Definitions - CALLCALL (Computer-assisted Language Learning)An approach in ILT (Information and Language Technology) to language teaching and learning in which the computer is used as a substantial interactive aid for reinforcement and assessment in applications for language teaching and learning. (Levy, 1997)
What is an interactive aid?…like a conversation, allowing the users input to depend on earlier output from the same way. The interaction with the user is usually conducted through either a text-based interface or a graphical user interface.http://www.definethat.com/define/4427.htm
Definitions - ICTICT (Information and Communications Technologies)The merging of telephone networks with computer networks likened to an individual able to interact purposefully with its surrounding realities which are perceived and modified by various receptors and effectors. (Semenov, 2005)
What is “able to interactpurposefully”? The sensitivity of our senses, which enable us to perceive events and communicate with other machines over long distances. The amount of data, information, and symbolic expressions that can be processed and logically analyzed in a split second. The efficiency, accuracy, and precision of our manipulations of both symbolic and material objects of the most diverse kind. Our capacity to make decisions based upon intuitive judgments and tacit knowledge.
Definitions - TELLTELL (Technology Enhanced Language Learning)The possibilities offered by the Internet and communication technology for reinforcement in applications for language learning and teaching. (Levy, 1997)
Devices and ApplicationsCALL ICT TELLComputer Room VCR WebsitesCompanion software CD / DVD KeypalLanguage Software TV set Blogs / V-logsCD ROMs Video Beam PodcastsEditors Video Room ForumsPrint Graphics Audio Room Web quests Recorders Camcorders Course wares Audio Players E-mail Companion Websites Chats Internet Applications Messengers (see TELL) Wikis Scavengers Web search machines
Big question to get started!! What do you think CALL, ICT, or TELL are for? Discuss your reasons.
Beliefs: CALL, ICT, andTELL… … are a current status in consideration about language teaching and learning, and not simple in-vogue techniques. (Crystal, 2001) Not for just using CALL, ICT, or TELL you will have more competent users of a target language, or… Your language learners are acquiring the new literacies they require for using CALL, ICT, or TELL. (Murphy, 1986)
Beliefs: CALL, ICT, and TELL… …are an available alternative to improve language teaching and learning; thus, they should be used for this purpose rather than for simply language use. (Long & Doughty, 2003) …don’t solve the problems associated with teaching language; therefore, these techniques are not the class. They complement and enhance regular classroom work. (Reis, 1995)
Beliefs: CALL, ICT, and TELL… …are not to find differences between education and diversion but an opportunity to integrate the school and the learner environment. (Mc. Luhan, 1967) …are not to sage the teacher on the side but to stage him to guide on the side. (King, 1993) …may trigger autonomous learning, but it largely depends on what objectives the teacher uses when applying them. (Antonini, 2004)
What are the basic objectives toapply CALL, ICT, and TELL? To increase learner awareness and the understanding of their own learning process. To develop autonomous attitude towards learning. To help learners develop and incorporate learning strategies. To encourage learners to think critically.
Big question for now!! What types of CALL, ICT, or TELL are there at the institution you work for? Describe them briefly. How accessible they are. (Availability and frequency of use) What you use them for.
CALL, ITC, and CALL are for… … making the language learners get conscious of their surrounded situations and the global world. (Shanaham, 1990) … other ways of feeling and experiencing learning, and a new way for recognizing each other. (Barbero, 1987) … provoking new classroom dynamic to produce changes in the curriculum and pedagogical principles. (Clavijo & Quintana, 2004)
What is the new classroomdynamic? Collaborative learning Cooperative learning Democratization of knowledge The interconnection and interrelationship among context, content, teacher, and learner.
What justifies the use of CALL,ICT, and TELL?Read the following real case study.When I began my work as a language teacher for a school in Bogota, my students often used ITs only for their personal communication and searching for their school assignments. I immediately knew that we could start using ITs for other reasons in the computers room. As we were working on them with a focus on English, they discovered that the Internet offers a large bunch of applicabilities for their lives.
Later, they got interested in Media. So, we worked on a proposal to have a radio station at the school!!After getting familiar with ICTs, we submitted our project…It provoked a great vision. The top staff approved it, and the same students collaborated in the purchase of the equipment. The station is called Audioarte. Even English programs are broadcasted!!Now, many want to be part of it. But first, they must get familiar with CALL and ICTs, and demonstrate English enthusiasm. Carolina Rodriguez, MA, 2007 Normal Superior Maria Montessori, Bogota
Now… What justifications Prof. Carolina Rodriguez had for using CALL, ICT, and TELL in her language teaching? What achievements did she get for the school community?
What justifies the use of CALL,ICT, and TELL?Learner’s levelAllow learners to work individually, at their own pace, with their own needs.Allow learners to experience new language and contexts.Provoke motivation and interaction with multimedia.Promote self-monitor and self-assessment for the activities and the learning process.
