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Web 2.0 in the Enterprise
Improving collaboration through research insights
in coordination costs



KMWorld & Intranets 2007
November 7, 2007

Ed H. Chi, Ph.D.
Manager, Augmented Social Cognition Area
echi@parc.com
Lawrence C. Lee
Director of Business Development
lawrence.lee@parc.com
Intelligent Systems Laboratory
Palo Alto Research Center Inc.
PARC Overview

    Interdisciplinary research center
    Founded in 1970
    Spun out of Xerox in 2002
    Business model:
     –  Contract research
     –  Licensing
     –  Joint ventures
     –  Spinoffs




                         KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc.   2
Web 2.0 and Enterprise 2.0


             Software as a Service (SaaS)
                                 Remixing and Mashup of Services

                   Rich User Interactions
                                                      Social Networks

                    Network Effects and
                   Collective Intelligence
Disruptive
                                   New Collaboration Environments
Potential

              KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc.   3
Benefits of Web 2.0

    Web 2.0 tools in the enterprise:
     –    Blogs
     –    Wikis
     –    Social bookmarking
     –    RSS
     –    Search
     –    Social networking


    Benefits
     –  Simple to set up
     –  Easy to use
     –  Knowledge captured as side effect of communication

                      KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc.   4
Costs of Web 2.0

    Benefits of Web 2.0 do not come for free
     –  Interference effects
     –  Interaction costs
     –  Noisy folksonomies


    Research Methodology
     –    Analyze activity on social systems
     –    Develop models on interaction dynamics
     –    Design new systems to increase benefits and reduce cost
     –    Test systems in Living Laboratories




                       KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc.   5
Research Foundation

    PARC’s rich history of research in information systems
     –  User interface research
     –  Information foraging theory
     –  Sensemaking


    Augmented Social Cognition
     –  Vision: Enhance the ability of a group of people to remember,
        think, and reason
     –  Combines cognitive science with social computing research




                     KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc.   6
Outline

    Overview
     –  Benefits of Web 2.0 in the Enterprise
     –  Costs of Web 2.0
         »  Interference effects, interaction costs, noisy folksonomies



    Three examples of PARC research and solutions
     –  WikiDashboard: Providing social transparency in Wikispaces
     –  SparTag.us: Lowering interaction costs in tagging systems
     –  TagSearch: Reducing noise in tagged data and harnessing
        tags for search

                       KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc.   7
I. Interference Effects in Wikipedia
Declining percentage of activity devoted to article
editing in Wikipedia




  Source: Wikipedia (Kittur, Suh, Pendelton, Chi)

                           KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc.   8
Visualizing Interference and Conflict
Revert Graph for Wikipedia page: Terry Schiavo
                                                                                           Anonymous (vandals/
                                                                                           spammers)




         Sympathetic to
         husband


                                                                                           Mediators

             Sympathetic to
             parents

  Source: Wikipedia (Kittur, Suh, Pendelton, Chi)

                           KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc.                9
WikiDashboard

    Transparency of social dynamics can reduce conflict
     and coordination issues
     –  WikiDashboard: Social dashboard for wikis
     –  Prototype system: http://wikidashboard.parc.com



    Visualization for every wiki page
     showing edit history timeline and
     top individual editors

    Can drill down into activity history
     for specific editors and view edits
     to see changes side-by-side



                           KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc.   10
WikiDashboard Summary

    Key problems
     –  Lack of visibility into social dynamics of wikis
     –  Lack of transparency in individual activity


    PARC’s solution
     –  Visualization of individual edit activity to increase
        transparency, accountability, and quality of wikis
     –  Connect individuals with shared interests by reviewing
        activity on specific wiki topics




                      KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc.   11
II. Interaction Costs and Social Systems


  Interaction costs determine




                                                         # People willing to produce for “free”
   number of people who
   participate
  Surplus of attention &
   motivation at small
   transaction costs
  Therefore…
  Important to keep
   interaction costs low
                                                                                                  Cost of participation




                 KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc.                                        12
Social Bookmarking

    Means of storing, annotating,
     and sharing links
    Typically done for oneself
    But implicit sharing promotes
     transfer of expertise
    Lightweight form of enterprise
     knowledge sharing
    Players:
      –    Del.icio.us
      –    Connotea
      –    CiteUlike
      –    and many enterprise social
           bookmarking systems (that
           operate behind the firewall)

