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French cuisine


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French cuisine

  2. 2. French Cuisine: History In the Middle Ages, Guillaume Tirel Taillevent,a court chef, wrote Le Viandier, one of theearliest recipe collections of Medieval France. In the 17thcentury, La Varenne and the notable chef of Napoleon andother dignitaries, Marie-Antoine Carême, moved towardfewer spices and more liberal usage of herbs and creamyingredients, signaling the beginning ofmodern cuisine. Cheese and wine are a major part of thecuisine, playing different roles regionally and nationally, withmany variations and appellation dorigine contrôlée(regulated appellation) laws.
  3. 3. Gault and Millau "discovered the formula" contained in tencharacteristics of this new style of cooking. The firstcharacteristic was a rejection of excessive complication incooking. Second, the cooking times for most fish, seafood, gamebirds, veal, green vegetables and pâtés was greatly reduced inan attempt to preserve the natural flavors. Steaming was animportant trend from this characteristic. The third characteristicwas that the cuisine was made with the freshest possibleingredients. Fourth, large menus were abandoned in favor ofshorter menus. Fifth, strong marinades for meat and gameceased to be used. Sixth, they stopped using heavy sauces suchas espagnole and béchamel thickened with flour based "roux", infavor of seasoning their dishes with fresh herbs, quality butter,lemon juice, and vinegar. Seventh, they used regional dishes forinspiration instead of haute cuisine dishes. Eighth, newtechniques were embraced and modern equipment was oftenused; Bocuse even used microwave ovens. Ninth, the chefs paidclose attention to the dietary needs of their guests through theirdishes. Tenth and finally, the chefs were extremely inventive andcreated new combinations and pairings.
  4. 4. French cuisine was codified in the 20th centuryby Escoffier to become the modern version of hautecuisine; Escoffier, however, left out much of theregional culinary character to be found in the regionsof France. Gastro-tourism and the GuideMichelin helped to acquaint people with therich bourgeois and peasant cuisine of the Frenchcountryside starting in the 20thcentury. Gascon cuisine has also had great influenceover the cuisine in the southwest of France. Manydishes that were once regional have proliferated invariations across the country.
  5. 5. Knowledge of French cooking has contributedsignificantly to Western cuisines and its criteria are usedwidely in Western cookery school boards and culinaryeducation. In November 2010, French gastronomy wasadded by UNESCO to its lists of the worlds "intangiblecultural heritage" along with Mexican cuisine.
  6. 6. French TermsAffiné - Refers to a product that has been aged in order to more fully develop its taste. Can refer to cheese, wine, foie gras and more.Baveuse - Refers to an omelet whose center is still slightly liquid.Blanc de Cuisson - A liquid made from water, flour and lemon juice used to keep foods from oxydizing and losing their color while cooking.Blanchir - Placing something in boiling water for just a few minutes before removing it and placing it in cold water. This procedure allows vegetables to keep their colors and helps make tomatoes and fruits easy to peel.Braiser -Cook something slowly, with just a little liquid and a lid on it.
  7. 7. Brider -Hold together a chicken or other meat with string or skewers while it is cooking.Brunir - Cook a food just until its surface is caramelized - does not necessarily mean that the food is cooked through.Brunoise - Vegetables cut into very little pieces.Chaud-Froid - Something that has been cooked but is served cold in gelatin.Chemiser - Literally to put a shirt on. Use wax paper to keep foods from sticking to baking pans, etc.Chiffonade - Herbs or salad leaves that have been rolled and very finely chopped.Clouter - Clouter an onion means to stick cloves in it.
  8. 8. Confit - Meat or poultry that has been cooked and conserved in its own fat. Can also refer to fruits conserved in a sugar syrup.Court-Bouillon - Liquid made from water, herbs, and either vinegar, lemon juice, or wine and used to cook fish.Déglacer - To dissolve cooking juices attached to the sides of a pot or pan with a little hot liquid to create a sauce or the start of a sauce.Depouiller - Add a cold liquid to a hot liquid in order to get the fat to rise to the top so it can be skimmed off.Ecailler - To open an oyster, clam or mussel or to remove the scales from a fish.Ecumer - Remove the fat and/or foam formed on the surface of a liquid using a ladle.
