Environmental Economics <ul><li>Investigation into  Eco-Design  practices within Harman product development to reduce envi...
Natural: Systems Thinking
Industrial: Systems Thinking
Contents <ul><li>EcoDesign </li></ul><ul><li>Project Brief </li></ul><ul><li>Harman Impact Understanding </li></ul><ul><li...
EcoDesign Introduction Eco-Design  Is a  strategic design management  approach incorporating l ife cycle  thinking of  pro...
Business Case <ul><li>G reen   standard isation  for global development  -  On the green wave   </li></ul><ul><li>T ranspa...
KTP Project  Approach <ul><li>A  shorter  KTP ( Knowledge Transfer Partnership) grant  </li></ul><ul><li>Under the framewo...
KTP   Project Objectives <ul><li>Initial  investigation  into the  environmental impacts of Harman Speaker products  throu...
Internal Influences   Harman Bridgend Impacts <ul><li>4  Production Lines </li></ul><ul><li>6,000  Units Produced  Per Lin...
Internal Influences   Customer Program <ul><li>Tweeters </li></ul><ul><li>Mid Range </li></ul><ul><li>Sub Woofer </li></ul...
Internal Influences   Procurement Material Selection <ul><li>Low Carbon Steel </li></ul><ul><li>Mild Steel </li></ul><ul><...
Internal Influences   Material Selection Material  Concerns <ul><li>Bisphenol A: (Monomer) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polycarbo...
Internal Influences   Component Transport Procurement  Decisions
Internal Influences   Component Travel Plans Component Tracking - Sub-Woofer   <ul><ul><li>HARMAN Bridgend </li></ul></ul>...
Internal Influences   Production Process <ul><li>Over-Moulded components </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of materials </li></ul>...
Internal Influences   Waste Management Fiscal year 200 8 Tonnes  -  cost Fiscal year 2009  Tonnes  -  cost Using informati...
External Influences <ul><li>Customer Specification </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Design Tolerances </li></ul><ul><li>Governme...
ELV <ul><li>Current ELV Directive: </li></ul><ul><li>Deploy airbags. </li></ul><ul><li>Remove all liquids. </li></ul><ul><...
Vehicle Material Content End Of Life Vehicle Directive ELV Recycled Vehicle Material Content
Current product life <ul><li>Resource Depletion </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental and </li></ul><ul><li>S ocial degradation ...
Life Cycle Full Life Cycle Systems Thinking: Cradle to Cradle Raw Materials Production Distribution Product Use End of Lif...
Life Cycle Benefits of EcoDesign to a Product-Life-Cycle Raw Materials Production Distribution Product Use End of Life <ul...
Suggested Paths <ul><li>No over-moulded components </li></ul><ul><li>Material selection </li></ul><ul><li>Design for disas...
Low Hanging Fruit Supplier Specification Waste Management Venders Internal Communication External Collaboration Supplier C...
<ul><li>Financial </li></ul><ul><li>0% Waste to Landfill = £0 Landfill Tax. </li></ul><ul><li>Material Recycling from Wast...
Market Movement Environmental Product Decloration – EPD ISO: 14001 ISO: 14006 ISO: 14062
EcoDesign Tools <ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>EcoDesign Workshop </li></ul><ul><...
Collaboration <ul><li>Adhesive Suppliers –  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Henkel. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3M </li></ul></ul><ul...
5. EcoDesign Tools EcoDesign Workshop  Impact Considerations Raw Materials Production Packaging & Distribution Use End of ...
5. EcoDesign Tools EcoDesign Workshop  Impact Considerations Materials Production Transport & Packaging Use End of Life CO...
<ul><li>Knowledge Transfer amongst the Team </li></ul><ul><li>Procurement Location Supply Chain </li></ul><ul><li>Material...
LCA 5. EcoDesign Tools Corporate Sustainability Management
Cradle to Cradle
To Finish <ul><li>Always look at the bigger picture </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborate with as many people as possible </li></u...
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Harman Ecodesign shorter Knowledge Transfer Partnership (sKTP)

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A short Knowledge Transfer Partnership (sKTP) project between Harman International and The Ecodesign Centre.

