/). The researchers in those schools agreed not to name pupils, but I hope they recognize themselves: readers will recognize their insight and authority, and thank them for that. As the 8 year-old is quoted in Chapter 3 assaying, 'we're sort of teaching the grown ups'. Indeed. Those who helped in the later stages of the writing include Lat, once more, and Mike Bottery, Pam Rauchwerger and Marie Stern. Alexandra Webster and Continuum Books have been imaginatively supportive of this whole project. All the faults in the book remain my own. Julian Stem, October 2005 j.stern@hull.ac.uk
  9. 9. Preface As a member of the Westhill Trustees, I was privileged to attend four of the six seminars on which this book is based. The Westhill Trust was set up to administer funds from the sale of Westhill College to the University of Birmingham in such a way that the purposes of the college's founders would continue to be fulfilled. Those purposes included the initial training and continuing professional development of teachers, with a particular emphasis on religious education. The Westhill Seminars have made a very significant contribution to the fulfilment of that aim. No one who attended the seminars could doubt the intellectual stimulation they provided for those present in significant areas of current debate about religious education, or the enthusiasm and motivation generated to pursue these issuesfurther in both research and classroom practice. Three of those who attended have since embarked upon research for PhDs and although it would be unrea- sonable to claim that the seminars were the sole reason for their decisions, they may well have been influential in turning dreams into realities. One participant has been elected to the Executive of the Professional Council for Religious Education and another has joined the planning group which plots the themes for RE Today, the major national publication for classroom RE teachers. Thus the seminars have forged links between classroom practice and research, and between classroom practice and national RE initiatives. In terms of the wider dissemination of the thinking of the sem- inars, four of them have already resulted in articles in REsource, the journal of the Professional Council for Religious Education, and articles on the other two are planned. This book is the first of two more substantial publications by Julian Stern who attended all the seminars. The funding provided by the Westhill Trust will enable
  10. 10. X PREFACE all new entrants to RE teaching in 2006 and 2007 to be presented with a copy. These are only the most obvious quantifiableoutcomes of the sem- inars to date. We do not know, and perhapsnever will know, whatall the classroom teacherswho participatedhave done differently in their classrooms asa result of the mental stimulation of a seminar. Nor can we predict what effect the seminars will have on the thinking of Christian Educations Research Committee which proposed the seminar seriesin the first place. What isbeyond doubt isthat the sem- inars have had a significantimpact on a large number of people who are concerned for the future health of religious education. For those entering the profession of RE teaching these are excit- ing times. By almost any measure, quantitative or qualitative, the subject is stronger and more vibrant than it hasbeen for manyyears. We hope that those who receive this book over the next two years will catch from it some of that sense of vibrancy. The Westhill Trust is proud to have played a part in contributing so significantly to the national debate about what RE is and how it can contribute to the search for meaning of every pupil. Colin Johnson, October 2005
  11. 11. 1 Introduction: Inclusive RE:search / have enjoyed all my RE lessons,religion is not as boring as you may think, it can be as interesting as you make it to be. I have learnt and understood other people's religions, which have helped me understand things in life. I have learnt about the world, and how we are not all equal Plus lots more. (13 year-old) Westhill is alive with the sound of RE The idea for this book started back in 2001, with a seminar funded by the St Gabriel's Trust on research in RE. Following that, the GEM (Christian Education Movement, now Christian Education or CE) Research Committee thought it would be a good idea to bring together RE professionalsand researchersin a series of meet- ings to exchange ideas on what was going on in RE classroomsand RE research. Over a year was spent working out what areas of research were going on in RE, and how to divide up the meetings, geographically and by topic. Thanks to the generosity of the Westhill Trust, a series of six meeting subsequently took place during 2004 and 2005, the Westhill Trust Seminars, starting in Cheltenham, and moving like a mid-ranking football team through Coventry, Darlington, Manchester, Leeds, and ending in Luton. A total of 73 people attended one or more of those meetings, over 30 of whom were practising classroomteachers. The topicswere RE and sacred text, dialogue, inclusion, pedagogy, human rights and cit- izenship, and ethnography Presenters included Fatma Amer, Lat Blaylock, Terence Copley, Liam Gearon, James Holt, Julia Ipgrave, Bob Jackson, Eleanor Nesbitt, Linda Rudge, Sarah Srnalley,Julian Stern and Geoff Teece. All the meetings included presentations by key researchers and contributions by, and discussions with, all the participants.Every
  12. 12. 2 TEACHING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION presentation and discussion was noted byJulian Stern, aparticipant in all the meetings, and the notes were later sent around all the par- ticipants, so that they were happy with what was described of the meetings. A number of articles have, asstated in the Preface, above, already appeared in REsource, and it wasdecided that, in addition to those articles, two books would be published. One book, the one you are reading, would be a guide for all RE teachers about how research and practice in RE come together. A second book will also be written, called Religion and Schools (Stern 2007), and that book will provide more scholarly work on all the themes of the Westhill Seminars, and a number of additional themes, connecting school- ing and religion, with RE at its core. It is to the enormous credit of the Westhill Trust, that this, the first of these two books, will be dis- tributed free to allnewly qualified RE teachers in the two years after it is published. It is now the responsibility of this book to provide a guide to the relationship between research andRE, starting with the two obvious questions, 'What is research?' and 'What is RE?' What is research? Research isconnected to the searchfor truth (agood tradition of that in religions, of course), and isidentified assearchingfor truth in par- ticular ways. One definition of research from the Higher Education Funding Council for England, the largest funders of research, so worth listening to, says that 'research [in terms of their Research Assessment Exercise] is original investigation undertaken in order to gain knowledge and understanding ... It excludes routine testingand analysis [and] the development of teaching materials that do not embody original research.' So research involves originality; it also involves a particular way of using theories: Consider, for example, the striking differences in the wayin which theo- ries are used. Laypeoplebase them on haphazard events and use them in a loose and uncritical manner ... Scientists, by contrast, construct their theories carefully and systematically. (Cohen et al. 2000, p. 2) If you have 'finding out' that is original, careful and systematic, and that is placed in a systematically constructed 'theory', you probably have research. However, despite all these grand-sounding phrases, it
  13. 13. INCLUSIVE RE:search 3 is worth saying that research is something quite ordinary. It is some- thing we expect of pupils in our schools, for example, asit is difficult for pupils to learn without their being researchers. The only learn- ing that could not be covered by the definitions of research given here, would be learning that is wholly unoriginal or routine, or that does not fit in any 'theory' or systematicunderstanding of how things or ideas fit together. Would teachers be happy with education that did not involve their pupils in research? Would teachers themselves be happy with a life in teaching that did not involveresearch? Good examples of activities that are very close to research, and are, understandably, considered rather problematic by teachers, are the preparations for Ofsted inspections or the achievement of various 'charter marks' and other forms of school accreditation, such as the Healthy Schools Standard, the Index for Inclusion, Investors in People status or the Primary Charter Mark. These are very close to research, because information is systematically collected, original and carefully described with evidence provided to back up each piece of information. Sometimes, what is missing is an overall crit- ical evaluation that puts the information into a theoretical context. This book therefore includes more theory and critical evaluation than some of those preparations might encourage. As for most edu- cational issues, the theory can be described as being related to one of four academic disciplines: psychology, sociology, philosophy and history. If such theory is present, then those rather burdensome processes can indeed become entirely legitimate research. What is RE? The RE described in this book is a subject in a particular place and time. It is the RE that is taken as 'normal' in most contemporary education debates in England and Wales, broadly as described in the National Framework for RE in England (QCA 2004) and as described in most of the locally agreed syllabuses for RE (available from www.REOnline.org.uk). It is a subject that is non-confessional (i.e. it should not try to convert pupils to any particular religion), multi-faith (i.e. it should involve learning about a number of reli- gions) and respectful of non-religious ways of life (i.e. it is not just about religions). Those who have studied the history of RE in England and Wales, or who haveworked with RE specialistsin other
  14. 14. 4 TEACHING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION countries around the world, will know how distinctive and in that sense 'abnormal' that version of the subjectis. Indeed, there are those currently working in England and Wales who would prefer a more confessional RE (Thompson 2004a, 2004b), a single-religion RE or an RE that rejects non-religious ways of life, just as there are those who would ban RE or replace it with moral, personal orcitizenship education. Recognizing the existence of these debates is important; engaging in all of them, in this short book, would be impossible. It ishoped, nevertheless, that the accounts of RE and research through- out the book do speak to all those interested in every kind of RE. RE by its very nature is inclusive. It includes pupils and their communities, it includes cultures and belief systems from around the world and from all of human history, it includes the non-religious and the anti-religious, as well as those passionate about their reli- gion. This book shows how RE includes research. As this involves 'search' in RE, it can be called RE:search. Pupils can beresearchers, teachers can be researchers and all can be in conversation with the people who have 'research' in their official job tides. Amongst the key writers about research in RE are Michael Grimmitt, whose Pedagogies of Religious Education (2000) brings together research on the teaching of RE from awide range of writers in thefield,Jackson (for example in Jackson 2004) who writes about the development of both empirical and non-empirical research in RE, and Francis and Kay (for example Francis et al. 1996, or Kay and Francis 2000) who write books to support distance learning research in RE. The bringing together of RE and research is therefore well established, and exciting for RE teachers and researchersand, most of all, pupils. For RE to thrive, pupils and teachers must be involved and active. The thirteenth-century Sufi Muslim poet, Rumi, was rather criti- cal of 'school learning', but provided the cure to some of its limita- tions in the poem TwoKinds of Intelligence (Rumi 1995, p. 178, and at www.sufism.org/books/barks and www.sufism.org/books/jewels/ rhearthtml). There he contrasts 'acquired' intelligence that flows into a schoolchild from books and teachers, with the intelligence that comes from within, from the heart or soul, and flows out- wards: a fountain continually flowing. The latter intelligence is described by Rumi as God-given. Whatever view people take on the source of the intelligence, it helps promote the idea of RE being research-based and involving pupils as they are and can be, rather
  15. 15. INCLUSIVE RE:search D than passive and merely fact-driven. Of course, Rurni was not denying the importance of the first kind of intelligence either. The flow must be in both directions. That is what this book is attempt- ing to achieve. Teaching RE: researchers in the classroom The tide of the book attempts to answer two questions: • First, how can RE improve further, and bridge the gap between its own self-image as a vital and vibrant subject, and the image of it portrayed by some inspectors and even some pupils, parents and teachers as something of a backwater?An answer may be for RE as a school subject to engage more in research, both research undertaken by professionalacademics and research undertaken by RE teachers and pupils. Along with the accounts of RE and research in each chapter, there are 21 exercises spread through the book: 21 ways in which teachers can use research in their classrooms. * Second, how can researchers hope to understand the complex and relatively impenetrable world of school RE? Schools are a challenge to researchers (as described in McDonald 1989), just as religion is a challenge to researchers (as described in McCutcheon 1999), so RE presents even more problems. An answer may be for professional academic researchers to see pupils, their families and schools as co-researchers rather than as subjects, and to build in to their research a commitment to the improvement of people's lives, and to the improvement of RE and schooling more generally. This is the basis for research, such asthat of MacBeath 1999, Rudduck et al. 1996 and Flutter and Rudduck 2004, that attempts to give voice to pupils and teachers. This book therefore uses some of the common themes in contem- porary RE and sits them alongside some of the common themes in contemporary research. It is not a comprehensive surveyof research in RE, it isa selection of some important topics; it is not an attempt to saythat ICE teaching and research are one and the same thing, it is a description of complementarity. Bringing together RE and
  16. 16. 6 TEACHING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION research leads to an argument, in Chapter 8, for the value of sin- cerity in RE research. Sincerity isa quality that should help RE and research develop further in the future. It is not the answer to all the problems of RE and of research, but it is a valuable principle rarely addressed in the literature.