                          KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc.   13
SparTag.us

    Social bookmarking is easy to do but there is still
     friction in the process
     –  Tagging in new window separate from document
     –  Tagging limited to page level even though you want to tag a
        paragraph only
     –  Tags and annotations do not remain with paragraphs if
        referenced on other pages


  New approach: Make tagging and retrieval of tagged
   content easier
  Lower interaction costs and increase participation



                     KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc.   14
SparTag.us

    Key innovations
     –    Click-to-tag
     –    Paragraph-level tags
     –    Social annotations
     –    Tag portability



Highlights (annotations)



Paragraph-level tagging




                           KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc.   15
My SparTag.us

    Web-based notebook keeps track of all clipped
     paragraphs with tags and highlights




                  KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc.   16
SparTag.us Summary

    Key problems
     –  Friction in current tagging process
     –  Tags are limited to page level only
     –  Difficult to find content of interest on page later


    PARC’s solution
     –  In situ tagging on the same page using click-to-tag
     –  Tags applied to paragraphs
     –  Tags and annotations stay with paragraph, even on new
        pages (e.g. block quote on a blog post)
     –  My SparTag.us notebook displays all tagged and annotated
        paragraphs

                      KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc.   17
III. Noise in Social Tagging Systems

    Folksonomies emerge from social tagging systems

    Benefits
     –  Freeform tagging instead of conforming to rigid taxonomies
     –  More flexibility allows users to recall information later
     –  Information discovery using tag browsing


    Weaknesses
     –  Noise
     –  Inconsistency
     –  Difficult to leverage for search


                      KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc.   18
Think of tagging as a communication…
Concepts                                                                             Topics




  Users                        TagsNoise                                             Documents
           Decoding           T1…Tn                                Encoding
                 KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc.            19
Information Theoretic Measures

                                                             Mutual information
                                                              I(Doc; Tag)
                                                                –  Amount of information
                                                                   known about documents
                                                                   given knowledge of tags
                                                             Conditional entropy
                                                              H(Doc|Tag)
       I(Doc;Tag)                                               –  Additional amount of
                    H(Doc|Tag)                                     information needed to be
                                                                   known in order to identify
                                                                   a document given
                                                                   knowledge of tags
Knowledge           Knowledge
of tags             of documents
                      KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc.         20
I(Doc; Tag)

                                                                                   Tags contain less
                                                                                    information about
                                                                                    documents over time




Source: del.icio.us (Chi & Mytkowicz)
                             KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc.      21
H(Doc | Tag)

                                                                                   More information
                                                                                    needs to be
                                                                                    known over time,
                                                                                    over and above
                                                                                    what is given by
                                                                                    tags




Source: del.icio.us (Chi & Mytkowicz)
                             KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc.         22
Rise in Average Tags per Bookmark

                                                                                   Note parallel with
                                                                                    increasing
                                                                                    average number
                                                                                    of words in a
                                                                                    search query




Source: del.icio.us (Chi & Mytkowicz)
                             KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc.           23
But Social Tagging Creates Noise



                                                              •  Synonyms
                                                              •  Misspellings
                                                              •  Morphologies

                                                              People use different
                                                              tag words to express
                                                              similar concepts.




           KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc.    24
Use Semantic Analysis to Reduce Noise

         Semantic Similarity Graph
                                      Web
            Tools
                                                           Reference

                                       Guide
          Howto

                                                       Tutorial
                                 Tips
          Help

                     Tip                                Tutorials

                                    Tricks



           KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc.   25
TagSearch – A New Search Engine

    New approach: harness human intelligence encoded
     in tags on documents and web pages to improve
     search precision




                  KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc.   26
TagSearch Summary

    Key problems
     –  Noisy tag data
     –  Users do not want to conform to rigid taxonomies
     –  Too many irrelevant results in enterprise search


    PARC’s solution
     –  Let users tag freeform but use data mining techniques to
        reduce noise
     –  Harness normalized tag data in new search algorithm
     –  Result: High precision enterprise search engine trained on
        content tagged by enterprise community



                     KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc.   27
Conclusion

    Effective deployment of Web 2.0 tools requires
     understanding of both costs and benefits.
     –  Increasing transparency results in higher quality
     –  Lowering interaction costs results in higher participation
     –  Decreasing noise results in greater search precision


    PARC works with enterprises to solve specific
     problems and deploy customized versions of its suite
     of Web 2.0 technologies.