  9. 9. Emulsion - A liquid that has droplets of fat evenly distributed throughout. Mayonnaise is an emulsion.Faisander - Hang game meat in a cool, dark and airy location so that it begins to decompose. This is done to add flavor to the meat.Farce - Stuffing or dressing.Flambee - To ignite alcohol that has been poured over a preparation. The alcohol burns and leaves just its flavor.Frémir - To keep a liquid just below the boiling point.Glace de Cuisne - Reduced meat stock.Glacer - To decorate a cake or other pastry with a smooth and shiny layer of icing.Julienne - Vegetables cut in very slender slices, smaller than matchsticks.
  10. 10. Liaison - The thickening of a sauce, perhaps with cream or corn starch, at the end of cooking.Luter - To seal a cooking dish with dough made from flour and water.Macédoine - Mixture of finely diced fruits and vegetables.Macérer - To soak a food in a liquid (particularly alcohol) so that it takes on a new flavor.Mijoter - To cook something slowly on the stovetop with the lid on.Moudre - To grind, in particular spices and coffee.Napper - To cover a dish with sauce.Paner - To cover a food with flour, beaten egg, and/or bread crumbs.Parmentier - Refers to recipes that include potatoes.Poêler - Cook something in butter or oil with the lid on.Rectifier - To correct the seasonings of a dish before serving.
  11. 11. 5 Famous Dishes  Baguette which is "a long thin loaf of French bread" that is commonly made from basic lean dough (the dough, though not the shape, is defined by French law). It is distinguishable by its length and crisp crust. A standard baguette has a diameter of about 5 or 6 centimetres (2 or 2⅓ in) and a usual length of about 65 centimetres (26 in), although a baguette can be up to a metre (40 in) long.
  12. 12. Steak au Poivre
  13. 13. Steak au poivre  or pepper steak is a French dish that consists of a steak, traditionally a filet mignon, coated with loosely cracked peppercorns and then cooked. The peppercorns form a crust on the steak when cooked and provide a pungent but complementary counterpoint to the rich flavour of the high-quality beef. The peppercorn crust itself is made by placing the steak in a bed of cracked black (or mixed) peppercorns. Typically, the steak is seared in a hot skillet with a small amount of butter and oil to cook it. The steak is seared at a high temperature to cook the outside quickly and form the crust while leaving the interior rare to medium rare. The steak is then left to rest for several minutes and then served. Steak au poivre is often served with pan sauce consisting of reduced cognac, heavy cream, and the fond from the bottom of the pan, often including other ingredients such as butter, shallots, and/or Dijon mustard. Common side dishes to steak au poivre are various forms of mashed potatoes and pommes frites (small fried shoestring potatoes). Steak au poivre may be found in traditional French restaurants in most urban areas.
  14. 14. Gugelhupf Gugelhupf is a big cake, derived from the Groninger Poffert, and has a distinctive ring shape or the shape of a torus. It is usually eaten with coffee, at coffee breaks. Gugelhupf consists of a soft yeast dough which contains raisins, almonds and Kirschwasser cherry brandy. Some also contain candied fruits and nuts. Some regional varieties (Czech, Hungarian and Slovenian) are also filled, often with a layer of sweetened ground poppy seeds. It is baked in a special circular pan with a central tube, originally made of enamelled pottery.
  15. 15. Crème Brulee  Crème brûlée   also known as burnt cream, crema catalana , or Trinity cream is a dessert consisting of a rich custard base topped with a contrasting layer of hard caramel. It is normally served cold.  The custard base is traditionally flavoured with vanilla, but is also sometimes flavoured with lemon or orange (zest), rosemary,  chocolate, Amaretto, Grand Marnier, coffee, liqueurs, green tea, pistachio, coconut, or other fruit.
  16. 16. Tartee Flambee Tarte flambée  is an Alsatian dish composed of bread dough rolled out very thin in the shape of a rectangle (traditionally) or circle, which is covered with fromage blanc or crème fraîche, thinly sliced onions and lardons. It is one of the most famous gastronomical specialties of the region. Contrary to what the direct translation would suggest tarte flambée is not usually flambéed, but cooked in a wood-fire oven.