  17. 17. 2 Investigating text and context My Grandmother read to me, when I was young, a piecefrom the Bible and taught me those things. (13 year-old, responding to the question 'Religions sometimes teach theirfollowers aboutfreedom, truth,justice, love and forgiveness. Who has taught you about these things?') Introduction Teachers of RE have alwaysbeen exploring texts, and the best use of sacred texts in RE should be enlightening, imaginative, literate, provocative and sensitive to context. However, this is inevitably not always the case, and the ways in which texts are studied in RE differ from the ways they are studied in history or English lessons. Research on the use of sacred texts in RE can help teach- on the use of sacred texts can also connect contemporary RE to its past, asthe detailed study of sacred texts is one of the few activ- ities that teachers from centuries past might recognize in today's classrooms. Texts themselves — in contrast to oral communication — are attempts to communicate at a distance. Space and time are not bar- riers to textual communication, even if the texts themselves and their significance may seem to change as they are reread over the years, and as they are passed around the world. That is why this chapter refers to investigating context, as well as text. Amongst the research on sacred text in RE is a small-scale study by AREIAC, the RE advisers' organization (www.areiac.org.uk). That study isa good starting point, as it simply compared the typical use of texts in history and RE: ers understand what is happening and what is possible . Research
  18. 18. 8 TEACHING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION History RE Tasks tend to require pupils to: Tasks tend to require pupils to: read multiple source materials rarely usemultiple texts make decisions andchoices about simply recycle their reading the material they arereading usesecond-hand rather than work with original texts original texts handle challenging text material engage with over-processed process reading so that their writing simplified language output is significantly different from paraphrasereading doing little the material they have read. with the original; too much emphasis on low-level comprehension and recall, It is surprising that there is such a gap between the approaches to the use of texts in these subjects, given the way the subjects both depend on old and original texts, and given thatmanyteachersteach both subjects. It is hoped the situation will improve. The availabil- ity of texts may help, as multiple, original, sacred texts are becom- ing much more easily and cheaply available, especially in electronic formats. On the Internet, general sites include www.religioustoler- ance.org or www.sacred-texts.com/ and siteswith accessto keytexts include www.buddhanet.net/ or bible.gospelcom.net/ or www. krishna.com/ or www.quran.org.uk/ or wwwjewishvirtuallibrary. org/ or www.Sikhs.org/granth.htm. However, the availability of sacred texts does not necessarily mean they will be used most effectively in RE classrooms. What about the 'challenge' of the material, and the ways of reading texts? Five overarching issues can be identified, when dealing with sacred texts in RE: • The format in which sacred texts are presented, for example in snippets on dog-eared worksheets, in the form of the full text or somewhere in between. It isworth noting the import- ance of oral traditions in most religions: the telling of stories, not just the reading of stories, for example, as in the 'telling place' project of the Bible Society (see www.thetellingplace. org/ and www.biblesociety.org.uk/), • The quantity of sacred text that canbe put in front of a pupil, whether in snippets, longer extracts or full texts. If English lessons comfortably handle complete novels and plays, RE
  19. 19. INVESTIGATING TEXT ANDCONTEXT 9 lessons should be able to handle complete sacred texts, even when only a short piece is studied in detail. * The degree and format of translation, paraphrasing and retelling, taking account of different traditions in different faith communities. There can be a tension between authenticityand accessibility, although this can be tackled directly in the lessons, as it is, for example, in many history and English lessons. * The assumptions we bring to sacred texts, how we convey the assumptions abeliever maybring to the text and what happens when someone comes to the text who is not a believer. Assumptions include ideas on the truth: within religious tra- ditions, for example, a single text may be treated as more lit- erally true or more symbolically true. Again, teachers should tackle this head on, exploring possible assumptions. * Issues of pedagogy, including appropriate ways of dealing with texts from the perspective of the RE teacher and from the perspective of the member of the faith community Pupils should feel comfortable handling sacred texts, and using all their skills and creativity to come to understand the texts. All these issues have been raised with respect to the Bible by the Biblos project based in Exeter. Exploring the Bible: the Biblos project One of the biggest RE projects of recent years has been the Biblos project, exploring the uses of the Bible in RE, and this istherefore a good place to start in understandingresearch on sacred text. It isa superb example of the search for empirical evidence to contribute to debates on the proper uses of the text. It also draws on thatresearch to support the training and professional development of teachers, and, notably, bases what it says on evidence provided by pupils and teachers as well as a clear understanding of theology. The respect thereby shown to the sacred text itself, in its religious context, and to pupils as well as to teachers, is a model for research in RE. The project has been led by Copley, and there are severalresearch reports on the project already published (including Copley 1998a, Copley et al. 2001, 2004), with classroom materials already coming from the project,and Copley and Walshe 2002, from arelated project,
  20. 20. 10 TEACHING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION involving trialling classroom materials. For Copley, the Bible as a sacred text hasaparticular'problem'in England, becauseit is regarded as a 'heritage text' aswell as a 'sacred text'. Heritage is a big problem in this country, aspeople are more likely, for example, to visit cath- edrals as tourists than as pilgrims. Biblos tackles some stereotypes of the Bible in English RE: that the Bible hasdisappearedfromRE; the Bible is only relevant to Christians; that teachers are reluctant to use biblical material; and that biblical material should be secularized. An example of the loss of the Bible, even from nominal 'Bible stories', istheJoseph narrativeastackled with 7-11year-olds. Joseph becoming an oppressor is not included in the narratives used in schools, and the central role of God in the Bible is suppressed,just as the central role of Allah in the Qur'an is at times suppressed. For example, in the musicalJoseph and theAmazing Technicolour Dreamcoat, 'any dream will do'. God appearsnot at all:Joseph isa 'nice guy, who succeeds against the odds'. This, says Copley, is anti-RE. A proper consideration of biblical texts is vital, as they are relevant to three religions, Judaism, Christianity and Islam, they have a place in the history of Western civilization and they are a proper subject for debate. The relevant cultural and historical contexts must besup- plied, and for this academic scholarship is important: the apparent 'divorce'of theology from RE, since the 1960s, maynot have helped. The criteria for the Biblos project's choice of stories, or narrative themes, were that they had to be relevant, a bridge between secular and religious, easily comprehensible, easy to remember, theological not secular, not exclusive, and progressive. The team, after abandon- ing hope (as a theme), and giving up taking 'God' seriously (as a topic), settled on 'destiny', 'encounter'and 'vulnerability'as the three themes. These themes are also themes of importance to children: what they want to grow up as,encounters with friends, enemies and teachers, and vulnerability in all those things. The Biblos project went on to study what young people know and think about the Bible, and what hasshaped these attitudes and perceptions. The work is being replicated in New Zealand to see how 'British' are the responses. There were 1,066pupils, aged 10-11, 13-14 and 16-17, who were asked similar questions in questionnaires, and some of whom were interviewed. 70% of respondents were Christian, 15.1% had no religious identity, 6.2% were Sikh, 3.4% Hindu, 2.4% Islam,
  21. 21. INVESTIGATING TEXT AND CONTEXT 11 1.5% 'other', 0.8% Buddhist, 0.2%Jewish. Most could identity pas- sages from the Bible, but when asked about meaning, 36.3% found secular ethical meanings, compared to 22.9% theological, 9.1% literal and 5.8% irrelevant. Examples of the 'secular' meanings given to Bible passages were: David and Goliath ashope for the underdog, the birth of Jesus meaning Christmas presents, feeding the 5,000 meaning not taking things for granted and sharing things. There were many responses to questions on why the Bible is important, especially from respondents who themselves were members of reli- gious groups other than Christianity. The 'heritage' importance of the Bible was certainly recognized. 'The Bible should be respected' (74.1%), it 'can show people how to live' (63.1%), but surprisingly 58.8% disagreed or strongly disagreed with 'I look to the Bible for personal guidance'. Most positive were Christian church-attending females aged 10-11, with hobbies suchasreading fiction/novels and watching soap operas,rather than films and music and playing com- puter games. What matters most to children? Family, education and religion, for those more positively inclined towards the Bible; activ- ities and hobbies, for those less positively inclined towards the Bible. The project'soverall conclusion is that, by presenting bible narra- tive in its cultural context, and by encouraging pupils to provide their own theological interpretations, we can open the Bible for children. It is the researchof teachers, to support the presentation of the appropriate context, and the research of pupils, asinterpreters of the text, that can change passivelessonsin comprehension into lively and scholarlyRE. There are different ways of researchingand teach- ing the Bible, such as those of Cupitt (e.g. Cupitt 1991), Erricker (e.g. Erricker and Erricker 2000) or Hull (e.g. Hull 1998), all of whom are described by Copley as looking for meaning in the reader, at times, more than in the text. The Biblos project is clearly 'partial' in this way,in looking first for meaningin the text itself, and yet the contrast between those looking at the text and those looking at the reader may be something of a false dichotomy, as the Biblosproject, in common with the other approaches,looks at engagement between text and reader: nobody looks to the text or the reader alone. • The intellectual culture of the classroom supports the idea of engagement with the text of the Bible, allowing for distinct approaches, yet held together by a commitment to engage.
