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Et0077 fabrication of solar operated pneumatic reciprocating water pumping system


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Et0077 fabrication of solar operated pneumatic reciprocating water pumping system

  1. 1. FABRICATION OF SOLAR OPERATED PNEUMATIC RECIPROCATING WATER PUMPING SYSTEM PROJECT REPORT Submitted by: (Team name) COLLEGE LOGO Guided by: Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Award of Diploma in ----------------------------------------By the State Board of Technical Education Government of Tamilnadu, Chennai. Department: College name: Place:
  2. 2. COLLEGE NAME COIMBATORE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING PROJECT REPORT-2012-2013 This Report is certified to be the Bonafide work done by Selvan/Selvi ---------------- Reg.No. ------------ Of VI Semester class of this college. Guide Head of the Department Submitter for the Practical Examinations of the board of Examinations,State Board of Technical Education,Chennai, TamilNadu.On --------------(date) held at the -----------(college name),Coimbatore Internal Examiner External Examiner
  5. 5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT At this pleasing moment of having successfully completed our project, we wish to convey our sincere thanks and gratitude to the management of our college and our beloved chairman------------------------.who provided all the facilities to us. We would like to express our sincere thanks to our principal ------------------for forwarding us to do our project and offering adequate duration in completing our project. We are also grateful to the Head of Department prof…………., for her/him constructive suggestions &encouragement during our project. With deep sense of gratitude, we extend our earnest &sincere thanks to our guide --------------------, Department of Mechanical for her/him kind guidance and encouragement during this project we also express our indebt thanks to our TEACHING staff of MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT, ---------- (college Name). ENGINEERING
  7. 7. CONTENTS
  8. 8. CONTENTS CHAPTER NO TITLE SYNOPSIS LIST OF FIGURES NOMENCLATURE 1 Introduction 2 Literature review 3 Description of equipments 3.1 Pneumatic cylinder 3.2 Solenoid Valves 3.3 Air compressor 3.4 Non return valve 3.5 POT 3.6 Relay 3.7 Control unit
  9. 9. 4 Design and drawing 4.1 General machine Specifications 4.2 Block diagram 4.3 Overall diagram 5 Working principle 6 Merits and demerits 7 Applications 8 List of materials 9 Cost Estimation 10 Conclusion Bibliography Photography
  11. 11. LIST OF FIGURES Figure Number Title 1 Block diagram 2 Overall Diagram
  13. 13.  A =Area of cylinder(m2 )  D=Diameter of Piston (m)  F =Force exerted on the piston (N)  H=Height (m)  L=Length(m)  P=Pressure (N/m2)  V=Volume (m3)
  14. 14. SYNOPSIS
  15. 15. SYNOPSIS In this project we fabricate the solar operated reciprocating water pump this is a new innovative concept. Reciprocating water pump is most important in the agriculture field. In this project electrical power is generated through the solar panel so this equipment compensates the electrical power demand and very much helpful to agricultural field. The main objective of this project is to pump the water with very less electric power. The process is carried out by the pneumatic cylinder and the compressed air. The model consists of a tank, non return valve and a pneumatic cylinder. The concept is pneumatic since it is easy to operate and also a quick process. The concept can bring a drastic change in the field of mechanical especially for lubrication purpose in the machining areas.
  17. 17. CHAPTER -1 INTRODUCTION The main objective of our project is to perform various machine operations using machine with the help of pneumatic sources. For a developing industry the operation performed and the parts (or) components produced should have it minimum possible production cost, and then only industry runs profitability. NEED FOR AUTOMATION: Automation can be achieved through computers, hydraulics, pneumatics, robotics, etc., of these sources, pneumatics form an attractive medium for low cost automation. The main advantages of all pneumatic systems are economy and simplicity. Automation plays an important role in mass production. Nowadays almost all the manufacturing process is being atomized in order to deliver the products at a faster rate. The manufacturing operation is being atomized for the following reasons.
  18. 18.  To achieve mass production  To reduce man power  To reduce the work load  To reduce the fatigue of workers  To achieve good product quality  Less maintenance
  20. 20. CHAPTER -2 LITRATURE SURVEY PNEUMATICS: The word ‘pneuma’ comes from Greek and means wind. The word pneumatics is the study of air movement and its phenomena is derived from the word pneuma. Today pneumatics is mainly understood to means the application of air as a working medium in industry especially the driving and controlling of machines and equipment. Pneumatics has for some considerable time between used for carrying out the simplest mechanical tasks in more recent times has Played a more important role in the development of pneumatic technology for automation. Pneumatic systems operate on a supply of compressed air which must be made available in sufficient quantity and at a pressure to suit the capacity of the system. When the pneumatic system is being adopted for the first time, however it wills indeed the necessary to deal with the question of compressed air supply.
