With 30 years of history since the introduction of the personal computer, we have a pretty a good sense now of how it’s changing labor markets.
Early theory that computers would complement high skilled workers and replace low skilled workers, but more complicated Computers are really good a rules-based tasks Airline check in as an example of rules based task- only a limited set of possibilities, communication ins simple and can be scripted
This is where humans have a comparative advantage over computers…
Big decline in routine cognitive: the filing and bookkeeping are being done to a large extent by computers and to a lesser extent work is sent off shore. The cognitive demands of the labor market are greater than at any time in U.S. history.
Not just job composition that is changing, but the jobs them selves.
These ideas form the basis of the 21 st century skills movement, which argues that education needs to prepare students for the increasing cognitive demands of the workplace.
What’s New? The Promise and Peril of Digital Learning
What’s New?The Promise and Peril of Digital Media and Learning Justin Reich Co-Founder, EdTechTeacher Fellow, Berkman Center for Internet and Society
What Will the Future Look• Like? Intel Future Concepts• Alternates: – Microsoft 2020
• To what extent does technology allow us to do old things faster or more easily?• To what extent does technology allow us to create learning environments that are truly different?
Framing Questions• How does the digital revolution make the CONTEXT of learning different?• What new FORMS are enabled by digital tools?• How do digital tools shape our MINDS?
HOW DOES THE DIGITALMAKE THE CONTEXT OFLEARNING DIFFERENT?
Types of Tasks Computers Do Not Well Tasks that cannot be described well as a series of if-then-do steps because:• The boundaries of the problem are ill-defined• Solving the problem requires imagining novel solutions• We learn to define the task and accomplish it through social interactions
Economy-Wide Measures of Routine and Non-RoutineTask Input: 1969-1998 (1969=0)
Changes in Task Mix Within Occupations: Example: Secretary• 1970 description of a secretary’s job:“Secretaries relieve their employers of routine duties sothey can work on more important matters. . . .”• 2000 description of a secretary’s job:“. . . Office automation and organizational restructuringhave led secretaries to assume a wide range of newresponsibilities once reserved for managerial andprofessional staff. Many secretaries now provide trainingand orientation to new staff, conduct research on theInternet, and learn to operate new office technologies.” Source: U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Handbook
A Homework Question• Examine the homework that teachers in your school typically assign: • Does the homework push students to develop expert thinking skills (non-routine problem solving) • What about communication skills? • Or does the homework ask students to do the kind of rules-based tasks that computers can be programmed to do?• The answer may tell you a lot about the types of jobs your school is preparing students to do.
How do we puttechnology in the serviceof learning?
Net Smart: Five Literacies• Attention• Collaboration• Participation• Crap Detection• Network Smarts
“Kids are good at things likeFacebook, but they don’t knowhow to conduct basic searches!”
Ethical fault lines in digital life • Identity – When does identity play cross over into identity deception? • Privacy – What are the boundaries of sharing information about oneself and others online? • Ownership and Authorship – What is the meaning of ownership and authorship in copy-paste, download, and remix environments? • Credibility – How do people signal their trustworthiness online and judge the trustworthiness of others? • Participation – In a context of rapidly forming and disintegrating communities, how are norms of behavior established, maintained, and respected online?
Support Bystanders Who Witness Bullying • Help the person being bullied get away from the situation.• Take away the audience by choosing not to watch and walk away.• Tell the child doing the bullying that you don’t like it and to stop doing it (but only if it feels safe to do so).• Distract the bully or offer an escape for the target by saying something like, “Mr. Smith needs to see you right now” or “Come on, we need you for our game” (but only if it feels safe to do so).• http://www.stopbullying.gov/respond/support-kids- involved/index.html#bystanders (excerpts)
So what are we supposed to• Define learning do?• Put technology in the service of learning• Ask “What’s New?”• Involve young people in your deliberations and trust their wisdom and insight
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