  22. 22. 12 TEACHING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION • Although the responses were slightly different from church schools than non-church schools, there is more work to be done on this issue. An interesting finding is that many Christian children, whether in church or non-church schools, are apparentlyencountering more religion in school than they do at home. Exercise 2.1:What to do with the Bible? There are at least three conclusions from the Biblos research: • Good RE teaching must not ignore the theological and God-centred dimensions of Bible narratives. • Good RE teaching must recognize that the Bible is of particular importance to Christians,Jews and Muslims. • Good RE teaching must facilitate pupil engagement with the Bible and seek to raise their valuationsof it, asthe RE teacher is often the most important gatekeeper to, and cartographer of, the Bible for children. RE teachers can investigate how each of these can be achieved. The process should involve three stages: • A teacher or group of teachers should review the RE cur- riculum plan, and highlight examples of the use of the Bible narratives. • For each use of Bible narrative, the teacher can assess whether theological issues are to be raised, how important the narrative might be to Christians, Jews and Muslims and how the lessons will help pupils to value the text. • Where any of the answers are negative, the teacher could work out how to improve the plan so that, at least for some of the uses of Bible narratives, there are opportunities for theological engagement, consideration of the importance to religious believers and pupils valuing the text. Other sacred texts can of course be studied appropriately in the sameway.
  23. 23. INVESTIGATING TEXT AND CONTEXT 13 Approaching the Qur'an The Qur'an has been widely used in the teaching of Islam, both as an artefact, in lessons about how sacred objects may be treated, and as text. However, relatively little research has been completed on its use in classrooms, although some initial surveys are being com- pleted. From the Muslim Council of Britain, for example, Amer has considered approaches to using the Qur'an as a sacred text in the classroom. She starts with the question, what kind of sensitiv- ities should teachers observe when using the Qur'an in teaching BJE? On a school visit, Amer noticed one teacher, who wanted to display a copy of the Qur'an, apparently trembling, worrying about what the pupils, many of whom were Muslim, would sayabout her handling of the Qur'an. Such fear seems out of place: genuine respect is the appropriate attitude to this sacred text, as with all sacred texts. The Arabic text of the Qur'an is considered by Muslims to be the directly revealed Word of God, whilst a trans- lated Qur'an is by definition part human interpretation of the meanings and is therefore no longer considered divine. However, both should be treated with respect. Muslim pupils may memorize the Qur'an, but teachers should avoid using pupils who memorize the Qur'an as a novelty. Rather, teachers could develop a knowledge of how and when this example may appropriately be incorporated into a lesson: it should be a vol- untary activity. The time and background of the arrival of the first substantial Muslim community in the UK hasinfluenced approaches to the Qur'an, as that group had a particular religious approach, reflecting particular cultural traditions rather than universal religious traditions. Whilst remaining sensitive to the specific cultural trad- itions, according to Amer, becoming completely tied to a set of 'taboos' deriving from a single tradition can restrict the possibility of studying the Qur'an in classrooms. The Qur'an can be used in many ways, as a study text, as inspi- ration for daily life, as a catalyst for academically sound historical enquiry, as a linguistic framework, as a framework for modern ethical dilemmas or as a way of facilitating acquisition of vocabu- lary for pupils with English asan additional language. Such uses can tie in with, but are not entirely addressed by, the national literacy strategies: these strategies tend to focus on literacy alone, and not
  24. 24. 14 TEACHING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION on exploring the deeper meaning or the underlying messages.As with Copley's work on the Christian Bible, work on the Qur'an relates to Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Three issues are commonly raised by RE teachers on the use of the Qur'an: • What arethe best ways in which school RE canusethesacre texts of Islam? Amer suggests the use of narrative to inspire, the use of enjoyable games, such as hopscotch to learn the stages of Hajj or snakes and ladders for steps to paradise, the use of role-playing to assist in the exploration of the sense of awe and wonder in relation to the divine, and the use of poetry and creative writing (e.g. on birds, animals, insects or water in the Qur'an) for pupils of all ages. What potential for good learning in RE in general is there in the development of good uses of the Qur'an in RE? Exploring the transfer of concepts using the vehicle of translation, enhancing opportunities for social and emotional literacy, highlighting commonalities between three Abrahamic faiths whilst treating differences with integrity (asit is important to do both, especially with an increased prominence of mterfaith issues), and the diversity and enrichment of religious literacy. How canteachersbe helped to do more andbetter work with Qur'anic text in RE at the various different age groups? This is an issue of teacher training, increasing teachers' personal familiarity with the sacred text, and having good-quality inexpensive inservice training. Amer talked about some of the resources that can be used, including the patterns of texts themselves as calligraphy (for which, see the 'art' section of www.islaml01.com/), patterning used in texts, materials produced by the IQRA Trust (with information at www. iqratrust.org), story books that manage to avoid portraying prophets, computer games, a CD-rom (Living Mam, from www.microbooks.org/) and songs (including translations of meanings of Qur'an verses). With the involvement of the Muslim community in producing such resources, there is an increasing choice of those available. Publications of the Islamic Foundation (www.islamic-foundation.org.uk) have been very helpful. Further ideas can be found from within
  25. 25. INVESTIGATING TEXT AND CONTEXT 15 Islam, such as from the London Central Mosque Trust and The Islamic Cultural Centre (146 Park Road, London NWS 7RG, tel: 020 7724 3363), the Islam online website (www.islamonline.net), the Muslim Heritage website (www. muslimheritage.com/) and Salaam (www.salaam.co.uk), in order to give some basis to valuable celebration traditions. Those discussing the use of th< Qur'an in RE often report a fear of making mistakes when using the Qur'an in any way. It is as though the Qur'an should, literally and metaphorically, be put 'out of reach' of the pupils. Yet it is surely better to engage with the text, even with the possibility of inadvertently making mistakes, than to avoid all engagement. Exercise 2.2: Using Muslim sacred texts Making use of a Muslim sacred text (available on paper or elec- tronically from www.sacred-texts.com/ or www.quran.org.uk/), the teacher and pupils should research examples of how the text can be used in each of the six ways described by Amer: 1 as a study text, for example by asking pupils to study a surah (such as Surah 2 or many others) looking at Islamic belief about Allah, 2 as inspiration for daily life, for example by asking pupils to identify an appropriate text for a Muslim who has suffered a personal loss (again, starting with Surah 2), 3 as a catalyst for academically sound historical enquiry, for example by asking pupils to consider accounts of events in the Qur'an, such as the account given of Jesus in Surah 4, making use of the skills of textual analysis developed in history lessons, 4 as a linguistic framework, for example by asking pupils to compare two contrasting 'translations' (generally called 'interpretations') of a particular piece of text, in order to understand more about the process of translation, 5 as a framework for modern ethical dilemmas, for example taking guidance on divorce (from Surah 2, 33, 55 or 56) and