  21. 21. The key part of any facility for supply of compressed air is by means using reciprocating compressor. A compressor is a machine that takes in air, gas at a certain pressure and delivered the air at a high pressure. Compressor capacity is the actual quantity of air compressed and delivered and the volume expressed is that of that of the air at intake conditions namely at atmosphere pressure and normal ambient temperature. The compressibility of the air was first investigated by Robot Boyle in 1962 and that found that the product of pressure and volumes of particular quantity of gas. The usual written as PV =C (or) PiVi =P2V2 In this equation the pressure is the absolute pressured which for free is about 14.7Psi and is of courage capable of maintaining a column of mercury, nearly 30 inches high in an ordinary barometer.
  22. 22. Any gas can be used in pneumatic system but air is the mostly used system now a days. SELECTION OF PNEUMATICS: Mechanization is broadly defined as the replacement of manual effort by mechanical power. Pneumatic is an attractive medium for low Cost mechanization particularly for sequential (or) repetitive operations. Many factories and plants already have a compressed air system, which is capable of providing the power (or) energy requirements and control system (although equally pneumatic control systems may be economic and can be advantageously applied to other forms of power). The main advantages of an all pneumatic system are usually Economic and simplicity the latter reducing maintenance to a low level. It can have out standing advantages in terms of safety. PNEUMATIC POWER:
  23. 23. Pneumatic systems use pressurized gases to transmit and control power. Pneumatic systems typically use air as the fluid medium because air is safe, low cost and readily available. THE ADVANTAGES OF PNEUMATICS: 1. Air used in pneumatic systems can be directly exhausted back In to the surrounding environment and hence the need of special reservoirs and no-leak system designs are eliminated. 2. Pneumatic systems are simple and economical 3. Control of pneumatic systems is easier THE DISADVANTAGES OF PNEUMATICS: 1. Pneumatic systems exhibit spongy characteristics due to compressibility of air. 2. Pneumatic pressures are quite low due to compressor design limitations(less that 250 psi). PRODUCTION OF COMPRESSED AIR
  24. 24. Pneumatic systems operate on a supply of compressed air, which must be made available. In sufficient quantity and at a pressure to suit the capacity of the system. When pneumatic system is being adopted for the first time, however it wills indeed the necessary to deal with the question of compressed air supply. The key part of any facility for supply of compressed air is by means using reciprocating compressor. A compressor is a machine that takes in air, gas at a certain pressure and delivered the air at a high pressure. Compressor capacity is the actual quantity of air compressed and delivered and the volume expressed is that of the air At intake conditions namely at atmosphere pressure and normal ambient temperature. Clean condition of the suction air is one of the factors, which decides the life of a compressor. Warm and moist suction air will result increased precipitation of condense from the compressed air. COMPRESSOR MAY BE CLASSIFIED IN TWO GENERAL TYPES. 1. Positive displacement compressor
  25. 25. 2. Turbo compressor Positive displacement compressors are most frequently employed for Compressed air plant and have proved highly successful and supply air for pneumatic control application. The types of positive compressor 1. Reciprocating type compressor 2. Rotary type compressor Turbo compressors are employed where large of air required at low discharge pressures. They cannot attain pressure necessary for pneumatic control application unless built in multistage designs and are seldom encountered in pneumatic service. RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS: Built for either stationary (or) portable service the reciprocating compressor is by far the most common type. Reciprocating compressors lap be had is sizes from the smallest capacities to deliver more than 500m3/min.In single stage compressor, the air pressure may be of 6 bar machines discharge of pressure is up to 15bars.Discharge pressure in the range of 250bars can be obtained
  26. 26. with high pressure reciprocating compressors that of three & four stages. Single stage and 1200 stage models are particularly suitable For applications, with preference going to the two stage design as soon as the discharge pressure exceeds 6 bars, because it in capable of matching the performance of single stage machine at lower costs per driving powers in the range.