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Harman Ecodesign shorter Knowledge Transfer Partnership (sKTP)

  1. 1. Environmental Economics <ul><li>Investigation into Eco-Design practices within Harman product development to reduce environmental impact and increase profit. </li></ul>sKTP EcoDesign eoin bailey DEC 2010
  2. 2. Natural: Systems Thinking
  3. 3. Industrial: Systems Thinking
  4. 4. Contents <ul><li>EcoDesign </li></ul><ul><li>Project Brief </li></ul><ul><li>Harman Impact Understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Linier Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Think Logically </li></ul><ul><li>Ecodesign Tools </li></ul>
  5. 5. EcoDesign Introduction Eco-Design Is a strategic design management approach incorporating l ife cycle thinking of product development and services . Ecodesign takes into account social , economic and environmental impacts in the production and consumption of products and services . Ecodesign = good design
  6. 6. Business Case <ul><li>G reen standard isation for global development - On the green wave </li></ul><ul><li>T ransparency of product impacts will become commonplace - EPD </li></ul><ul><li>O pportunity for market leader ship - E xploit GreenEdge Technology </li></ul><ul><li>S et new standard s in each division - Influence Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Ecodesign promotes - Creativity, Innovation and active communication </li></ul><ul><li>Create commodity – Waste becomes valuable </li></ul>
  7. 7. KTP Project Approach <ul><li>A shorter KTP ( Knowledge Transfer Partnership) grant </li></ul><ul><li>Under the framework of the Wales Assembly Government, </li></ul><ul><li>Administered by UWIC </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitated by The EcoDesign Centre, Cardiff </li></ul><ul><li>A project champion </li></ul><ul><li>A multi-disciplinary Harman team </li></ul>
  8. 8. KTP Project Objectives <ul><li>Initial investigation into the environmental impacts of Harman Speaker products throughout the life cycle . </li></ul><ul><li>To facilitate implementation of Ecodesign principles into product development, with a view to: </li></ul><ul><li>Lower production costs. </li></ul><ul><li>Improve product functionality and quality </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate waste to landfill </li></ul><ul><li>Increase market share </li></ul><ul><li>Improve environmental performance </li></ul><ul><li>Compliance with legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Increase potential for recycling </li></ul><ul><li>Increase marketability of Brand profile </li></ul>
  9. 9. Internal Influences Harman Bridgend Impacts <ul><li>4 Production Lines </li></ul><ul><li>6,000 Units Produced Per Line Per Day </li></ul><ul><li>227 Working Days Per Year </li></ul><ul><li>5,448,000 Speaker Produced Per Year </li></ul>
  10. 10. Internal Influences Customer Program <ul><li>Tweeters </li></ul><ul><li>Mid Range </li></ul><ul><li>Sub Woofer </li></ul><ul><li>Total </li></ul>2,262,040 798,400 285,240 3,345,680 BMW F10 Platform Program BMW Units pa HARMAN units per system F10 THF 28,350 X 16 373,600 F10 HF 72,370 X 12 868,440 F11 THF 5,300 X 14 72,200 F11 HF 10,600 X 12 127,200 F12 THF 9,100 X 12 109,200 F12 HF 3,900 X 10 39,000 F13 THF 9,100 X 14 127,400 F13 HF 3,900 X 10 39,000 TOTAL 3,345,680
  11. 11. Internal Influences Procurement Material Selection <ul><li>Low Carbon Steel </li></ul><ul><li>Mild Steel </li></ul><ul><li>Neodymium Iron Boron </li></ul><ul><li>Copper </li></ul><ul><li>Polyamide (Nylon) </li></ul><ul><li>Dried Paper Pulp </li></ul><ul><li>Rubber </li></ul><ul><li>Phenolic Resin (Formaldehyde) </li></ul><ul><li>Brass </li></ul><ul><li>Polyethylene </li></ul><ul><li>Polypropylene </li></ul><ul><li>Polycarbonate (Bisphenol) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Internal Influences Material Selection Material Concerns <ul><li>Bisphenol A: (Monomer) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polycarbonate (PC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polystyrene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PVC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epoxy Resins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ABS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health Concerns: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endocrine disruptor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foetal and neonatal development defects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurological issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dopaminergic system defects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thyroid function defects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breast cancer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prostate cancer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproductive systems defects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA methylation </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Internal Influences Component Transport Procurement Decisions
