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  1. 1. What is a clause? A clause is a group of related words containing a subject and a verb . It is different from a phrase in that a phrase does not include a subject and a verb relationship.
  2. 2. Clauses come in different types: Independent [ or main ], Dependent [ or Subordinate ] <ul><li>INDEPENDENT : </li></ul><ul><li>Main clauses has a subject and a predicate and expresses a complete thought. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the only type of clause that can sand alone as a sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunction cannot be include in your clauses. </li></ul><ul><li>Every main clause will follow this pattern: </li></ul><ul><li>subject + verb = complete thought. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples : </li></ul><ul><li>Lazy students whine. Students = subject; whine = verb. </li></ul><ul><li>My dog loves pizza crusts . Dog = subject; loves = verb. </li></ul>
  3. 3. A subordinate clause will follow this pattern: subordinate conjunction + subject + verb = in complete thought. Examples: Whenever lazy students whine. Whenever = subordinate conjunction; students = subject; whine = verb. Because my dog loves pizza crusts. Because = subordinate conjunction; dog = subject; loves = verb. <ul><li>2. DEPENDENT: </li></ul><ul><li>Has a subject and a predicate, but DOES NOT express a complete thought. </li></ul><ul><li>It cannot stad alone as a sentence. </li></ul>
  4. 4. There are 3 types of dependent clauses: Adjectives clause, adverb clause and noun clauses. <ul><li>Adjectives clauses: </li></ul><ul><li>Modifies (describes) a noun or a pronoun. </li></ul><ul><li>May begin with a relative pronoun ( Who, whom, whose, that and which) or a relative adverb ( when , where , or why) </li></ul><ul><li>Normally follows the word it modifies. </li></ul>A adjetctive clause will follow this pattern: relative pronoun or adverb + s ubject + verb = in complete thought Examples: Whom Mrs. Russell hit in the head with a chalk eraser. Whom = relative pronoun; Mrs. Russell = subject; hit = verb. Where he chews and drools with great enthusiasm. Where = relative adverb; he = subject; chews , drools = verbs.
  5. 5. <ul><li>There are two types of adjectives : essential or nonessential </li></ul><ul><li>a) Adjective essential: </li></ul><ul><li>Is necessary to make the meaning of a sentence clear. </li></ul><ul><li>It must not be set off by commas.. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>A dog that eats too much pizza will soon develop pepperoni breath. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Adjective nonessential: </li></ul><ul><li>Is not necessary to make the meaning of a sentence clear. </li></ul><ul><li>Always use commas to set off a nonessential clause. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>My dog Floyd , who eats too much pizza, has developed pepperoni breath. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>2. Adverb clauses: </li></ul><ul><li>Modifies (describes) a verb, and adjective or an adverb. </li></ul><ul><li>It tells when, where, how, why, to what extent, or under what conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Before I took the test, I studied for a long hour. </li></ul><ul><li>While walking, she listens to the radio. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Nouns clauses: </li></ul><ul><li>Is used as a noun within the main clause of a sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>You can use a noun clause as a subject, a direct and indirect object, an object of a preposition or a predicate nominate. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>You really do not want to know what Aunt Nancy adds to her stew . </li></ul>
  7. 7. ¡Gracias!
  8. 8. Shirly Villarruel L. Liliana Goretty Sanchez