Princess Amalia Wind Farm
Impact Monitoring
2003-2013
Glasgow, 12 June 2014
Huygen van Steen
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Impact Monitoring Offshore Wind Farm
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Impact Monitoring Offshore Wind Farm

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During a ten year period Princess Amalia Wind Farm conducted impact monitoring: before, during and after construction. Results show that the introduction of hard substrate, in an otherwise sandy environment, and the prohibition of fisheries has attracted a rich benthic community and possibly had a positive effect on a burrowing fish species. Some bird species were present in lower numbers, others were clearly attracted to the new structures. Underwater noise levels during piling could have effected harbour porpoises. An acoustic deterrent device mitigated these risks. Post construction monitoring results showed that harbour porpoises did not avoid the operational wind farm. The presentation was given by Huygen van Steen, consultant renewable energy at Ecofys, during the Renewable UK Global Offshore Wind Conference in Glasgow on 12 June 2014.

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Impact Monitoring Offshore Wind Farm

  1. 1. Princess Amalia Wind Farm Impact Monitoring 2003-2013 Glasgow, 12 June 2014 Huygen van Steen
  2. 2. ................................................................................................. ........................................................................ Dutch offshore wind farms 2 Under construction Operational
  3. 3. ................................................................................................. ........................................................................ Impact assessment in the Netherlands • Monitoring not included in EIA/AA • Government sets framework for monitoring in permit – Parameter – Method – Time/Duration 3
  4. 4. ................................................................................................. ........................................................................ Monitoring and Evaluation Program • Approach – Design and approval – Tender and coordination – Review and approval • 12 monitoring parameters (biotic and abiotic) • Focus here on 5 main ecological impacts 1. Sound 2. Porpoises 3. Fauna 4. Fish 5. Sea Birds 4
  5. 5. ................................................................................................. ........................................................................ Underwater Sound Question • How much underwater noise during construction and operation? Method • 2007: Piling – Mobile measurements – Hydrophones @ 2 locations • 2013: Operational – Fixed measurements – Hydrophones @ 2 locations Results • Operational sound negligible • Piling sound significant – Hammer energy 800 kJ – Steel monopile ø 4m – Sounds like... 5
  6. 6. ................................................................................................. ........................................................................ Harbour Porpoises Question • Do they avoid the operational wind farm? Method • 4 CPOD’s • In- & Outside PAWP • 1 year (2009-2010) Results • No difference in activity • High in March and December, less activity in April-May 6
  7. 7. ................................................................................................. ........................................................................ Macro Fauna (>1mm) Question • How did habitat change impact diversity and numbers? Methods • Soft substrate – BACI – Boxcore and Dredge samples • Hard substrate – After construction – Video and scrape samples Results • Soft substrate - no difference • Hard substrate – +0.12% substrate,+10% fauna, +49% biomass – Molluscs, Cnidaria, Crustacea… 7
  8. 8. ................................................................................................. ........................................................................ Fish Question • Did PAWP have a nursery effect? Method • Fish trawls inside wind farm in 2013, compared with existing data outside Results • Demersal fish – Coming soon • Round fish – 17 species; mostly herring, sprat and whiting – More greater sand eels in wind farm! 8 GreaterSandEel Beam Trawl Otter Trawl © Greenpeace © Greenpeace © British Sea Fishing
  9. 9. ................................................................................................. ........................................................................ Birds Question • Did PAWP have an impact on sea birds? Method • Collision – Method not available • Avoidance / Habitat Loss – Ship based transects in/outside wind farms Results • Avoidance / Habitat Loss – Some habitat loss for some species – Love-Hate relationship! • Possible effect wind farm density 9 Love Hate Neutral CormorantGullsGannet © Mmo iwdg - Wikimedia Commons © andrewchen.co © Arthur Morris/BIRDS AS ART
  10. 10. ................................................................................................. ........................................................................ Conclusion 10 Positive Neutral Negative Construction phase Operational phase Positive Neutral Negative Neutral Neutral Fauna Fish Birds Sound Porpoises Birds Sound Porpoises Fish Birds Fauna Fish Birds
  11. 11. ................................................................................................. ........................................................................ Lessons Learned • Similar permit requirements – Different attitude – Improved and intensified relationship with the competent authority • Focus on knowledge gaps – Permit requirements can be adjusted based on state of the art knowledge – Contribute to relevant ‘holistic’ projects oORJIP: Bird Avoidance and Collision Risk oDEPONS: Impact on porpoise populations 11 DEPONS Disturbance Effects on Porpoise Population in the North Sea ORJIP Offshore Renewables Joint Industry Program http://depons.au.dk/www.carbontrust.com
  12. 12. ................................................................................................. ........................................................................ Thank You • Huygen van Steen h.vansteen@ecofys.com • Jan Dam j.dam@ecofys.com • Sytske van den Akker Sytske.vandenAkker@eneco.com • PAWP reports available from: http://projecten.eneco.nl/prinses-amaliawindpark/milieumonitoring/ • LUD baseline reports available from: http://projecten.eneco.nl/eneco-luchterduinen/milieumonitoring 12

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