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Session no. 3, 2011: Roman Engineering Machines and Mechanisms, by Gustavo Trapp

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Session no. 3, 2011: Roman Engineering Machines and Mechanisms, by Gustavo Trapp

  1. 1. Roman Engineering Machines and Mechanisms Gustavo Trapp 3 rd Session, 2011
  2. 2. Roman Engineering <ul><li>Main Sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitrubius (c. 80–70 BC - after 15 BC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>De Architectura </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pliny the Elder (23 AD – 79AD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Naturalis Historiae </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heron of Alexandria (c. 10–70 AD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pneumatica, Automata, Mechanica, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Main types of machines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Siege machines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial machines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small mechanisms </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Siege machines <ul><ul><li>Mostly evolutions of early greek designs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ballistae (arrow throwers) </li></ul><ul><li>Lithobolos (stone throwers) </li></ul><ul><li>De Re Militari, by Vegetius, c.430-450 AD </li></ul>
  4. 4. Siege machines <ul><ul><li>Balistae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Static </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High degree of accuracy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually constructed on site </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metal parts carried around </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 shots per minute </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Variations </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manuballista </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carroballista </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Siege machines <ul><li>Lithobolos/Onager/Mangonel </li></ul><ul><li>Used to throw </li></ul><ul><li>Rocks </li></ul><ul><li>Burning objects </li></ul><ul><li>Dead animals or people </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity </li></ul><ul><li>10 to 180 lb stones </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 500 meters (1500ft) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Industrial Machines <ul><li>Pumps </li></ul><ul><li>Water mills </li></ul><ul><li>Wind mills </li></ul><ul><li>Pulley-based machines for lifting and transporting weights </li></ul><ul><li>Machines that convert rotary to linear motion and vice-versa </li></ul>
  7. 7. Roman Engineering <ul><ul><li>Pumps </li></ul></ul>Rio Tinto Mine, Spain
  8. 8. <ul><li>Lifting mechanisms </li></ul>Roman Engineering 13 000 lb vs. 110 lb Manual Crane Manual Crane Threadwheel Crane
  9. 9. Roman Engineering Machines that convert rotary to linear motion Hierapolis, Asia Minor c. 350 AD <ul><li>Stone Saw mill </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Small mechanisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Odomoter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Astronomical computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydraulic organ </li></ul></ul>Roman Engineering Antikhera
  11. 11. Questions ?

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