Take questions on twitter, Incredible exciting time to be in education, so much potential, good time for the field/movement to wrestle with questions of equity
Cathedral vs. Bazaar
Will free benefit the rich
Will Free Benefit the Rich? Justin Reich @bjfr EdTechResearcher.org Fellow, #Berkman Co-Founder and Director, EdTechTeacher
Closing Gaps Rising Tide Affluent students Affluent students LearningLearning Low-income Low-income students students EdTech Innovation EdTech Innovation 1) Will technology innovation ameliorate or exacerbate educational equality? 2) If technology innovation exacerbates inequality, should we care? 3) How could we design and deliver technology innovations so that they do improve equality?
What do you think might be happening?Where can research help us move past speculation?
WILL TECHNOLOGY INNOVATIONAMELIORATE OR EXACERBATEEDUCATIONAL EQUALITY?
Case Study of Classroom WikisAccess: Usage: Do students in schools Do wikis created in serving different schools serving different populations have populations provide equitable access to equitable opportunities wikis? for learning? Exemplar: Flat Classroom Project http://fcp11-3.flatclassroomproject.org/WFS+Wiki+A
Assessing wiki access Do you use a blog or wiki? Do you have students contribute to a blog or wiki?School Rarely Sometimes Rarely Sometimes%FRPL<35% 22 17 12 1135-49% 23 16 11 850-74% 20 14 13 775-100% 22 17 13 9Gray, N., Thomas, N., Lewis, L; Teachers Use of Educational Technology inU.S. Public Schools: 2009, NCES 2010040Fast Response System Survey:http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2010040
Assessing Wiki UsageReich, J; Murnane, R; Willet, J. (Forthcoming) The state of wiki usage in U.S., K-12 schools: Leveraging Web 2.0 data warehouses to assess quality and equity in online learning environments. Educational ResearcherData: 179,851 Publicly- Instrument: WikiViewable, Education- Quality Instrument,Related Wikis from measures opportunitiesPbworks.com for students to developSample: 255 wikis from deeper learningU.S. K-12 Public competenciesSchools • Expert Thinking • Complex Communication • New Media Literacy
Wiki Quality Instrument• Information Consumption – Do students use wikis to get information? links?• Participation – Do students contribute to the wiki? Do they own any or all pages?• Expert thinking: – Do students use academic content knowledge in wiki activities? – Do students reflect on the process/product?• Complex Communication/Collaboration: – Do students concatenate text on pages? – Do they substantively edit each others work and co-create pages?• New Media Literacy: – Do students use formatting? – Do they hyperlink? – Do they embed multimedia?
Wiki Type Low Income Mid to High Schools Income Schools (n=117) (n=133)Failed or Trial Wiki 50% 30%Teacher-Content Wiki 34% 35%Individual Student-Owned 15% 35%WikiCollaborative Student – 2% 1%Owned Wiki
Wikis created in mid to high income schoolsWikis created in low incomeschools
Closing Gaps Rising Tide Affluent students Affluent students LearningLearning Low-income Low-income students students EdTech Innovation EdTech Innovation
Key Findings from 25 years of Education Technology Research• When provided with a • In affluent homes and new technology, teachers schools, technology is typically use the more likely to be used for technology to extend higher-order skill existing practices rather development with more than to innovate (Larry adult supervision than in Cuban, Judith Sandholtz) lower income homes and school (Harold Wenglinsky, Paul Attewell, Mark Warschauer)
IF TECHNOLOGY INNOVATIONEXACERBATESINEQUALITY, SHOULD WE CARE?
Rising Tide vs. Larry Cuban LearningLearning EdTech Innovation EdTech Innovation
Opportunity Gap vs. Preparation Gap LearningLearning EdTech Innovation EdTech Innovation
Rising Tide vs. Trickle Down LearningLearning EdTech Innovation EdTech Innovation
What effects will inequalities have on data-driven design?
Differences in networked technology Low Poverty Medium Poverty High Povertyresources among public school districts Districts Districts Districts (>20%) (<10%) (11-20%)Provide teachers with their own server space forposting their own Web pages or class materials (Elementary 90% 81% 74% Secondary) 92% 84% 74%Provide students with electronic storage space 76% 60% 50%on a server 92% 85% 72%Provide students with online access to the 82% 69% 66%library catalogue 92% 82% 72%Provide students online access to databases (for 71% 58% 53%library resources) 79% 67% 57%Employ an individual responsible for educationtechnology leadership (Full Time 60% 48% 47% Part Time 26% 35% 33% None) 13% 17% 20%SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System (FRSS),“Educational Technology in Public School Districts, Fall 2008,” FRSS 93, 2008.