  28. 28. CHAPTER-3 DESCRIPTION OF EQUAPMENTS 3.1 PNEUMATIC CONTROL COMPONENT 3.1.1 Pneumatic cylinder: An air cylinder is an operative device in which the state input energy of compressed air i.e.penuamtic power is converted into mechanical Output power, by reducing the pressure of the air to that of the atmosphere. 3.1.1a) single acting cylinder: Single acting cylinder is only capable of performing an operating medium in only one direction. Single acting cylinders equipped with one inlet for the operating air pressure, can be production in several fundamentally different designs. Single cylinders Develop power in one direction only. Therefore no heavy control equipment should be attached to them, which requires to be moved on the piston return stroke single action cylinder requires only about half the air volume consumed by a double acting for one operating cycle.
  29. 29. 3.1.1 B) Double acting Cylinders: A double acting cylinder is employed in control systems with the full pneumatic cushioning and it is essential when the cylinder itself is required to retard heavy messes. This can only be done at the end positions of the piston stroke. In all intermediate position a separate externally mounted cushioning derive most be provided with the damping feature. The normal escape of air is out off by a cushioning piston before the end of the stroke is required. As a result the sit in the cushioning chamber is again compressed since it cannot escape but slowly according to the setting made on reverses. The air freely enters the cylinder and the piston strokes in the other direction at full Force and velocity.
  30. 30. 3.2 VALVES SOLENOID VALVE The directional valve is one of the important parts of a pneumatic system. Commonly known as DCV; this valve is used to control the direction of air flow in the pneumatic system. The directional valve does this by changing the position of its internal movable parts. This valve was selected for speedy operation and to reduce the manual effort and also for the modification of the machine into automatic machine by means of using a solenoid valve. A solenoid is an electrical device that converts electrical energy into straight line motion and force. These are also used to operate a mechanical operation which in turn operates the valve mechanism. Solenoid is one is which the plunger is pulled when the solenoid is energized. The name of the parts of the solenoid should be learned so that they can be recognized when called upon to make repairs,to do service work or to install them.
  31. 31. PARTS OF A SOLENOID VALVE 1. Coil The solenoid coil is made of copper wire. The layers of wire are separated by insulating layer. The entire solenoid coil is covered with a varnish that is not affected by solvents, moisture, cutting oil or often
  32. 32. fluids. Coils are rated in various voltages such as 115 volts AC,230volts AC,460volts Ac,575 Volts AC.6Volts DC,12Volts DC, 24 Volts DC,115 Volts DC &230Volts DC.they are designed for such Frequencies as 50Hz to 60Hz. 2. Frame The solenoid frame serves several purposes. Since it is made of laminated sheets, it is magnetized when the current passes through the coil. The magnetized coils attract the metal plunger to move. The frame has provisions for attaching the mounting. They are usually bolted or welded to the frame. The frame has provisions for receivers, the plunger. The wear strips are mounted to the solenoid frame, and are made of materials such as metal or impregnated less Fiber cloth. 3. Solenoid plunger The solenoid plunger is the mover mechanism of the solenoid. The plunger is made of steel laminations which are riveted together under high pressure, so that there will be no movement of the lamination with respect to one another. At the top of the plunger a
  33. 33. pin hole is placed for making a connection to some device. The solenoid plunger is moved by a magnetic force in one direction and is usually returned by spring action. Solenoid operated valves are usually provided with cover either the solenoid or the entire valve. This protects the solenoid from dirt and other foreign matter, and protects the actuator. In many applications it is necessary to use explosion proof solenoids. WORKING OF SOLENOID VALVE: The solenoid valve has 5 openings. These ensure easy exhausting of 5/4Valve.the spool of the 5/4 valve slide inside the main bore according to spool position: the ports get connected and disconnected. The working principle is as follows. Position-1 When the spool is actuated towards outer direction port ‘P’ gets
  34. 34. Connected to ‘B’ and ‘S’ remains closed while ‘A’gets connected to ‘R’. Position-2 When the spool is pushed in the inner direction port ‘P’ and ‘A’ Gets connected to each other and ‘B’ to ‘S’ while port ‘R’remains closed. SOLINOID VALVE (OR) CUT OFF VALVE: The control valve is used to control the flow direction is called cut off valve or solenoid valve. This solenoid cutoff valve is controlled by the electronic control unit. In our project separate solenoid valve is used for flow direction of vice cylinder. It is used to flow the air from compressor to the single acting cylinder. Flow control valve: In any fluid power circuit, flow control valve is used to control the speed of actuator. The flow control can be achieved by varying the area of flow through which the air in passing. When area is increased, more quantity of air will be sent to actuator as a result its speed will increase. If the quantity of air