  26. 26. 16 TEACHING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION discussing what the implications are of this advice for life in the contemporary world, > as a way of facilitating acquisition of vocabulary for pupils with English as an additional language, for example by getting pupils with a knowledge of the Arabic used in the Qur'an to work with pupils without that knowledge to create a 'dictionary* of key concepts. The Bhagavad Gita and young children A good example of research on using the Bhagavad Gita in RE is that of Parmar (2001), who hasbeen researching the use of transla- tions of the Bhagavad Gita to raise questions fundamental to human experience. She worked with children aged 7, many of whom had experienced inappropriate teaching ofHinduism - for example using cartoons that made the pupils uncomfortable. Parmar's own experience of Christian education, as a pupil, was not a challenge to her Hinduism, but enriched it, so, when Parmar took up her Bhagavad Gita, she used her interpretive skills asan historian aswell as her life asa Hindu. The Bhagavad Gita is set on the eve of battle, with the battle metaphorically at the heart of every person. The problem is one of right choice, happiness and suffering, including the three gunas or qualities of light, fire and darkness. Carrington and Troyna (1988) saythat children should face controversial issues, and this isimportant in working with the Bhagavad Gita. Although the work is clearly important, the difficulty appears to be getting teachers interested. Sometimes, new RE teachers see the subjectas being about multiculturalism alone, without having a concern for the substantial sacred texts and other religious items. A second issue is that of oral, in contrast to literary, traditions. Beckerlegge (2001b) investigates how religions represent them- selves in their traditions, for example in speech, texts, images or ritual enactments, and how these are affected by cultural, historical and technological contexts. The oral tradition, from which the Bhagavad Gita and other Hindu Vedic sacred texts derive, involved an immediate personal relationship between the speaker and audi- ence. Written traditions, and later technologies such asfilm and the Internet, changed that relationship and therefore affected access to
  27. 27. INVESTIGATING TEXT AND CONTEXT 17 and relationships with the sacred. Once photography was devel- oped, according to Beckerlegge, photographs of such religious teachers asRamakrishna were by some regarded as murtis, and more recently, there have been representations of deities and sacrednar- ratives in films and on television, notably the 1987-8 televised Ramayana, The qualities of the oral tradition must not be lost in all these changes. The National Curriculum for English pfEE and QCA 1999) addresses the development of reading and writing skills, but also includes a focus upon speakingand listening. Pupils are expected to demonstrate an ability: To speak with confidence in a range of contexts, adapting their speech for a range of purposes and audiences ... [aged 7-11, and to] speak fluently and appropriately in different contexts, adapting their talk for a range of purposes and audiences, including the more formal [aged 11-16]. (D£EE and QCA 1999) This requirement, along with the importance of oral traditions in religion, gives considerable impetus to the use of story-telling in RE, and to assessing pupil skills in story-telling and listening to stories. Assessment of pupils rarely refers to oral work, except to complain of 'too much talking'. Exercise 2.3, below, is therefore one example that ties together a vital sacred text with its oral origins, helping pupils develop their own oral skills as well as their understanding of religion. Exercise 2.3: Story-telling from the Bhagavad Gita The Bhagavad Gita is one of the texts most used by Hindus for guidance on making difficult personal decisions. Choose a topic of immediate importance to the pupils in your class that is also addressed by the text and create a story-telling (telling, not reading, if possible) of that text, and a lesson to follow it up. An example might be the apparent recommendation of violence in the story (generally noticed, with some glee, by more 'lively' pupils), noting the peace-loving Gandhis response when asked
  28. 28. 18 TEACHING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION about this. Questioner: 'at the end of the Gita Krishna recom- mends violence'; Ghandi: 'I do not think so. I am also fighting. I should not be fighting effectively if I were fighting violently' (quoted in Beckerlegge 2001a, p. 307). Evaluate the lesson, on the basis of pupil answers to the fol- lowing questions. The third question, about meeting targets,can only be asked where there is a clear 'target-setting' culturein the school. What did you learn about Hindu traditions or dharma from this lesson? What didyou think Hindus would want you to learn from (this part of) the BhagavadGita? What did you learn from this Hindu story that will help you to meet your targets in RE or as apupil? Conclusion It is worth going back to the questions set in the introduction to this chapter. When it comes to the format in which sacred texts are pre- sented, there isa need for further research by teachers on how pupils engage with sacred texts, building on the research of the Biblos project and the others described in this chapter. How sacred text is used may also be a continuing topic for research not only by teachers but also by the other organiza- tions interested in RE, such asreligious groups and SACREs. People haveaskedabout the 'quantity'of sacred texts:whether they are primarily presented in short snippets (in a more frac- tured format), or complete texts (in a more holistic format). It is clear that this is not only an issue about presentation. The impact on pupil learning of fractured or holistic approaches has been little researched in RE, and the subject could sensi- blyjoin with other subjectssuch asEnglish and history which may have a longer tradition of considering this issue. The publishing of complete sacred texts, for use in schools, is to be welcomed (asin the Living Religions CD-rom series from www.microbooks.com).
  29. 29. INVESTIGATING TEXT AND CONTEXT 19 Having complete texts available does not answer the question of how those texts have been translated, paraphrasedor retold. The oral tradition seemsmost in need of further development, as described from Beckerlegge 200Ib, above, and research in that area would be welcome. Pupils as well as teachers have considerable story-telling abilities, often underexploited in schools. The fact that oracy is so important within every reli- gious tradition suggeststhat RE should beleading - alongside drama and languages lessons —in developing this skill. The very act of translating, paraphrazingor retellingindicates some of the assumptions of both teachers and pupils. How can teachers be prepared, and pupils be supported, in understand- ing these assumptions? Initial teacher training is important, but this must be continued throughout teachers' careers, with continuing support from advisors,SACREs, exam boardsand the writers of texts for schools. Teachers and pupils need a strong sense of the various genres used in sacred texts, and use those texts acrossallof RE, and notjust in topics called 'sacred texts'. The framing of texts is important, that is, how an extract from a sacred text, or a complete sacred text, is intro- duced and explained to pupils. Such explanatory work will outline something about the text's source and its genre. 'Framing'is well developed in history textbooks such as those of the Schools History Project (at www.tasc.ac.uk/shp/), in which extracts from historical sources are explained in terms of how the texts were written, whether and how they are translated, what they would have been used for and how they fit in amongst other related texts. RE might use more of the skills of such historical 'framing'. School RE of course has its own pedagogy (as described in Chapter 5, below), and this may be different from the peda- gogy of other subjects and of religious communities, when dealing with sacred texts. There is not necessarily a problem with these differences, but knowing what the differences are will help make RE more effective. Indeed, each group under- standing the pedagogy of the other groups could benefit all. Long traditions of pedagogy from every religious tradition should be 'tapped into', notwithstanding possible challenges caused by religious communities not always 'saying the right
  30. 30. 20 TEACHING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION things', from the perspective of teachers, and vice versa. For example, memorizing texts, much used in religious contexts, is at times seen by teachers asinappropriately 'old-fashioned', yet it is a skill and practice of much value in RE. Sacred texts communicate with us, and are used to communicate between us. The relationship between text and reader, or between writer and reader, is much studied in literary theory. In RE, sacred texts may have the religion extracted from them (as described by Copley with respect to the Bible), may be treated as unusable objects (asdescribed by Amer with respect to the Qur'an), or may have their life-giving story-telling properties ignored (as described by Parmar with respect to the Bhagavad Gita). It is a measure of the importance of research that all three of these authors, along with others working in the field, can exemplify good practice with respect to sacred texts. The texts help communication across time and distance: it is a kind of dialogue over space and time that can educate and inspire. Dialogue by text, across space and time, is now possible using computers, but the simpler technology of printing has already expanded the frontiers of dialogue. And dialogue itseli is the subject of a great deal of research in RE, and is the subject oi the following chapter.