  14. 14. Internal Influences Component Travel Plans Component Tracking - Sub-Woofer <ul><ul><li>HARMAN Bridgend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sea / Air Port Location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplier Location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sea Travel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land travel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air Travel </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Internal Influences Production Process <ul><li>Over-Moulded components </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of materials </li></ul><ul><li>Adhesives used </li></ul><ul><li>Activators used </li></ul><ul><li>Unspecified adhesives </li></ul><ul><li>Over Specification </li></ul><ul><li>New product introduction </li></ul>
  16. 16. Internal Influences Waste Management Fiscal year 200 8 Tonnes - cost Fiscal year 2009 Tonnes - cost Using information from Envirowise the estimated cost of waste = Cost of Waste Management x 1 0 Total Waste Non Hazardous 47 2 .5 £43,120 Total Waste Hazardous 80.42 £48,150 £91,270 Total Waste Non Hazardous 315 . 9 £44,000 Total Waste Hazardous 76 . 08 £47,500 £91,500 Fiscal year 2010 Tonnes - cost Total Waste Non Hazardous 504 . 9 £ ………? Total Waste Hazardous 21 . 6 £ ………? £ ………?
  17. 17. External Influences <ul><li>Customer Specification </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Design Tolerances </li></ul><ul><li>Government Directives: ELV, REACH. </li></ul><ul><li>Standards: ISO, TS </li></ul><ul><li>Industry Directives: IMDS compliance </li></ul><ul><li>International markets: Neo export </li></ul>
  18. 18. ELV <ul><li>Current ELV Directive: </li></ul><ul><li>Deploy airbags. </li></ul><ul><li>Remove all liquids. </li></ul><ul><li>Remove wheels and tyres. </li></ul><ul><li>Crush all remaining vehicle parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle shredding. </li></ul><ul><li>Defragmentation. </li></ul><ul><li>85% of the Vehicle weight Recycled </li></ul><ul><li>2015 ELV Directive: </li></ul><ul><li>95% of the Vehicle Weight Recycled </li></ul><ul><li>Details not specified?? </li></ul>Automotive Value Chain
  19. 19. Vehicle Material Content End Of Life Vehicle Directive ELV Recycled Vehicle Material Content
  20. 20. Current product life <ul><li>Resource Depletion </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental and </li></ul><ul><li>S ocial degradation </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive energy use </li></ul><ul><li>VOC ’ s </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Use </li></ul><ul><li>Waste </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>CO2 emissons </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Use </li></ul><ul><li>VOC ’ s </li></ul><ul><li>Landfill </li></ul><ul><li>Inceneration </li></ul><ul><li>Ecotoxicity </li></ul><ul><li>Waste </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>CO2 Production </li></ul>Cradle to Gate Cradle to Grave Raw Materials Production Distribution Product use End of life
  21. 21. Life Cycle Full Life Cycle Systems Thinking: Cradle to Cradle Raw Materials Production Distribution Product Use End of Life Raw Materials Use End of Life Distribution Production
  22. 22. Life Cycle Benefits of EcoDesign to a Product-Life-Cycle Raw Materials Production Distribution Product Use End of Life <ul><li>Reduce Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Technical Nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Material Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible development </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate Waste </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce Energy Use </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce CO2 Production </li></ul><ul><li>Design for Disassembly </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate Hazardous Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate VOC </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce Energy Use </li></ul><ul><li>0% Waste to Landfill </li></ul><ul><li>Recycle Waste </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Resource Recover y </li></ul><ul><li>ELV Directive </li></ul><ul><li>Recycle Waste </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce CO2 Production </li></ul>Raw Materials Use End of Life Distribution Production
  23. 23. Suggested Paths <ul><li>No over-moulded components </li></ul><ul><li>Material selection </li></ul><ul><li>Design for disassembly </li></ul><ul><li>Adhesive decision </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical fix </li></ul><ul><li>Specify every item with suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Review specs with customers </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul>
  24. 24. Low Hanging Fruit Supplier Specification Waste Management Venders Internal Communication External Collaboration Supplier Collaboration Customer Specification ELV Directive Continued Communication EPD LCA
  25. 25. <ul><li>Financial </li></ul><ul><li>0% Waste to Landfill = £0 Landfill Tax. </li></ul><ul><li>Material Recycling from Waste. </li></ul><ul><li>Resale of Recovered Material (Technical Nutrients). </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery of Rare earth Material. </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery of material from ELV products </li></ul><ul><li>Market </li></ul><ul><li>Green is the new black. </li></ul><ul><li>Be the market leader. </li></ul><ul><li>Brand Image </li></ul><ul><li>Truly sustainable brand image </li></ul><ul><li>GreenEdge Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Legislation </li></ul><ul><li>ELV Directive 2015 </li></ul><ul><li>WEEE </li></ul><ul><li>REACH </li></ul><ul><li>RoHS </li></ul><ul><li>Standards </li></ul><ul><li>ISO:14001 </li></ul>EcoDesign Drivers