  35. 35. entering into the actuator is reduced, the speed of the actuator is reduced. Pressure control valve: The main function of the pressure control valve is to limit (or) Control the pressure required in a pneumatic circuit. Depending upon the method of controlling they are classified as 1. Pressure relief valve 2. Pressure reducing valve Hoses: Hoses used in this pneumatic system are made up of polyurethane. These hose can with stand at a maximum pressure level of 10 x105N/m2. Connectors: In our system there are two type of connectors used. One is the Hose connector and the other is the reducer. Hose connectors normally comprise an adopt hose nipple and cap nut. These types of
  36. 36. connectors are made up of brass (or) aluminum (or) hardened pneumatic steel. 3.3 AIR COMPRESSOR: Compressor is the air producing machine. They collect the airs from the atmosphere are in the running of machine are engine. Air compressors are utilized to raise the pressure of a volume of air. Air compressors are available in many configurations and will operate over a very wide range of flow rates and pressures. Compressed air was expelled by primitive man to give glowing embers sufficient oxygen to allow them to flare up into a fire. During the compression process, the temperature increases as the pressure increases. This is known as polytypic compression. The amount of compression power also increases as the temperature increases. Compressors are staged thereby reducing the temperature rise and improving the compression efficiency. The temperature of the air leaving each stage is cooled prior to entering the next stage. This cooling process is called intercooling. Volumetric efficiency also increases with multi-
  37. 37. stage compression since the pressure ratio over the first stage will be decreased. Selection of the air compressor is only the first step in designing an efficient and reliable compressed air system. The air exiting the compressor is saturated with moisture and will have compressor lubricants (lubricated compressors only). Other chemicals that may have been drawn into the compressor intake may also be present. This contamination is harmful to many processes, pneumatic tools, instruments and equipment. Air purification equipment, filters, air dryers, breathing air purifiers, monitoring equipment, used alone or in combination will remove these contaminants. Selection and purchase of the compressor and necessary purification equipment can be easily done on the Compressed air site. Our application engineers are ready to answer all of your questions and to assist you in placing your order. And it work in the process of rotating the fan and the piston movement with the help of current supply.
  38. 38. 3.4 NON-RETURN VALVE A check valve, clack valve, non-return valve or one-way valve is a mechanical device, a valve, which normally allows fluid (liquid or gas) to flow through it in only one direction. Check valves are two-port valves, meaning they have two openings in the body, one for fluid to enter and the other for fluid to leave. There are various types of check valves used in a wide variety of applications. Check valves are often part of common household items. Although they are available in a wide range of sizes and costs,
  39. 39. check valves generally are very small, simple, and/or cheap. Check valves work automatically and most are not controlled by a person or any external control; accordingly, most do not have any valve handle or stem. The bodies (external shells) of most check valves are made of plastic or metal. An important concept in check valves is the cracking pressure which is the minimum upstream pressure at which the valve will operate. Typically the check valve is designed for and can therefore be specified for a specific cracking pressure. 3.5 POT (POTENTIOMETER) A potentiometer is a three-terminal resistor with a sliding contact that forms an adjustable voltage divider. If only two terminals are used (one side and the wiper), it acts as a variable resistor or Rheostat. Potentiometers are commonly used to control electrical devices such as a volume control of a radio. Potentiometers operated
  40. 40. by a mechanism can be used as position transducers, for example, in a joystick. Potentiometers are rarely used to directly control significant power (more than a watt). Instead they are used to adjust the level of analog signals (e.g. volume controls on audio equipment), and as control inputs for electronic circuits. For example, a light dimmer uses a potentiometer to control the switching of a TRIAC and so indirectly control the brightness of lamps. Potentiometers are sometimes provided with one or more switches mounted on the same shaft. For instance, when attached to a volume control, the knob can also function as an on/off switch at the lowest volume. APPLICATIONS OF POTENTIOMETERS Potentiometers are widely used as user controls, and may control a very wide variety of equipment functions. The widespread use of potentiometers in consumer electronics has declined in the 1990s, with digital controls now more common. However they remain in many applications, such as volume controls and as position sensors.