  31. 31. 3 Dialogue within and between It's like we're sort of teaching the grown ups. (8 year-old) Introduction Dialogue hasbeen central to religious and educational traditions for thousands of years, yet manypeople associate religion with author- itative monologue (such as in stereotypes of endless sermonizing), so the importance of dialogue needs stressing. One of the great defenders of educational dialogue was Socrates. Many write about Socratic methods, with Socrateshaving philosophized through dia- logue or argument. Socrates even went to the lengths of refusing to write things down, asthat would restrict his thinking and teaching. It is fascinating in today's literacy-obsessed society to think that this refusal to write wasthe basisof the criminal chargesbroughtagainst Socrates for 'corrupting the youth of Athens'. In religion, many write —or, better still, talk —about the Buddha's dialogues or Jesus' arguments, or about the many dialogic forms in Hindu traditions, notably the Bhagavad Gita. Religious dialogues include dialogue between religions, as well as within religions. Early Christian dia- logue crossed Jewish and non-Jewish boundaries, Sikh dialogue worked across Hindu and Muslim traditions (both within and beyond both, as Hindu and Muslim writers are recognized in the Guru Granth Sahib, whilst Sikhism asserts itself as a quite distinct religion), and the Sufi Muslim poet Rumi wrote of the state of heightened awareness through dhikr ('remembrance' or 'listening') when 'I belong to the beloved' and am 'not Christian or Jew or Muslim, not Hindu, Buddhist, sufi, or zen' (Rumi 1995, p. 32). The Baha'i tradition recognizes the teachings of Zoroaster, the Buddha, Jesus and Muhammad, aswell asBaha'u'llah. In these and
  32. 32. 22 TEACHING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION countless other ways, talking and listening within and across reli- gions have been central to how people have lived. In the twentieth century, the great religious philosopher Martin Buber described living itself in terms of dialogue as 'all real living is meeting' whilst also, helpfully, warning against the temptation of 'monologue dis- guised as dialogue' (Buber 2002, pp. 22 and 25). RE can and often does reflect the same dialogic approach, espe- cially when the educational and religious traditions corne together in a multi-faith RE, the most widespread tradition in English and Welsh RE since the 1960s. Ninian Smart was perhaps the most influential person in the growth of multi-faith RE, and one of his first books was a description of a dialogue between a Christian, Jew, Muslim, Hindu, Sri Lankan Buddhist and Japanese Buddhist. 'The demand for fairness is one reason for the dialogue form', says Smart (1960, p. 13). The dialogue form also emphasizes anew the point that where there is discussion, there reasons arefound. The possibility of argument implies that there are criteria of truth, however vague. Indeed, the man [sic] who refuses to argue at all is guilty of slaying truth: both the true and the false perish, and he is reduced to mere expressions of feeling. (Smart 1960, p. 14) Interfaith dialogue, and dialogue beyond religions, is now built in to the National Framework for RE (QCA 2004), which says that pupils should 'reflect on ... the significance of interfaith dialogue', which should in turn help in 'promoting racial and interfaith harmony and respect for all, combating prejudice and discrimination, contributing positively to community cohesion and promoting awareness of how interfaith cooperation cansupport the pursuit of the common good'. That could be interpreted asrather glib, but the guidance alsostresses that interfaith dialogue recognizes conflicts as well as collaboration, both within and between religions and beliefs, religious and non- religious. Such a strong and vibrant tradition is clearly ready for detailed work on dialogue in RE, as represented in the rest of this chapter, which describes some of the leading classroom-based research on dialogic approaches to RE. Research on dialogue is distinctive in that the research itself may directly help improve RE, andyet it also
  33. 33. DIALOGUE WITHIN ANDBETWEEN 23 complements awide range of other researchin RE such asWright's work on religious literacy (Wright 1993, 1997 and much elsesince) or Baumfield on thinking skills (e.g. in Baumfield 2002, 2003). Dialogue in RE across Europe Jackson describes the tremendous amount ofinterest across Europe - and beyond - in addressing religious diversity in school education, and this is related to the aims of RE as understood in England and Wales. Those aims include first-order aims of increasing knowledge and understanding, and relating new learning to one's own experi- ence - whichever wayaround these go.Many new RE teachers see some of the second-order aims as first-order aims, but for Jackson, these are importantly second-order aims: increasing tolerance and respect, and promoting social cohesion and good citizenship. Such aims are not just the province of RE. Those second-order aims are particularly influential in Europe, especially with respect to social cohesion, since the variousterrible eventsthat include 11 September 2001 in USA, the Afghanistan and Iraq wars, Bali, Casablanca, Jakarta, Madrid and civil disorder in northern UK towns from 2001 - including activity by far-right organizations for severalyears. The need to address issues of social cohesion was further highlighted by the awful events in London in July 2005. It isthe reaction to these events that hasstimulated projectssuchas that of the Council of Europe (made up of 45 states,with informa- tion at www.coe.int/), called Intercultuml Education and the Challenge of Religious Diversity and Dialogue. The Council of Europe includes states with a very wide range of approaches to RE (from none, in France, to confessional RE in many countries), but the project is about intercultural education regardless of the state of RE. Work on UK RE will feed into more general intercultural education, then. Similarly, the UN-sponsored Oslo Coalition on Freedom of Religion or Belief set up the Teaching for Tolerance project, based at Oslo University. This is an international project, including states from the Islamic world such as Nigeria (50% of whose population are Muslim, and 40% Christian, according to www.wikipedia.com, quoting www.state.gov/ and www.cia.gov/). Within the UK, intercultural education includes work on citizen- ship aswell asRE. RE professionals in the UK, accordingtoJackson,
  34. 34. 24 TEACHING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION need to engage with citizenship education - which includes know- ledge and understanding (second-order) and appreciation (first- order) of the 'diversity of national, regional, religious and ethnic identities in UK and the need for mutual respect and understanding'. This is quoted from the 2004 National Framework for RE (QCA 2004), which goes on to say that RE provides opportunities to promote 'education for racial equality and community cohesion through studying the damaging effects of xenophobia and racial stereotyping, the impact of conflict in religion and the promotion of respect, understanding and co-operation through dialogue between people of different faiths and beliefs'. The connections between RE and multiculturalism go back over the decades, asdo criticismsof the connections. For example, some specialists in anti-racist education have criticized RE for seeing cultures as closed systems,for a rather superficial treatment of cultures (saris, samosas and steelbands, as highlighted by Troyna 1983), and for an emphasison the exotic more than the everyday.Minority cultures were often contrasted with the national or majority culture, as long as there was no 'threat'. This meant that there was a lack of attention to power issues in multicul- tural education. Some anti-racist educators in the 1990s responded to the early critique of multiculturalism by suggesting a more sophisticated approach to cultural analysis in schools. This work was paralleled independently byJackson and colleagues (in the Warwick Religions & Education Research Unit, www.warwick.ac.uk/wie/WRERU), through their ethnographic research on religious diversity and Jackson's development of this into an interpretive approach to RE (Jackson 1997). Gerd Baumann's work (Baumann 1996, 1999) is a good example of the 'new multiculturalism'. Baumann completed fieldwork in London on cultural discourse,suggestingthat therewas a 'dominant discourse5 that treats cultures as separate and homoge- neous (e.g. 'the Sikh community'as a unified whole): thisseparation creates a superficialview of the issues. In contrast to the dominant discourse isa 'demotic discourse': the processof making new culture through interaction - asIpgrave found in her early research on chil- dren in dialogue (1999). 'Culture' can in this way be seen as a pos- session of an ethnic or religious community, and also as a dynamic process relying on personal agency —as can be seen in many SACREs, for example. Culture should thereforebe seenasaprocess,
  35. 35. DIALOGUE WITHINAND BETWEEN 25 including individuals making choices, and individuals drawing on their own families' and other cultural resources and sources of spir- ituality, as also described in recent work by Smith (2005). People must not be labelled in the way the media sometimes labels, suchas 'Muslim = terrorist'. Pedagogical ideas on dialogue challenge pre- cisely such fixed views of culture. The 'new multiculturalism' of the 1990s included anti-racist multicultural education (Leicester 1992), reflexive multiculturalism (Rattansi, in Donald and Rattansi 1992) and critical multicultural- ism (May 1999). These combine anti-racist and cultural concerns, rejecting closed views of cultures and anti-racist fears of cultural difference asa source of division. At the same time, Jackson's inter- pretive approach looked at people in their contexts, covering the representation of religions and 'cultures'showing their diversity (indi- viduals, groups, traditions), interpretation (comparing and contrast- ing familiar and unfamiliar concepts) and reflexivity (pupils relating learning to their own views). The Bridges to Religions materials for 5-7 year olds (availablefrom www.warwick.ac.uk/wie/ WRERU) attempt to introduce children to other children in the books, as steps towards dialogue. Children reading, and those quoted in the books, are in a kind of preparatory dialogue, rather than a face-to- face dialogue. The source material is ethnographic studies of chil- dren in family and school, as also described in Chapter 7, below. Children in class compare and contrast their concepts, experiences and beliefs. Texts deal with similarity and difference, and diversity of views of children in the class is recognized. In these ways, taking account of the real experiences of children in Britain takes 'the exotic' out of RE. The importance of context is emphasized, as are different elements of individual identity that can be expressed in different social contexts. For example, different dress codes in different contexts can be discussed, compared and contrasted (asin French debates over the wearing of religious dress and symbols), and culturalchange over generations can be shown in order tobreak down stereotypes (aswith an 'English'-style birthday party given a 'South Asian' slant). Other dialogue work includes that of Leganger-Krogstad (e.g. in Jackson 2003 and Jackson 2004, Chapter 7) in the context of Finnmark, Norway's most northerly county. This project involved pupil research on their own local knowledge, which was used for
