Why Change (2013)


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  • 07/15/13
  • With 30 years of history since the introduction of the personal computer, we have a pretty a good sense now of how it ’s changing labor markets. 07/15/13
  • 07/15/13 Spend two minutes talking with a neighbor about interesting patterns that you see in the data. Let ’s focus on the growth in the college-high school wage differential. Now I could have given you the data in a different form. Would this have worked as well for your brainstorming?
  • 07/15/13 Early theory that computers would complement high skilled workers and replace low skilled workers, but more complicated Computers are really good a rules-based tasks Airline check in as an example of rules based task- only a limited set of possibilities, communication ins simple and can be scripted
  • 07/15/13 This is where humans have a comparative advantage over computers…
  • 07/15/13 Big decline in routine cognitive: the filing and bookkeeping are being done to a large extent by computers and to a lesser extent work is sent off shore. The cognitive demands of the labor market are greater than at any time in U.S. history.
  • 07/15/13 Not just job composition that is changing, but the jobs them selves.
  • These ideas form the basis of the 21 st century skills movement, which argues that education needs to prepare students for the increasing cognitive demands of the workplace. 07/15/13
  • 07/15/13 Are the students in your school being prepared to provide the type of answers that the second student gave? Did schools do a better job 35 years ago?
  • 07/15/13
  • Why Change (2013)

    1. 1. Teaching for the 21st Century Justin Reich EdTechTeacher.org Co-Director Berkman Center for Internet and Society Fellow
    2. 2. Why Change?
    3. 3. Skills for 21st Century Work and Life: The New Division of Labor Richard J. Murnane Harvard Graduate School of Education
    4. 4. All Males Less than High School High School Graduate 4-year College Degree Advanced Degree $5.00 $10.00 $15.00 $20.00 $25.00 $30.00 $35.00 $40.00 1979 1982 1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006 Year HourlyWage(2006$) The data on w hich this graph is based w as provided by Jared Bernstein of the Economic Policy Institute. The data come from the Current Population Survey. The sample includes all w age and salary w orkers, age 18-64. Men's real hourly wage by education, 1979-2006 (2006 $)
    5. 5. Computerizing Routine Tasks: Self-Service Check-In
    6. 6. Types of Tasks Computers Do Not Well Tasks that cannot be described well as a series of if-then-do steps because: •The boundaries of the problem are ill-defined •Solving the problem requires imagining novel solutions •We learn to define the task and accomplish it through social interactions
    7. 7. Economy-Wide Measures of Routine and Non-Economy-Wide Measures of Routine and Non- Routine Task Input: 1969-1998 (1969=0)Routine Task Input: 1969-1998 (1969=0) -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1969 1980 1990 1998 PercentileChangein1969Distribution Complex Communicat ion Expert Thinking Rout ine Manual Rout ine Cognit ive
    8. 8. Changes in Task Mix Within Occupations: Example: Secretary • 1970 description of a secretary’s job: “Secretaries relieve their employers of routine duties so they can work on more important matters. . . .” • 2000 description of a secretary’s job: “. . . Office automation and organizational restructuring have led secretaries to assume a wide range of new responsibilities once reserved for managerial and professional staff. Many secretaries now provide training and orientation to new staff, conduct research on the Internet, and learn to operate new office technologies.” Source: U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Handbook
    9. 9. One of these things is not like the other…
    10. 10. What was the date of battle of the Spanish Armada? Student 1: 1588. Q. How do you know this? It was one of the dates I memorized for the exam. Q. Why is the event important? I don’t know. Student 2: It must have been around 1590. Q. How do you know this? I know the English began to settle in Virginia just after 1600, although I’m not sure of the exact date. They wouldn't have dared start overseas explorations if Spain still had control of the seas. It would have taken a little while to get expeditions organized, so England must have gained naval supremacy somewhere in the late 1500's. Q. Why is the event important? It marks a turning point in the relative importance of England and Spain as European powers and colonizers of the New World. This example is taken from Bransford, Brown and Cocking (eds.)
    11. 11. A Homework Question • Examine the homework that teachers in your school typically assign: – Does the homework push students to develop expert thinking skills (non-routine problem solving) – What about communication skills? – Or does the homework ask students to do the kind of rules- based tasks that computers can be programmed to do? • The answer may tell you a lot about the types of jobs your school is preparing students to do.
    12. 12. Participation and Engagement“I never realized what little regard my students had for my opinion until I started having them turn their work into one another” – 8th grade science teacher
    13. 13. Teaching in the 21st Century • Challenge: The cognitive demands of the labor market and civic sphere are higher than at any time in U.S. history – Expert Thinking – Complex Communication – New Media Literacy • Opportunity: Networked technologies allow students to rehearse these 21st century skills in the same online environments that define 21st century economic and civic life (Bonus: students find those environments engaging)
    14. 14. Why not change?
    15. 15. Why not change? • For the past 40 years, our department has done a great job preparing students. Why should we risk all that we have gained by changing our approach?
    16. 16. Either/Or vs. Both/And
    17. 17. Why not change? • Technology changes so fast. If we try to teach them any particular technology, it will be obsolete within a few years.
    18. 18. Why not change? • These kids know so much more about technology than I do, and it never works the way I expect it to. If I use more technology, I’m going to lose control.
    19. 19. Why Change? • I could really get in trouble if my students did something bad with the Internet
    20. 20. OFSTED Report • Ofsted inspectors visited 33 primary and secondary schools, a special school and a pupil referral unit and found e-safety was outstanding in five, good in 16, satisfactory in 13 and inadequate in one. • Blocking pupils' access to unsuitable websites does not encourage them to take responsibility for their safety online, Ofsted inspectors say. • "Managed" online systems were more successful than "locked" ones at safeguarding pupils' safety, they said. • Where the provision for e-safety was outstanding, the schools had managed rather than locked down systems Full Report
    21. 21. Why not change? • As a teacher, I’m evaluated on the percentage of my students who pass their MCAS tests. I don’t see how integrating technology helps me improve reading comprehension or computational skills.
    22. 22. It’s the hardest work I ever undertaken in my career. We’re trying to effect change in scale, and we have to “play on two playing fields” at once. We’re still being judged by the criteria for “Adequate Yearly Progress” and state accountability standards, while we are holding ourselves to a much higher standard. We have to succeed at both. It’s hard work, but it’s the right work to be doing. - Jim Merrill, Superintendent of Virginia Beach Public Schools (in Wagner, Global Achievement Gap)