  26. 26. Market Movement Environmental Product Decloration – EPD ISO: 14001 ISO: 14006 ISO: 14062
  27. 27. EcoDesign Tools <ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>EcoDesign Workshop </li></ul><ul><li>Cradle to Cradle </li></ul><ul><li>Systems Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>LCA </li></ul>
  28. 28. Collaboration <ul><li>Adhesive Suppliers – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Henkel. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3M </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plastic Suppliers – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bayer Material Science </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recycling Companies – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Axion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MBA Polymers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LCA Providers – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GaBi. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable Minds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SAP Sustainability. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PTC Insight. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wipro SMART </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Granta design </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Waste Management Providers – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broughshire. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enviroquip. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neo Magnets Recyclers – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Birmingham Uni. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Harman International – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harman Professional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harman Automotive Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harman Corporate US </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Customer Collaboration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VW Sustainability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BMW DesignWorks, Sustainability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ELV Experts – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dr. Paul Nieuwenhuis, Cardiff Uni. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nick Morley, Oakdene Hollins. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jon Mayton, BIS. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dr Shahin Rahimifard, Loughborough Uni. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Government Departments – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WAF. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WRAP. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Trust. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Envirowise. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KTN </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seminars, Workshops and Conferences – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EcoDesign Centre workshop, Harman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Frontiers , Manchester </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E:DN , Cardiff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BIC , Bridgend. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CARE Innovation Conference, Vienn a </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ellen MacArthur Foundation 10+1, Bradford </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LCA Sustainable Product Design, London </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. 5. EcoDesign Tools EcoDesign Workshop Impact Considerations Raw Materials Production Packaging & Distribution Use End of Life Materials Waste Components Adhesives Rubber Plastic Metals Cloths 1000kg of Adhesive per year Paper Foam 1 Speaker = 3 mtr of Copper wire 2.5m PC components 4m Neo Magnets Solder Consumables Cardboard Utilities Solvents VOC's H2S04 Waste Components Waste Assemblies Cardboard Plastic Foam Fuel VOC's VOC's Electricity Landfill Metal Recycling Energy Shellpot / Metal ware Magnet Plating Extraction Mining Transport Polymer Production Injection Moulding Anodising Magnet Cleaning Utilities Electricity Water Transport (forklift truck) Gas Air Conditioning Freight: sea, road, air 75% Ship, 25% Air Electricity 400 - 2kw Fuel Oil Gas Electricity Electricity Fuel Incineration Chemicals Solvents Phonolic Resin Polymer Production Plating process Impregnation Releasing Agents Acids Adhesive Accelerators Oil Water Solder (flux) Solvents Nitrogen Adhesives Anodising HCL H2S04 Tape Fuel Plastic Wrap (PP) Foam Paper Adhesive VOC ’ s Chemical Waste Effluent Waste Leaching Fire Retardants Other Chemical Contamination Leakage
