Session no. 2, 2012: Roman Concrete, by Ross Nightingale

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Session no. 2, 2012: Roman Concrete, by Ross Nightingale

  1. 1. RomanConcrete Ross Nightingale Session 2
  2. 2. The Rock
  3. 3. Hi, It’s me FRED!Don’t Believe him!I invented concrete. It Was Me
  4. 4. Roman Concrete = Opus Caementicium1st used basic lime mortar – made with slaked lime &sand or fine gravel. (Slaked Lime = kiln heated limestone,quicklime, water added) - Used to bind rocks, seal walls, cisterns etcAbout mid 1st c BC – discovered the benefits of Pozzolana(volcanic ash) added to mix This was Roman Concrete
  5. 5. The Recipe 1 Vitruvius – Roman EngineerGeneral Construction – 1 part slaked lime to 3 parts pozzolana Layered in place with aggregate – either sand or fine gravel Horse hair was often added to stop cracking
  6. 6. Barrel Vaults Arches Domes
  7. 7. Basilica of Maxentius / Constantine
  8. 8. Artists view inside Basilica of Maxentius / Constantine
  9. 9. Concrete vaults and arches enabled building of the colisseum
  10. 10. Aqueducts
  11. 11. Rome’s Sewer the Cloaca Maxima& Roman Latrines
  12. 12. Domed spacesEg. Pantheon
  13. 13. The Recipe 2 Vitruvius – Roman EngineerUnderwater Construction – 1 part slaked lime to 2 parts pozzolana Formed Hydraulic Concrete which set underwaterEnabled building of harbours and bridges
  14. 14. The Submerged Remains of Herod’s Harbour
  15. 15. Artist’s Reconstruction of Herod’s Harbour
  16. 16. Opus Incertum Opus Reticulatum & Marble Decorating BoringOpus Quadratum Concrete
  17. 17. Pompeii
  18. 18. Huge builds Domes Harbours Bridges Sewers … WithoutConcrete could Rome and its empire have become so great?

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