  36. 36. 26 TEACHING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Exercise 3.1:What more can we do? A simple and profound research question (derived from Stern 2003), involves askingpupils 'What more can we do to promote religious harmony?' Similar, and similarly profound, questions might be 'What more can we do to promote racial harmony?' or 'What more can we do to promote social harmony?' This research task can be completed with individual pupils responding on paper to the open-ended question, followed up with groups of pupils creating plans for enacting their ideas. They might create pictures, dramas or videos to explain their views, like those respondents used in Burke and Grosvenor 2003 on The School I'd Like. analysis and reflection. They then moved outwards from the local to the national to the global. Themes included connections, self-other, inside-outside and past-future. The work explored the practice of plurality and identity, with pupils involved in selecting topics and methods, and developing competence to handle cultural material. Leganger-Krogstad refers to this ability to handle diverse cultural material as 'metacultural competence'. She goes on to study religious practice and the environment, involving a large number of items: cultural landscape, architecture, historical signs, monuments, music, art, symbols, traditions, language and use of names, sacred texts, narratives and songs, institutions and values, clothing, food, days and hours, rites, rituals, customs, behaviour, events, discussions in the media, attitudes to the natural environ- ment, membership and leadership. Exploring nature in northern Norway involved exploring the experience of nature in time and space, using a camera to record the midnight sun. When Leganger- Krogstad moved to Oslo, she started working on exploring the city environment, with trainee teachers exploring the city, visiting mosques and a Lutheran Christian churchyard. A second strand of dialogic research is that of Weisse (e.g. in Jackson 2003 andJackson 2004 Chapter 7) who works in Hamburg, Germany and in South Africa. Although Hamburg schools are officially described as having confessional RE, promoting a single religion for each pupil, dialogic approacheshave been used for many years. There is both intercultural and interreligious learning, and
  37. 37. DIALOGUE WITHIN ANDBETWEEN 27 learning about those without religion. There are existential, ethical, social and environmental issues to be considered. It is important to allow for individual expression, not labelling students by religion, as students from different backgrounds are learning to listen to others, and to reflect and criticize, grounded in human rights theory. This approach treats conflict as normal and not to be avoided. Ipgrave (Ipgrave 1999, 2001, 2003, 2004) makes an important contribution to dialogue by discussing conditions for dialogue, acknowledging plurality within the school and being positive about that plurality. There are different levels of dialogue: primary (accep- tance of plurality), secondary (openness to difference) and tertiary (pupil interaction). Use is made of children's religious language, and providing opportunities for structured dialogue. Children negoti- ate their viewpoints. The project developed from phase 1 in one school, through phase 2 between schools in a single city, to phase 3, which is the e-bridges project making use of email dialogue. Building e-Bridges (Ipgrave 2003) uses email in three dialogic stages: the dialogue of life (getting to know each other, building friend- ship), the dialogue of experience (finding out about each other's practices), the dialogue of action (debating moral issues, exploring issues ofjustice and social concern) and questionsof faith (reflecting on 'big' questions and comparing different viewpoints). Dialogue in the primary school suggests that most saythey share parental beliefs. However the research showed some openness to the beliefs of peers, highlighting issues of agency, and of exploring reli- gious language using one's own experience of religious plurality — including peer relationships. Pupils are searching for integration and coherence, and make their own current religious identity in dia- logue with others, meanwhile negotiating new meanings. Exercise 3.2: Dialogue now What opportunities are there in the curriculum for pupils to be in a meaningful dialogue with other pupils? This isa more chal- lenging research question than it seems. Pupils clearly talk with other pupils, and discuss both personal and school-related issues. However, the degree and level of dialogue relevant to the curriculum has rarely been studied. Pupils working together,
  38. 38. 28 TEACHING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION even in what is called 'group work', often only take part in the 'dialogue of life', and rarely take part in the other forms of dialogue. A way of completing this research is to ask pupils to describe as many examples as possible of each of the four types of dia- logue, with respect to RE, that they have taken part in over the past year. They will need quite detailed descriptions of those types of dialogue, taken initially from this chapter and also from Ipgrave 2003, p. 11 onwards. The descriptions here are given in the form of questions. Pupils may need reminding that dialogue does not only involve questions, but also listening to answers. The dialogue of life: getting to know each other, building friendship. What do you like doing in your spare time? What are you especially good at? This kind of dialogue may include reference to all kinds of everyday activities, as well as to religion. The dialogue of experience: findingout about each other's practices. Occasions and places, comparing experiences. How do you welcome a new baby into your family or community? What are the times of the year special for you and how do you celebrate? How do you pray? What do you think happens when you die? The dialogue of action: debating moral issues, exploring issues of justice and social concern. Is it ever OK to kill a living creature? Questions of faith, i.e. 'theological' dialogue: reflectingon 'big' questions and expressing views. Comparing different viewpoints, such asdo you believe in angels and if so what do they do? There is a distinction between research into what opportunities pupils have for each of these four kinds of dialogue, and having the dialogue itself. Once the initial research has been com- pleted, pupils and their teachers might work together to plan for opportunities to promote all four types of dialogue, in the year to come.
  39. 39. DIALOGUE WITHIN ANDBETWEEN 29 There are three themes arising from this very wide-ranging research, relating to the word 'all', to time and to teacher dialogue. One of the participants in Ipgrave's dialogue research noted that it revealed the narrowness of many children's understand- ing of diversity. For example, some Muslim pupils thought that all 'white' children were Christian (asalso described in Smith 2005). It made her think about RE syllabuses,and how far they promote diversity within faiths: perhaps not enough. Dealing with this issue, as the Warwick approach attempts to do, involves getting rid of the 'all' from the discussion of religions. It is rarely true to say'all Christians ...' or 'all Hindus ...', and RE teachers could helpfully avoid the word 'all' altogether. As well as contemporary dialogue amongst pupils, there are many opportunities for intergenerational dialogue. Schooling in general has been described as 'a continuing personal ex- change between two generations' (Macmurray 1968, p. 5), and in RE children might be involved, for example, in inter- viewing members of their grandparents'generation, in order to understand a 'tradition' —not a passive 'receiving' of tradi- tion, but asactive participantsin a tradition. Beyond the living generations, texts, sacred and secular, may allow for a form of dialogue across time, as described in Chapter 2 of this book, above. RE teachers themselves canbe in dialogue with one another, and this will help in their own training, a critical issue for RE —a subject with a lower proportion of specialist-trained teachers in secondary schools, than almost any other subject (as described by Gates 1989, 1991, 1994). This should be a true dialogue between teachers, rather than the promotion of a 'body of knowledge' about religions. Some of the possible processes are described in Blaylock (2000), which reported on research with teachers having other specialisms but working in RE.
  40. 40. 30 TEACHING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Exercise 3.3: Inside out This exerciseisadapted from two books (Stern 2003, 2006a), one of which wasaboutparents (butnot specifically RE) and the other of which wasabout RE and ICT, and both of which were con- cerned with communication and dialogue. If it is to be consid- ered a research task, then the dialogue must itself be recorded and analysed, using the same categories asused in Exercise 3.2, above. From within a school/institution, communicate with an 'out- side' group, justifying an aspect of that school. For example, following on from Exercise 6.2, below, a class might write to a parent or to a religious community, about why RE isvaluable. From outside a school/institution, communicate with an 'inside' group, justifying what is being done, as an outsider, for the issue coveredby the school. For example, a parent or religious community might write to a school sayingwhat they contribute to RE. The work will only make sense if teachers and pupils really want to tell parents and others about what they are doing, and if they really want to know what they are doing. Below is a writing frame for the initial task, to be completed collectively by teacher and pupils, although it should of course be adapted to suit the circumstances and technologies to be used. Dear Parent/Carer, In Religious Education, we have been studying ... You may have [seen, read about, heard about] ... We enjoy teaching and learning about these topics because ... The most important reason for studying these topics, though, is to be able to ..., and also to understand ... and ... This will be useful when [or because] ... It would be good to hear about anything that interests you about Religious Education. If you have any ideas, or any information that is useful, do let me know. You could fill in the slip, below.
  41. 41. DIALOGUE WITHIN AND BETWEEN 31 To: ... Date: ... When I/we did Religious Education in school, and since leaving school at home or at work, my/our favourite topics and activities were/are ... I/We have these ideas or resources that might be useful for learn- ing about Religious Education: ... Name of parent/carer: ... Dialogue and children's voices Ipgrave's work on dialogue helps to give voice to children's own lives, and these voices are themselves highlighted in this section, with quotations and paraphrases, and comments after each quota- tion. For example, a boy aged 10—11, self-identified as Rastafarian, described himself in this way: quite a lot of my friends only believe ... I sayto them, 'Do you believe in Jesus?' They go, 'No' ... But when they ask me, I say, 'Yes, I believe there's only one God'. And they askme, 'What colour do you think he is?' And most people my colour will say he's black, but I think he's all mixed colours —black, white, Asian—blue, pink. I think he's every single colour in the world. I don't just think he's one particularcolour. Because, even though you have only one God, God must be like everyone'scolour because to me I think he's everyone's God, because in my religion I think there's only one God and he's everyone's God, so he's got to be every- one's different colour. He can't just be black and be everyone's God. The pupil here is recognizing both diversity and that there is only one God: his description is ambiguous, in the positive sense that it is rich with multiple meanings. It is important to note that children at this age are already talking about religion and are reconciling diversity with their beliefe. A younger child (aged 8) said: But you know, if more of us would be able to get along better it would boost the chance of even more people getting along better, and if the kids do it then the grown ups might try and do it too, so it's like we're sort of teaching the grown ups.