  30. 30. 5. EcoDesign Tools EcoDesign Workshop Impact Considerations Materials Production Transport & Packaging Use End of Life CON <ul><li>Virgin Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Source away from Use </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Reach </li></ul><ul><li>Down Cycling </li></ul><ul><li>Crude Oil </li></ul><ul><li>Transport Far East </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Footprint </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Recyclable Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Packaging </li></ul><ul><li>Human Social Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Unethical working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Unfairly Traded </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive use of natural resources </li></ul><ul><li>Warehouse & storage costs </li></ul><ul><li>Mining of Neodymium </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Gas & Electricity Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Waste via Scrap </li></ul><ul><li>Packaging Waste </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>No design for disassembly </li></ul><ul><li>VOC ’ s </li></ul><ul><li>Production Waste </li></ul><ul><li>Harm to workforce </li></ul><ul><li>Sulphuric acid </li></ul><ul><li>Insurance Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Unethical working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Non returnable Packaging </li></ul><ul><li>Response time </li></ul><ul><li>Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Trade route destructive to wildlife </li></ul><ul><li>Location of Manufacturing to end-user </li></ul><ul><li>Ship lots of air </li></ul><ul><li>Emissions </li></ul><ul><li>CO2 Footprint </li></ul><ul><li>Packaging energy in production </li></ul><ul><li>Oil residue in the Sea </li></ul><ul><li>CO2 </li></ul><ul><li>Toxins </li></ul><ul><li>VOC ’ s </li></ul><ul><li>Health impact end-user </li></ul><ul><li>Warranty </li></ul><ul><li>Durability </li></ul><ul><li>VOC ’ s </li></ul><ul><li>Government Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Leaching </li></ul><ul><li>Methane Production </li></ul><ul><li>Shipping waste back to China </li></ul><ul><li>Waste removable Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Landfill Tax </li></ul><ul><li>Impact to ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Acidification </li></ul><ul><li>Waste </li></ul><ul><li>Eutrophication </li></ul><ul><li>Land Value goes down </li></ul><ul><li>Speakers go to Landfill </li></ul><ul><li>Methane Production </li></ul>PRO <ul><li>Local Suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Use of ELV materials </li></ul><ul><li>Induce good work practices at Suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Packaging Technology improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Up Cycling </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat Recycling </li></ul><ul><li>Returnable Packaging </li></ul><ul><li>Right first time </li></ul><ul><li>Employment </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced Packaging </li></ul><ul><li>0% Waste to Landfill </li></ul><ul><li>Design for Manufacture DfM </li></ul><ul><li>Workforce Eco Aware </li></ul><ul><li>Skills Base </li></ul><ul><li>Adhesive-less assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Eco-Factory </li></ul><ul><li>Reusable packaging </li></ul><ul><li>Local suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient packaging </li></ul><ul><li>Right first time project management </li></ul><ul><li>Packaging Materials selection </li></ul><ul><li>Green Edge Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Product Life Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Product service systems </li></ul><ul><li>User Satisfaction sound quality & other factors </li></ul><ul><li>Warranty </li></ul><ul><li>Durability </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Pleasure </li></ul><ul><li>0% Waste to Landfill </li></ul><ul><li>Reuse of Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Design for Dis-assembly </li></ul><ul><li>ELV 2015 </li></ul><ul><li>Government Policy </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Knowledge Transfer amongst the Team </li></ul><ul><li>Procurement Location Supply Chain </li></ul><ul><li>Material Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Material Recyclability </li></ul><ul><li>Product Weight </li></ul><ul><li>Product Disposal </li></ul><ul><li>Quality, Reliability, Durability </li></ul><ul><li>Quality, Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Use (Air Conditioning) Shop Floor </li></ul><ul><li>Brand Identity& Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Waste </li></ul><ul><li>Design for Manufacture & De-materialisation </li></ul><ul><li>Materials Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Product Efficiency in Use </li></ul><ul><li>Supplier Engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing Cost & Waste </li></ul>5. EcoDesign Tools EcoDesign Target Areas: Groups 1&2 EcoDesign Workshop
  32. 32. LCA 5. EcoDesign Tools Corporate Sustainability Management
  33. 33. Cradle to Cradle
  34. 34. To Finish <ul><li>Always look at the bigger picture </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborate with as many people as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Never be afraid to ask difficult questions </li></ul><ul><li>Promote Creativity </li></ul><ul><li>View challenges as avenues for creativity </li></ul><ul><li>View design as an evolution without an end date </li></ul>
  35. 35. design

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