                      KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc.   28
Contacts

  Stop by our booth at the Expo - Booth 313
  Our contact information:

     Ed H. Chi, Ph.D.
     Manager, Augmented Social Cognition Area
     echi@parc.com
     650.812.4312

     Lawrence C. Lee
     Director of Business Development
     lawrence.lee@parc.com
     650.812.4756



                    KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc.   29

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2007 KMWorld Presentation on Augmented Social Cognition Research at PARC

  • 1. Web 2.0 in the Enterprise Improving collaboration through research insights in coordination costs KMWorld & Intranets 2007 November 7, 2007 Ed H. Chi, Ph.D. Manager, Augmented Social Cognition Area echi@parc.com Lawrence C. Lee Director of Business Development lawrence.lee@parc.com Intelligent Systems Laboratory Palo Alto Research Center Inc.
  • 2. PARC Overview   Interdisciplinary research center   Founded in 1970   Spun out of Xerox in 2002   Business model: –  Contract research –  Licensing –  Joint ventures –  Spinoffs KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc. 2
  • 3. Web 2.0 and Enterprise 2.0 Software as a Service (SaaS) Remixing and Mashup of Services Rich User Interactions Social Networks Network Effects and Collective Intelligence Disruptive New Collaboration Environments Potential KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc. 3
  • 4. Benefits of Web 2.0   Web 2.0 tools in the enterprise: –  Blogs –  Wikis –  Social bookmarking –  RSS –  Search –  Social networking   Benefits –  Simple to set up –  Easy to use –  Knowledge captured as side effect of communication KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc. 4
  • 5. Costs of Web 2.0   Benefits of Web 2.0 do not come for free –  Interference effects –  Interaction costs –  Noisy folksonomies   Research Methodology –  Analyze activity on social systems –  Develop models on interaction dynamics –  Design new systems to increase benefits and reduce cost –  Test systems in Living Laboratories KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc. 5
  • 6. Research Foundation   PARC’s rich history of research in information systems –  User interface research –  Information foraging theory –  Sensemaking   Augmented Social Cognition –  Vision: Enhance the ability of a group of people to remember, think, and reason –  Combines cognitive science with social computing research KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc. 6
  • 7. Outline   Overview –  Benefits of Web 2.0 in the Enterprise –  Costs of Web 2.0 »  Interference effects, interaction costs, noisy folksonomies   Three examples of PARC research and solutions –  WikiDashboard: Providing social transparency in Wikispaces –  SparTag.us: Lowering interaction costs in tagging systems –  TagSearch: Reducing noise in tagged data and harnessing tags for search KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc. 7
  • 8. I. Interference Effects in Wikipedia Declining percentage of activity devoted to article editing in Wikipedia Source: Wikipedia (Kittur, Suh, Pendelton, Chi) KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc. 8
  • 9. Visualizing Interference and Conflict Revert Graph for Wikipedia page: Terry Schiavo Anonymous (vandals/ spammers) Sympathetic to husband Mediators Sympathetic to parents Source: Wikipedia (Kittur, Suh, Pendelton, Chi) KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc. 9
  • 10. WikiDashboard   Transparency of social dynamics can reduce conflict and coordination issues –  WikiDashboard: Social dashboard for wikis –  Prototype system: http://wikidashboard.parc.com   Visualization for every wiki page showing edit history timeline and top individual editors   Can drill down into activity history for specific editors and view edits to see changes side-by-side KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc. 10
  • 11. WikiDashboard Summary   Key problems –  Lack of visibility into social dynamics of wikis –  Lack of transparency in individual activity   PARC’s solution –  Visualization of individual edit activity to increase transparency, accountability, and quality of wikis –  Connect individuals with shared interests by reviewing activity on specific wiki topics KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc. 11
  • 12. II. Interaction Costs and Social Systems   Interaction costs determine # People willing to produce for “free” number of people who participate   Surplus of attention & motivation at small transaction costs   Therefore…   Important to keep interaction costs low Cost of participation KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc. 12
  • 13. Social Bookmarking   Means of storing, annotating, and sharing links   Typically done for oneself   But implicit sharing promotes transfer of expertise   Lightweight form of enterprise knowledge sharing   Players: –  Del.icio.us –  Connotea –  CiteUlike –  and many enterprise social bookmarking systems (that operate behind the firewall) KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc. 13