Teacher’s levelIntroduce a great variety of contexts, language, activities, tasks, exercises.Exemplify authentic language in use in natural situations and settings.Contribute to create in the learners new perspectives of life and interests.
Content and Context levelProvide more content dynamism and context attractiveness.Work with situational-visual contexts and contents.Present verbal and non-verbal elements of language.Allow geographical dispersed communication.Allow mobile technology (class, on foot, home)
Excellent justifications, but…Where to start at?
To start, make yourself thesequestions about your learners? How many learners use CALL, ICT, TELL daily? What CALL, ICT, TELL do your students use daily, and what for? How often / long do your learners get in touch with CALL, ICT, TELL? What abilities do your learners display when using CALL, ICT, TELL? (McKay, 2000; Mayorga, 2006; Dudeney & Hockly, 2007)
Now, make yourself thesequestions about teachers? How proficient are teachers with CALL, ICT, TELL? How often / long do teachers get learners into the use of CALL, ICT, TELL? What CALL, ICT, TELL do teachers use for language learning and use? How do teacher use those CALL, ICT, TELL for language learning and use? (McKay, 2000; Mayorga, 2006; Dudeney & Hockly, 2007)
Then, make yourself thesequestions about the content? What language is being portrayed in the CALL, ICT, TELL used? What situational-visual context is displayed in the CALL, ICT, TELL used? How authentic and variable is the content shown in the CALL, ICT, TELL used? How accountable is the content of the CALL, ICT, TELL used?
Finally, make yourself thisquestions about your context? How equipped is the institution you work for to use CALL, ICT, TELL? How much available is this equipment? How CALL, ICT, TELL use is evaluated? By whom? What cognitive and socio-affective conditions for language teaching and learning are taken into account for using CALL, ICT, TELL? Who evaluates them? (McKay, 2000; Mayorga, 2006; Dudeney & Hockly, 2007)
Pedagogical Considerations (Stepp-Greany, 2002) 1. What is the teacher/learner perception of technology? Implementing Digital immigrant / TechnogeekTeacher’s To technology Resistance TechnophobeLearner’s proficiency Digital native / techsavvy How and when the outside e-world is putting into the classroom (Dudeney & Hockley, 2007) What sequence is used for this (Pre-use, using, post-use) Who controls what to do and with what methodology
Pedagogical Considerations 2. What is the nature of the multimedia equipment? Passive Learning (Jonassen, 2000)Interactive Stimuli-Actionbut impersonal Repetitive tasks Considerations •Teacher •Learner •Content •Context 3. Who How CALL, ICT, TELL tasks are evaluated? Under what criteria? How often Teacher Interviews Completeness Learner Surveys Quality /Quantity Answer key Portfolio Self-correction Worksheet Test
ReferencesAntonini, M. (2004). Designing activities for video materials. Workshop presented at the 22nd annual TESOL convention. Caracas, Venezuela.Barbero, M.J. (1987). Innovación tecnológica y transformación cultural, TELOS, N-9, Madrid.Clavijo, A. and Quintana, A. (2004). Maestros y Estudiantes escritores de Hiperhistorias. CALJ, Universidad Distrital Francisco Jose de Caldas.Crystal, D. (2001). Language and the Internet. Cambridge University Press.Dudeney, G. and Hockly, N. (2007). How to Teach Englihs with Technology. England: Longman.Jonassen, , D.H. (2000). Computers as Mindtools for Schools: Engaging Critical Thinking. 2nd Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.King, A. (1993). From Stage on the Stage to Guide on the Side. College Teaching, 41(1).Levy, M. (1997). CALL: Context and Conceptualisation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Long, M. and Doughty, C. (2003). Optimal Psycholinguistic Environments for distanced foreign language learning. Language Learning and Technology 7(3): 50-80.Mayorga, C. (2006). Integrating Multimedia Technology in a High School EFL program. English Teaching Forum 44 (3):14-21.McLuhan, M. (1967). The Medium is the Message. Penguin books, USA.McKay, P. (2000). The Bilingual Interface Project: The relationship between L1 development and SLA as students begin learning English in the context of schooling. Qweensland University, August 31, 2010 (http://www.iier.org.au/qjer/qjer15/mckay.html)Murphy, S.M. (1986). Children’s comprehension of deictic categories in oral and written language. Reading Research Quarterly, 21:118-131.Reis, L. (1995). Putting the computer in its proper place –inside the classroom. English Teaching Forum 33 (4):28- 29.Semenov, A. (2005). Information and Communication Technologies in Schools. Unesco. August 31, 2010 (http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001390/139028e.pdf).Shanaham, T. (1990). Reading and Writing together: What does it really mean? In T. Shanahan (Ed.), Reading and Writing together: New Perspectives for the Classroom. Pp. 1-18. Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gordon.Stepp-Greany, J. (2002). Student perceptions on language learning in a technological environment: Implications for the new millennium. Language Learning and Technology 6 (1): 165-180.