  41. 41. AUDIO CONTROL One of the most common uses for modern low-power potentiometers is as audio control devices. Both linear pots (also known as "faders") and rotary potentiometers (commonly called knobs) are regularly used to adjust loudness, frequency attenuation and other characteristics of audio signals. The 'log pot' is used as the volume control in audio amplifiers, where it is also called an "audio taper pot", because the amplitude response of the human ear is also logarithmic. It ensures that, on a volume control marked 0 to 10, for example, a setting of 5 sounds half as loud as a setting of 10. There is also an anti-log pot or reverse audio taper which is simply the reverse of a log pot. It is almost always used in a ganged configuration with a log pot, for instance, in an audio balance control.Potentiometers used in combination with filter networks act as tone controls or equalizers. TELEVISION Potentiometers were formerly used to control picture brightness, contrast, and color response. A potentiometer was often
  42. 42. used to adjust "vertical hold", which affected the synchronization between the receiver's internal sweep circuit (sometimes a multivibrator) and the received picture signal. TRANSDUCERS Potentiometers are also very widely used as a part of displacement transducers because of the simplicity of construction and because they can give a large output signal. COMPUTATION In analog computers, high precision potentiometers are used to scale intermediate results by desired constant factors, or to set initial conditions for a calculation. A motor-driven potentiometer may be used as a function generator, using a non-linear resistance card to supply approximations to trigonometric functions. For example, the shaft rotation might represent an angle, and the voltage division ratio can be made proportional to the cosine of the angle. 3.6 RELAY
  43. 43. A relay is an electrically operated switch. Current flowing through the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts. The coil current can be on or off. So relays have two switch positions and they are double throw (changeover) switches. Relays allow one circuit to switch a second circuit which can be completely separate from the first. The link is magnetic and mechanical. The coil of a relay passes a relatively large current, typically 30mA for a 12V relay, but it can be as much as 100mA for relays designed to operate from lower voltages. Most ICs (chips) cannot provide this current and a transistor is usually used to amplify the small IC current to the larger value required for the relay coil. The maximum output current for the popular 555 timer IC is 200mA so these devices can supply relay coils directly without amplification. Relays are usually SPDT or DPDT but they can have many more sets of switch contacts, for example relays with 4 sets of changeover contacts are readily available. Most relays are designed for PCB mounting but you can solder wires directly to the pins providing you take care to avoid melting the plastic case of the relay. The animated picture shows a working relay with its coil and switch
  44. 44. contacts. You can see a lever on the left being attracted by magnetism when the coil is switched on. This lever moves the switch contacts. There is one set of contacts (SPDT) in the foreground and another behind them, making the relay DPDT. 3.7 SOLAR PANEL A solar panel is a device that collects and converts solar energy into electricity or heat. It known as Photovoltaic panels, used to generate electricity directly from sunlight Solar thermal energy collection systems, used to generate electricity through a system of mirrors and fluid-filled tubes solar thermal collector, used to generate heat solar hot water panel, used to heat water. It is energy portal. A solar power technology uses solar cells or solar photovoltaic arrays to convert light from the sun directly into electricity.Photovoltaics, is in which light is converted into electrical power. It is best known as a method for generating solar power by using solar cells packaged in photovoltaic modules, often electrically connected in multiples as solar photovoltaic arrays to convert energy from the sun into
  45. 45. electricity. The photovoltaic solar panel is photons from sunlight knock electrons into a higher state of energy, creating electricity. Solar cells produce direct current electricity from light, which can be used to power equipment or to recharge a battery. A less common form of the technologies is thermophotovoltaics, in which the thermal radiation from some hot body other than the sun is utilized. Photovoltaic devices are also used to produce electricity in optical wireless power transmission. 3.8 BATTERY
  46. 46. In our project we are using secondary type battery. It is rechargeable type. A battery is one or more electrochemical cells, which store chemical energy and make it available as electric current. There are two types of batteries, primary (disposable) and secondary (rechargeable), both of which convert chemical energy to electrical energy. Primary batteries can only be used once because they use up their chemicals in an irreversible reaction. Secondary batteries can be recharged because the chemical reactions they use are reversible; they are recharged by running a charging current through the battery, but in the opposite direction of the discharge current. Secondary, also called rechargeable batteries can be charged and discharged many times before wearing out. After wearing out some batteries can be recycled. Batteries have gained popularity as they became portable and useful for many purposes. The use of batteries has created many environmental concerns, such as toxic metal pollution. A battery is a device that converts chemical energy directly to electrical energy it consists of one or more voltaic cells. Each voltaic cell consists of two half cells connected in series by a conductive electrolyte.
