Sanisera Field School, session no. 7, 2011: Biblical archaeology, by Macarena García
BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY Macarena García Gª The Roman City dig 2011, session no.7
Biblical Archaeology: Location The Holy Land: Israel, Palestine, Jordan. And also some places descrived in the biblical narratives: - Tanakh/Old Testament: Egypt, Syria, Mesopotamia - New Testament: Asia Minor, Macedonia, Greece, Rome
Mishnaic and Talmudic Ages Late Roman 135-330 A.D. Yabne Age, 133-135 A.D.: Bar Kokhba revolt Middle Roman 70-135 A.D. Herod’s time, Christianity, New Testament. 70 A.D.: destruction of the II Temple Early Roman 63 B.C.-70 A.D. Return, Persian Period PERSIAN PERIOD 539-332 B.C. Neo-Babylonian period (Exile) Iron Age III 586-539 B.C. Divided Monarchy Iron Age IIC 721-586 B.C. Divided Monarchy: Israel (north, Samaria) and Judah (south, Jerusalem) Iron Age IIB 930-721 B.C. United Monarchy Iron Age IIA 1,000-930 B.C. ROMAN PERIOD 63 B.C.-330 A.D. Consolidation of Christianism BYZANTINE PERIOD 330-638 A.D. From 165 B.C.: Maccabees’ War, Hasmonean Period Late Hellenistic 198-63 B.C. Hellenistic Period to 165 B.C. Early Hellenistic 332-198 B.C. HELLENISTIC PERIOD 332-63 B.C. Joshua’s conquest of the land (?) Judges Age Iron Age I 1,200-1,000 B.C. IRON AGE 1,200-539 B.C. Patriarchal Age (?) Egypt, Exodus Late Bronze II 1,400-1,200 B.C. Patriarchal Age (?) Late Bronze I 1,550-1,400 B.C. Middle Bronze Age III 1,750-1,550 B.C. Patriarchal Age (?) Middle Bronze Age II 2,000-1,750 B.C. Middle Bronze Age I 2,200-2,000 B.C. Early Bronze Age 3,200-2,200 B.C. BRONZE AGE 3,200-1,200 B.C. BIBLICAL PERIOD HISTORICAL PERIOD DATES
CAPHARNAUM Also known as Tell Hum, Khirbet Karazeh, Bethsaida, Capernaum, Chorazin, Kefar Nahum, Kafarnaum, Kefar Tanhum, Talhum, Tanhum
The Synagogue Jesus was confronted by a demoniac while teaching here (Mark 1:21-27). In Capernaum, Jesus healed the servant of the centurion. This Roman official was credited with building the synagogue (Luke 7:3). In this synagogue, Jesus gave sermon on the bread of life (John 6:35-59).
<ul><li>The House of Peter </li></ul><ul><li>House in Jesus’ time. </li></ul><ul><li>Domus Ecclesia: 4th century A.D </li></ul><ul><li>Byzantine church: 5th century A.D. </li></ul>
GERASA The biblical city of Gerasa is known today as Jerash. Gerasa was one of the cities of the Roman Decapolis and is one of the best preserved. The high point of Gerasa was in the 2nd century, when it had a population of 20,000-25,000. Most of the ruins are from the Greco-Roman and Byzantine periods.
<ul><li>ROMAN OCCUPATION </li></ul><ul><li>Hadrian’s Triumphal Arch (about 130 A.D.) </li></ul><ul><li>Temple of Artemis (2nd century A.D.) </li></ul><ul><li>Hippodrome (2nd century A.D.) </li></ul>
THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION! <ul><li>SOUTH THEATER </li></ul><ul><li>Its construction began in 90 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>It would fit 3,000 people on its 33 rowns. </li></ul><ul><li>It has some inscribed seats in greek (the latin was not used in the Near East). </li></ul>