  42. 42. 32 TEACHING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION What interestingideals are being expressed here. They illustrate the need for voicing children, if only to understand how mature they can be, when not simply trying to guess the 'right answers'. The following quotations are from a conversation between a number of pupils aged 10: I think there's only one [God]and he'scalled different things. I was goingto say that! We can't actually saythat because we've got so many gods. Yeah but they could be called —em ... You have to believe in all of them because all of them have got some- thing different, like special ... Yeah, because —look, they can all —God can ... Do lots of things ... Change into different - like different features. Like he canbe inyou. He can come into anybody. He can change into anything. Here, children themselves are working through dialogue to develop their own theologies, and Ipgraves e-bridges work has tried to encourage such dialogue, with the email dialogue growing out of more general dialogue work. One exercise tried in the e-bridges project is sentence starters, such as 'A Muslim is someone who'. This wasresponded to by the children in many varied ways, includ- ing formal religious behaviours (goes to the mosque to pray, prays to God, reads the Qur'an, wears a topi, fasts at Ramadan), behav- iour exhibiting moral characteristics (doesn't backbite and doesn't swear, is honest) and beliefs (believes in Allah and Muhammad is his prophet, believes in one God, believes in the Qur'an). All these types of response overlap with each other, and pupil explanations of their statements provide good stimulus for further dialogue. Examples of responses can also be put on cards,with these cardsused for further dialogue work, and, if pre-prepared, sorted by the pupils, for example into beliefs and other characteristics, things unique to Muslims or shared by others. Another practical interpretive kind of work involves asking pupils who have worked on holy books to come to agreement, in pairs or groups, on which of the following statements come from holy books, and why: my cat likes to lie in the sun; God has done great things for us; love each other; it was
  43. 43. DIALOGUE WITHIN AND BETWEEN 33 Sara's birthday last Monday; do not worry about what will happen tomorrow; work honestly and give money to the poor; myfavourite food is chips; don't be happy, be sad; our school is in Leicester; all human beings belong together; keep allyour money and things for yourself; giraffes can be six metres tall; do not quarrel with each other but make friends; keep your body clean. Children asyoungas 6 can use these statements as the basis of further dialogue. Starting points for dialogue suggested by pupils aged 8—9, from Ipgrave s project, were based on the moral issue of whether or not people should be allowed to hunt and kill tigers. Statements included: no you cannot because we have to save them; yes you should kill them all, they killed my grandson; no they are God's lovely creatures; yes they might eat all my children; no don't kill them as tourists pay money to come to India to see them:just give them more land. This proved a good basis for discussion, with pupils saying: we're the same though because God made us and God made tigers and we're animals too really; we're the same because God made people to look after animals and he made animals to help people; tigers are more precious because there are lots of people but tigers are in danger of becoming extinct; but people can die before they should, in accidents, or they could be ill and people are in danger, too. Children aged 10-11 formulated their own questionsfor Christian visitors, working out questions in groups, with the questions given to the visitors in advance: In my religion, Islam, we have to respect our Holy Book, the Qur'an, because it has God's name in it —so we have to put it higher than our feet. Why don't Christians do the same with their Bible? What do you think about Christians that don't go to church? Do you think the world would be a better place if they did? The Bible tells us thatJesus performedmanymiracles.Do you thinkJesus really did perform these miracles or do you think that the person who wrote the Biblejust wanted us to realizethatJesus isa very special person? Do you feel sad at Christmas because most people think about presents and food and TV instead of thinking about God and Jesus?
  44. 44. 34 TEACHING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION I am a Muslim and I believe that when people die they arejudged by God. Do you believe that? When you are praying to God do you have any ideas about what God looks like? Do you see a face, a spirit of God or a picture of God? What makes Christians believe that Jesus was the Son of God? What evidence is there that he was? The quality and range of the questions indicates the amount and depth of dialogue work the children had completed over the years. Interfaith issues and negotiations between different religious points of view, and getting children used to that, are well illustrated by such work. To extend such work, children can be given a number of problems and asked to solve them. For example, pupils aged 10 and upwardsmight be asked to design a multi-faith prayerroom for a hospital serving Buddhists, Muslims, Christians, Hindus andJews, or they might be asked to plan a menu for a leavers'party for chil- dren from Christian, Hindu and Sikh backgrounds who are about to leave their primary school. Another challenging question from Ipgrave's work, set for chil- dren aged 7 to 8, asked 'Why is it okay to kick a football but not okay to kick a cat?' Some children said: a football is a toy but a cat isn't; you can't put a cat in a cupboard or throw it away when you don't want it; afootball belongs to you but a cat doesn't; a catbelongs to God; acat will get hurt; afootballwon't say'ouch'; afootballcan't be hurt: it can go flat but it can't feel it; cats are like us - we are animals; you have to look after animals; God says we must be kind to animals; cats are our brothers and sisters: it's Brother Cat but it's not Brother Ball. This work might have arisen out of prior study of ethics or creation, or work on sacred texts. It might overlap with work in science, PSHE and RE. The dialogue is of value in itself, and it reveals children's moral thinking in a way that is valuable for all adults. Too often, it is assumed that pupils need to be taught morals, rather than that they already have sophisticatedmoral posi- tions, even at a young age, to be investigated and further developed. How then can teachers plan for more and better dialogue in RE? There are several issues to keep in mind, according to Ipgrave and others involved in the e-bridges work:
  45. 45. DIALOGUE WITHINAND BETWEEN 35 There is a need to let the children respond at their own level, having built up a real rapport with them. In order to build up a rapport, pupils can use 'chat' at first, and not leap straight into RE issues. It is also useful for children to find things out for themselves, in addition to the agreed questions, so they have an opportu- nity to become more independent learners. Children will generally have had first-hand experiences at a young age that can be the basis of a great deal of future learn- ing, and teachers should have confidence in the tendency of children to be very open-minded, especially on email. Shy children could come out of themselves in the email dia- logues. In addition, children can often discuss on email things they would not be likely to discuss face-to-face, so that com- munity cohesion becomes a central issue. Pupils said that as a result of the project they 'have learned that other schoolshave a lot of different religions'. 'The project made Christiansseem like real people', 'Islamic children are as normal as they are' (from a teacher), and 'I used to think our religions were really different, but they're not'. These are allillustrations ofJackson's 'second-order aims' of the e-bridges project. The email project included blocks of exchanges (rather than a 'trickle' of correspondence), with planning completed around sub- jects (RE and citizenship), themes and questions. A dialogue grid was used as shown below: September November January April RE topic Stage of dialogue (introduction, sharingexperience, ethical debate, questions of faith) Questions RE expectations Citizenship
  46. 46. 36 TEACHING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION An example of a completed dialogue grid: RE topic Stage of dialogue (introduction, sharing experience, ethical debate, questions of faith) Questions RE expectations September Introduction What are your favourite subjects at school? What do you like doing in your spare time? Is there anything you're especially good at? Comparing their own and other people's experiences. November Celebrations Sharing experience Are there any days or times of year that are particularly special for you? Why are they special? How do you celebrate them? Responding to others' experiences. Comparing experiences. Make links between beliefs and festivals. January Creation and the natural world Ethical debate Is it ever alright to kill a living creature? If it is, under what circumstances? If not, why not? Thinking about own and others' ideas of right and wrong. Making links between values and behaviour. Consider different points of view when discussing matters of right and wrong. April Islam Questions of faith Do you believe in angels? Ifnot, why not? If so what are they? What do they do? Describe some religious beliefs. Use religious language to discuss religious beliefs. Explain how some beliefs are shared and how religious symbols are differently used. Compare ideas about difficult questions.
  47. 47. DIALOGUE WITHIN AND BETWEEN 37 Citizenship September To recognize their worth as individuals. Identifying positive achievements. To think about the lives of other people. November To think about lives of other people. To be aware of cultural and religious differences between people. January To write about opinions and explain views. To debate topical issues. To consider moral dilemmas. April To reflect on spiritual issues. Be aware of religious differences. Ipgrave s work started in one school, and has continuously devel- oped - including her working paper (Ipgrave 2001)anda book for teachers (Ipgrave 2003). Through this work, she sees children as presenting themselves and learning to relate in three ways, each of which corresponds to the levels of dialogue: As a friend or 'pal', related to the 'dialogue of life'. It is often enough simply to have a name to 'feel like' a friend. How do the children try to build up friendship with their email part- ners? How does the concern to make friends affect the choice of the topic of dialogue? How do they want to appear to their partners - aswhat kind of person? How is language used to establish friendship? It is clearly important for the children that they identify as friends. As a member of a faith or cultural community and tradition, related to the 'dialogue of experience'. This is a 'community' element, relating to practicesand traditions. What do the chil- dren tell each other or ask each other about faith or cultural background? How clearly do they explain their own practices and traditions?How do they relate to each other's practicesand traditions? Some children have - andshow - very little sense of membership of a faith tradition, and these same children also seem to have no explicit identity of any kind. Perhaps as a 'majority' tradition, it feels like no tradition at all.Or do the children have less of a sense of identity? However, the way the question is worded has an effect on possible responses: 'What is your religion?' may gain a different response from 'What is important to you?' The former question is common in some contexts, the latter in other contexts. This is a significant
  48. 48. 38 TEACHING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION research issue, as how you ask the question does indeed affect the answeryou get. 'Secularization' in the researchliteratureis in some senses an indication of changes in ways of describing, as much as changes within religions and in religious belief. Smith 2005, following Davie 1994, tackles some similar issues. Asa thinker, related to the 'dialogue of action' and the 'ques- tions of faith'. What thinking skills do the children demon- strate? What kind of language is used for sharing thoughts? Pupils may want to dialogue in the form of 'puzzles', espe- cially over issuesthat some regard ascontroversial. They might indicate this with phrases such as 'Have you any comments?', 'I hope to hear your comments' or 'I am surprised that ...'. Exercise 3.4: Friendship, membership and thought For each of these waysof presenting oneself, a 'circles of import- ance' activity can be completed. This activity involves drawing a set of concentric circles, putting the 'self' in the middle, and the things closest to the 'self' in the inner circle, the next most important in the ring created by the next circle, and so on to the outer circles. The choice of membership and thought as themes comes from Davie 1994 and others who have written about 'believing and belonging'. The choice of friendship comes from a concern with the nature of self and friendship, as described by Macmurray 1992 (see also Stern 2002). Forthe 'friendship' version of circles of importance, the tide will be 'Me and the people closest to me'. Previousresearch using this technique indicates that at different ages, there is often a very different balance of friends and family in the 'inner circle'. The use of this research tool is described in Smith (2005), with one quoted assaying 'I've put as closest God ... because He is everywhere ... [then] my mum, my dog, mybabysister', whilst another report indicated that 'the PS2 or Xbox was sometimes listed as a significant member of the household in network diagrams' (Smith 2005, pp. 20 and 59, with more examples at mysite.wanadoo-members. co.uk/friendsfoodfaith/fffindex.htm).