  47. 47. One half-cell is the positive electrode, and the other is the negative electrode. The electrodes do not touch each other but are electrically connected by the electrolyte, which can be either solid or liquid. A battery can be simply modeled as a perfect voltage source which has its own resistance, the resulting voltage across the load depends on the ratio of the battery's internal resistance to the resistance of the load. When the battery is fresh, its internal resistance is low, so the voltage across the load is almost equal to that of the battery's internal voltage source. As the battery runs down and its internal resistance increases, the voltage drop across its internal resistance increases,
  48. 48. so the voltage at its terminals decreases, and the battery's ability to deliver power to the load decreases. 3.9 CONTROL UNIT: MICROCONTROLLER: INTRODUCTION: Microcontrollers are destined to play an increasingly important role in revolutionizing various industries and influencing our day to day life more strongly than one can imagine. Since its emergence in the early 1980's the microcontroller has been recognized as a general purpose building block for intelligent digital systems. It is finding using diverse area, starting from simple children's toys to highly complex spacecraft. Because of its versatility and many advantages, the application domain has spread in all conceivable directions, making it ubiquitous. As a consequence, it has generate a great deal of interest and enthusiasm among students, teachers and practicing engineers, creating an acute education need for imparting the knowledge of microcontroller based system design and development. It identifies the vital features responsible for their
  49. 49. tremendous impact, the acute educational need created by them and provides a glimpse of the major application area. MICROCONTROLLER: A microcontroller is a complete microprocessor system built on a single IC. Microcontrollers were developed to meet a need for microprocessors to be put into low cost products. Building a complete microprocessor system on a single chip substantially reduces the cost of building simple products, which use the microprocessor's power to implement their function, because the microprocessor is a natural way to implement many products. This means the idea of using a microprocessor for low cost products comes up often. But the typical 8-bit microprocessor based system, such as one using a Z80 and 8085 is expensive. Both 8085 and Z80 system need some additional circuits to make a microprocessor system. Each part carries costs of money. Even though a product design may requires only very simple system, the parts needed to make this system as a low cost product.
  50. 50. To solve this problem microprocessor system is implemented with a single chip microcontroller. This could be called microcomputer, as all the major parts are in the IC. Most frequently they are called microcontroller because they are used they are used to perform control functions. The microcontroller contains full implementation of a standard MICROPROCESSOR, ROM, RAM, I/0, CLOCK, TIMERS, and also SERIAL PORTS. Microcontroller also called "system on a chip" or "single chip microprocessor system" or "computer on a chip". A microcontroller is a Computer-On-A-Chip, or, if you prefer, a single-chip computer. Micro suggests that the device is small, and controller tells you that the device' might be used to control objects, processes, or events. Another term to describe a microcontroller is embedded controller, because the microcontroller and its support circuits are often built into, or embedded in, the devices they control. Today microcontrollers are very commonly used in wide variety of intelligent products. For example most personal computers keyboards and implemented with a microcontroller. It replaces Scanning, Debounce, Matrix Decoding, and Serial transmission
  51. 51. circuits. Many low cost products, such as Toys, Electric Drills, Microwave Ovens, VCR and a host of other consumer and industrial products are based on microcontrollers.
  53. 53. CHAPTER-IV DESIGN OF EQUIPMENT AND DRAWING 4.1 PNEUMATIC COMPONENTS AND ITS SPECIFICATION The design and fabrication of pneumatic reciprocating water pumping system is consists of the following components to full fill the requirements of complete operation of the machine. 1. Double acting pneumatic cylinder 2. Solenoid vale 3. Air compressor 4. Non return valve 5. POT 6. Relay 7. Control unit
  54. 54. DRAWING
  55. 55. 4.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM
  58. 58. CHAPTER-V WORKING PRINCIPLE This project is designed with control unit, pneumatic cylinder, solenoid valve and a water tank. The unit is timing operated according to our necessity the pneumatic cylinder can be operated. The pneumatic cylinder is connected to the empty cylinder for pumping the water from the tank. The relay output is directly connected to the solenoid valve. Now the pump is operated and lubricant is provided on the machines in order to reduce the heat. Once the solenoid valve is actuated through the control circuit, the pneumatic cylinder connected with it will be extended and retracted respectively. This results in the pumping cylinder to extend and retract, as the piston rods of both the cylinders are coupled with each other. Once the pumping cylinder is retracted the water in the tank will be sucked and it will be delivered as the cylinder is extended. The continuous operation will deliver the water as per the requirement. The process is controlled by the control unit. In this concept we are using is the solar panel. A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device that converts solar energy into electricity by the photovoltaic effect. This plays the major role to convert the
  59. 59. solar energy to electrical energy by photovoltaic process. Solar panel consists of number of solar cells which converts the solar energy to electric power. The output power supply from the solar panel is given to the battery. The battery stores the power given by the solar panel. Then the stored energy is given to the solenoid valve to operate the cylinder.
