With 30 years of history since the introduction of the personal computer, we have a pretty a good sense now of how it’s changing labor markets.
Early theory that computers would complement high skilled workers and replace low skilled workers, but more complicated Computers are really good a rules-based tasks Airline check in as an example of rules based task- only a limited set of possibilities, communication ins simple and can be scripted
This is where humans have a comparative advantage over computers…
Big decline in routine cognitive: the filing and bookkeeping are being done to a large extent by computers and to a lesser extent work is sent off shore. The cognitive demands of the labor market are greater than at any time in U.S. history.
Not just job composition that is changing, but the jobs them selves.
These ideas form the basis of the 21 st century skills movement, which argues that education needs to prepare students for the increasing cognitive demands of the workplace.
Singapore ssd why_change_2012
Changing Cultures: Teaching and Learning with ICT Justin Reich EdTechTeacher.org Co-Director Harvard Graduate School of Education Doctoral Researcher
Three suggestions for ICT PD in Singapore <ul><li>Answer the question “Why Change?” </li></ul><ul><li>Be the change you wish to see. </li></ul><ul><li>Create the vision and immerse the teachers as learners </li></ul>
U.S. Ed Policy, PD, and ICT – 14,000 independent school districts – 50 sets of state standards – Teacher education curriculum unique to every university. – Professional development unique to every district – Technology investments devoid of learning goals.
http://www.ritholtz.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/11/world-accordign-to-USA.jpg 17 S'pore Finland Education Ontario
Technical Change vs. Adaptive Change Does promoting SDL and CoL require the application of well-established procedures and technical skills? Or does it require a paradigm shift in culture, values and mindset (along with a shift in procedures and technical skills)? Ron Heifetz, The Work of Leadership , http://mowgli.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/laurie-jump-off-balcony-leadership.pdf
Types of Tasks Computers Do Not Well <ul><li>Tasks that cannot be described well as a series of if-then-do steps because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The boundaries of the problem are ill-defined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solving the problem requires imagining novel solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We learn to define the task and accomplish it through social interactions </li></ul></ul>
Economy-Wide Measures of Routine and Non-Routine Task Input: 1969-1998 (1969=0)
Changes in Task Mix Within Occupations: Example: Secretary <ul><ul><li>1970 description of a secretary’s job: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Secretaries relieve their employers of routine duties so they can work on more important matters. . . .” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2000 description of a secretary’s job: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ . . . Office automation and organizational restructuring have led secretaries to assume a wide range of new responsibilities once reserved for managerial and professional staff. Many secretaries now provide training and orientation to new staff, conduct research on the Internet, and learn to operate new office technologies.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Handbook </li></ul></ul>
A Homework Question <ul><ul><li>Examine the homework that teachers in your school typically assign: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the homework push students to develop expert thinking skills (non-routine problem solving) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about communication skills? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or does the homework ask students to do the kind of rules-based tasks that computers can be programmed to do? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The answer may tell you a lot about the types of jobs your school is preparing students to do. </li></ul></ul>
It’s the hardest work I ever undertaken in my career. We’re trying to effect change in scale, and we have to “play on two playing fields” at once. We’re still being judged by the criteria for “Adequate Yearly Progress” and state accountability standards, while we are holding ourselves to a much higher standard. We have to succeed at both. It’s hard work, but it’s the right work to be doing. - Jim Merrill, Superintendent of Virginia Beach Public Schools (in Wagner, Global Achievement Gap)
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Teaching for the 21 st century program Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. April. May. Face to Face : Skills Focus Face to Face : Reflection Focus Face to Face : Leadership Focus Asynchronous Online Course: Free tools for collaboration and media production Asynchronous Online Course: Idea Garden: Exemplars of 21 st Century Learning T-21 Webinar T-21 Webinar EdTechTeacher Webinar Series