  49. 49. DIALOGUE WITHINANDBETWEEN 39 For the 'membership' version, the tide will be 'To what do I belong?' Previous research suggests that the venue of the research itself affects the results: within a school, school membership is likely to be more 'central' than it would be for the same people completing the exercise in their homes. Forthe 'thinking' version, the title will be 'What beliefs and ideas are most important to me?' Previous researchsuggests, as did the work on moral issues described above, that young people have very complex and sophisticated moral systems. Following each of the exercises, pupils can discuss with each other (and with their 'dialogue' friends, if involved in e-bridges work for example) why different people, memberships and ideas are so important. Conclusion Exercise 3.4 brings us back to the start of this chapter. It is the foun- dation for good dialogue with other pupils. Giving pupils a voice is important for schools (asdescribed in Flutter and Rudduck 2004 and Ranson 2000) and important for research (asdescribed in O'Hanlon 2003). The nature and use of that voice is vital for RE and for life. When Smith writes about the beliefs, practices and memberships of children aged 9-11, one of his conclusions is a message of hope with respect to the complex issues of freedom of thought, conscience and religion and diversity, conflict and segregation: Perhaps the most hopeful note from this research is that we have dis- covered childrenwho, in their everyday lives, are deeply engaged with these issues, aware of many of the opportunities and problems and already taking steps to work things out for themselves. (Smith 2005, p. 69, the final words of the book) That hope links dialogue in RE with research in RE and with hope for the future of humanity. Including pupils in dialogue is what is allowed by RE and increasingly required of research. Including pupils raises issues of inclusion more generally, and that is therefore the subject of the following chapter.
  50. 50. 4 Inclusions and RE People have to learn to be adults. (8 year-old with learning difficulties, saying what they had learned from the Zen story of the sound of one hand clapping) Introduction:The 'church of inclusion*? Everyone thinks inclusion is a good idea, and that exclusion is a bad idea. This chapter investigatesa variety of issues in inclusion for RE, and relates those to research on inclusion, with education research identified by O'Hanlon (2003) as a method of inclusion in itself. By bringing pupils together in dialogue (asin the previouschapter), RE can bring pupils together in all kinds of ways. It is important to start with what inclusion itself means; a simple 'bringing together'is only the start of the story. Some have even suggested that an uncrit- ical promotion of inclusion, without evidence for its value, is remi- niscent of some methods of promoting religion: hence thereference (from O'Brien in Hornby 2001) to the 'church of inclusion'. Inclusion is a key concept whose history is tied in with the his- tories of other key concepts such as 'poverty', 'special educational needs' and 'equal opportunities'. In the first place, consider poverty, a concept that has in some ways been superseded by the concepts of inclusion and exclusion. Whereas poverty might be described asa simple 'lack' (of money or resources), social deprivation or social exclusion involves an inability to take part in activities or aspects of life that others take for granted. An example to illustrate this might be the consequences of what are called 'natural disasters' such as floods and famines. Sen (1981) notes how in most famines, there is not a lack of food in a country: there is, rather, a group of people who are excluded from access to food. The opening words of his influential book are worth quoting:
  51. 51. INCLUSIONS AND RE 41 Starvation is the characteristic of some people not having enough food to eat. It is not the characteristic of there being not enough food to eat. While the latter can be a cause of the former, it is but one of many possible causes. (Sen 1981, p. 1) Poverty might suggest having less of something, whilst exclusion suggests not having something at all. This was why, in the late 1970s - especially with the publication of Poverty in the United Kingdom (Townsend 1979, and see also the more internationalist Townsend and Gordon 2002) —definitions of poverty began to be centred on measuring how many activities people took part in, rather than simply what income or wealth people had. There are tremendous advantages in this change. Being unable to have hot meals, holidays, a home or seasonal clothing are 'absolute' depriv- ations, albeit not asserious,perhaps,asstarvation- the measureof poverty used in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries. Not only this, but the inability to take part in activities might be the result of, say, racism, sexism, physical or mental illness, dis- ability or, as Sen says, a lack of entitlement, not just a lack of money. By the mid-1980s, few people in the mainstream political parties talked of poverty, and by the mid-1990s, New Labour politicians were talking instead about 'social exclusion' and creat- ing a 'Social Exclusion Unit'. Inclusion and exclusion are also used by other European politicians, with the trend well represented in Council of Europe 1996, which suggests that poor children should be given pocket money by the state 'in order to integrate them into the consumer society' (Council of Europe 1996, p. 75, with more culturally sensitiveviews of inclusion in the European context given in Schreiner et al. 2002, andJackson 2004), and the United Nations describing 'overall poverty' as, amongst other things, limited or lack of access to education and other basic services; ... unsafe environments and social discrimination and exclusion. It is also characterized by lack of participation in decision-making and in civil, social and cultural life ... [for example] the utter destitution of people who fall outside family support systems, social institutions and safety nets. (Townsend and Gordon 2002, p. 59, quoting the UN)
  52. 52. 42 TEACHING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION When it came to education, the term 'inclusion' has taken over many of the uses of the term 'special educational needs'. The move to a concern with this kind of educational inclusion first developed in the UK in the 1970s, when allyoung people were to be educated (including those with severe learning difficulties, formerly catered for only by the health service), and educated up to the age of 16. By the 1980s, further moves were being made, in the UK and well beyond, to cater for most or all pupils in mainstream schools,rather than having a large number of special schools. By the 1990s, with landmark legislation such as the UK'sSEN Code of Practice (DfE 1994) and the UN's Salamanca Statement (UNESCO 1994), an assumption came to be built in to the system that 'inclusion' wasa good in itself. This, notwithstanding the warnings of people suchas Hornby, who worries that the policy change 'has resulted in what can, at times, appear to be a tidal wave of inclusive intent preached with overpowering zeal by the church of inclusion' (Hornby 2001, quoting O'Brien). Hornby stresses that we should look at the out- comes of inclusion, and see what they are,and not simply opt for inclusion into the mainstream at allcosts: inclusion in an unsuitable curriculum directly contributes to the disaffection of many pupils which leads them to be disruptiveand even- tually results in the exclusion of some of them. The priority for chil- dren with SEN must, therefore, be that they have access to curricula which are appropriate for them, not that they are fitted in to a cur- riculum designed for the mainstream population which may not meet their needs. (Hornby 2001) It is particularly interesting for RE specialists to read of O'Brien's use of the metaphor of the 'church of inclusion'. Notwithstanding Hornby's warnings, that particular church has many members, and the third strand of contemporary inclusion, related to equal oppor- tunities, developed in part from the Ofsted inspection framework of 2000 (andthe related training materials), in which Ofsted said that An educationally inclusive school is one in which the teaching and learning, achievements, attitudes and well-being of every young person matter. Effective schools are educationally inclusive schools. This shows, not only in their performance, but also in their ethos and their
  53. 53. INCLUSIONS ANDRE 43 willingness to offer new opportunities to pupils who may have experi- enced previous difficulties. This does not mean treating all pupils in the same way. Rather it involves taking account of pupils' varied life experiences and needs. The most effective schools do not take educa- tional inclusion for granted. They constantly monitor and evaluate the progress each pupil makes. They identify any pupils who may be missing out, difficult to engage, or feeling in some wayto be apart from what the school seeksto provide. They takepracticalsteps - in theclass- room and beyond —to meet pupils' needs effectively and they promote tolerance and understanding in a diverse society. For special schools, there is an additional dimension because their policies on inclusion must now include planning for a changing role alongside increasingly inclusive mainstream schools. (Ofsted 2000a) The remarkably inclusive Ofsted list of those groups of people who might for one reason or another be excluded, is as follows: girls and boys, minority ethnic and faith groups [it is not entirely clear whether 'minority' qualified only 'ethnic' or also 'faith groups'], Travellers, asylum seekers and refugees, pupils who need support to learn English as an additional language (EAL), pupils with special edu- cational needs, gifted and talented pupils, children 'looked after' by the local authority,other children, suchassick children, young carers, those children from families under stress, pregnant school girls and teenage mothers, and any pupils who are at risk of disaffection and exclusion. (Ofsted 2000a) Such guidance, by bringing together 'educational' issues, such as special educational needs, and 'social'issues, such asseeking asylum and gender and ethnicity, inevitably brings together the issues of inclusion, equal opportunities and social justice. This modern concern with inclusion as a concept encompassing poverty, special educational needs and equal opportunities perhaps reflects the debt owed by contemporary politicians to communi- tarian philosophy, represented by Tony Blair's glowing Foreword to Macmurray 1996, describing how Macmurray 'places the individual firmly within a social setting' (Macmurray 1996, p. 9, and see also Brittan 1997, Stern 2001a, 2001b, 2003). It also links back to Buber's work on the 'interhuman', describing the need for 'imagining the