  • 14. SparTag.us   Social bookmarking is easy to do but there is still friction in the process –  Tagging in new window separate from document –  Tagging limited to page level even though you want to tag a paragraph only –  Tags and annotations do not remain with paragraphs if referenced on other pages   New approach: Make tagging and retrieval of tagged content easier   Lower interaction costs and increase participation KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc. 14
  • 15. SparTag.us   Key innovations –  Click-to-tag –  Paragraph-level tags –  Social annotations –  Tag portability Highlights (annotations) Paragraph-level tagging KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc. 15
  • 16. My SparTag.us   Web-based notebook keeps track of all clipped paragraphs with tags and highlights KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc. 16
  • 17. SparTag.us Summary   Key problems –  Friction in current tagging process –  Tags are limited to page level only –  Difficult to find content of interest on page later   PARC’s solution –  In situ tagging on the same page using click-to-tag –  Tags applied to paragraphs –  Tags and annotations stay with paragraph, even on new pages (e.g. block quote on a blog post) –  My SparTag.us notebook displays all tagged and annotated paragraphs KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc. 17
  • 18. III. Noise in Social Tagging Systems   Folksonomies emerge from social tagging systems   Benefits –  Freeform tagging instead of conforming to rigid taxonomies –  More flexibility allows users to recall information later –  Information discovery using tag browsing   Weaknesses –  Noise –  Inconsistency –  Difficult to leverage for search KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc. 18
  • 19. Think of tagging as a communication… Concepts Topics Users TagsNoise Documents Decoding T1…Tn Encoding KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc. 19
  • 20. Information Theoretic Measures   Mutual information I(Doc; Tag) –  Amount of information known about documents given knowledge of tags   Conditional entropy H(Doc|Tag) I(Doc;Tag) –  Additional amount of H(Doc|Tag) information needed to be known in order to identify a document given knowledge of tags Knowledge Knowledge of tags of documents KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc. 20
  • 21. I(Doc; Tag)   Tags contain less information about documents over time Source: del.icio.us (Chi & Mytkowicz) KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc. 21
  • 22. H(Doc | Tag)   More information needs to be known over time, over and above what is given by tags Source: del.icio.us (Chi & Mytkowicz) KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc. 22
  • 23. Rise in Average Tags per Bookmark   Note parallel with increasing average number of words in a search query Source: del.icio.us (Chi & Mytkowicz) KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc. 23
  • 24. But Social Tagging Creates Noise •  Synonyms •  Misspellings •  Morphologies People use different tag words to express similar concepts. KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc. 24
  • 25. Use Semantic Analysis to Reduce Noise Semantic Similarity Graph Web Tools Reference Guide Howto Tutorial Tips Help Tip Tutorials Tricks KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc. 25
  • 26. TagSearch – A New Search Engine   New approach: harness human intelligence encoded in tags on documents and web pages to improve search precision KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc. 26
  • 27. TagSearch Summary   Key problems –  Noisy tag data –  Users do not want to conform to rigid taxonomies –  Too many irrelevant results in enterprise search   PARC’s solution –  Let users tag freeform but use data mining techniques to reduce noise –  Harness normalized tag data in new search algorithm –  Result: High precision enterprise search engine trained on content tagged by enterprise community KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc. 27
  • 28. Conclusion   Effective deployment of Web 2.0 tools requires understanding of both costs and benefits. –  Increasing transparency results in higher quality –  Lowering interaction costs results in higher participation –  Decreasing noise results in greater search precision   PARC works with enterprises to solve specific problems and deploy customized versions of its suite of Web 2.0 technologies. KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc. 28
  • 29. Contacts   Stop by our booth at the Expo - Booth 313   Our contact information: Ed H. Chi, Ph.D. Manager, Augmented Social Cognition Area echi@parc.com 650.812.4312 Lawrence C. Lee Director of Business Development lawrence.lee@parc.com 650.812.4756 KM World & Intranets 2007 – © 2007 Palo Alto Research Center Inc. 29