  61. 61. CHAPTER -VI MERITS AND DEMERITS MERITS: • Requirement of man power is not necessary • Electric power required is minimum • Quick process • Easy to handle • Free of energy DEMERITS: • It is costlier than the other types of pumps • Leakage of air affects the working unit. • Needs separate air compressor • Solar power is only available at day time.
  63. 63. CHAPTER-VII APPLICATIONS It is applicable in all small scale and large scale industries for lubrication. • Higher efficiency. • It does not require any prime mover like electric motor. • As the air is freely available.
  65. 65. CHAPTER-VIII LIST OF MATERIALS FACTORS DETERMINING THE CHOICE OF MATERIALS The various factors which determine the choice of material are discussed below. 1. Properties: The material selected must posses the necessary properties for the proposed application. The various requirements to be satisfied Can be weight, surface finish, rigidity, ability to withstand environmental attack from chemicals, service life, reliability etc. The following four types of principle properties of materials decisively affect their selection a. Physical b. Mechanical c. From manufacturing point of view d. Chemical The various physical properties concerned are melting point, thermal
  66. 66. Conductivity, specific heat, coefficient of thermal expansion, specific gravity, electrical conductivity, magnetic purposes etc. The various Mechanical properties Concerned are strength in tensile, Compressive shear, bending, torsional and buckling load, fatigue resistance, impact resistance, eleastic limit, endurance limit, and modulus of elasticity, hardness, wear resistance and sliding properties. The various properties concerned from the manufacturing point of view are,  Cast ability  Weld ability  Forge ability  Surface properties  Shrinkage  Deep drawing etc. 2. Manufacturing case: Sometimes the demand for lowest possible manufacturing cost or surface qualities obtainable by the application of suitable coating substances may demand the use of special materials.
  67. 67. 3. Quality Required: This generally affects the manufacturing process and ultimately the material. For example, it would never be desirable to go casting of a less number of components which can be fabricated much more economically by welding or hand forging the steel. 4. Availability of Material: Some materials may be scarce or in short supply. It then becomes obligatory for the designer to use some other material which though may not be a perfect substitute for the material designed. the delivery of materials and the delivery date of product should also be kept in mind. 5. Space consideration: Sometimes high strength materials have to be selected because the forces involved are high and space limitations are there. 6. Cost: As in any other problem, in selection of material the cost of material plays an important part and should not be ignored.
  68. 68. Some times factors like scrap utilization, appearance, and nonmaintenance of the designed part are involved in the selection of proper materials.
  70. 70. CHAPTER-IX COST ESTIMATION 1. LABOUR COST: Lathe, drilling, welding, grinding, power hacksaw, gas cutting cost 2. OVERGHEAD CHARGES: The overhead charges are arrived by”manufacturing cost” Manufacturing Cost =Material Cost +Labour Cost = = Overhead Charges =20%of the manufacturing cost = 3. TOTAL COST: Total cost = Material Cost +Labour Cost +Overhead Charges = = Total cost for this project =
  72. 72. CHAPTER-X CONCLUSION The project carried out by us made an impressing task in the field of medical department for water purifier. This project will reduce the cost involved in the concern. Project has been designed to perform the entire requirement task at the shortest time available.
  74. 74. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Design data book -P.S.G.Tech. 2. Pneumatic handbook 3. -R.H.warrning Machine tool design handbook –Central machine tool Institute, Bangalore. 4. Strength of Materials -R.S.Kurmi 5. Manufacturing Technology -M.Haslehurst. 6. Design of machine elements- R.s.Kurumi