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Comenius tecnologia


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Comenius tecnologia

  2. 2. 1º The water cycle.2º Hydroelectric power/Hydroelectric power plants2.1. Definition.2.2. Classification.2.3. Hydroelectric process2.4- Advantages and disadvantages of hydroelectric power.3º Mayor reservoirs in the province of Málaga.4º Participants
  3. 3. The water cicle This cycle is made up of a few main parts:evaporation (and transpiration)precipitationcollection
  4. 4. EVAPORATION• Evaporation is when the sun heats up water in rivers, lakes or the oceans and turns it into vapor or steam. The water vapor or steam leaves it and goes into the air.
  5. 5. Condensation:• Water vapor in the air gets cold and changes back into liquid, forming clouds.
  6. 6. Precipitation:• It´s occurs when so much • Hail water has condensed that • Sleet the air cannot hold it • Rain anymore. The clouds get heavy and water falls back to • Snow. the earth in the form of :
  7. 7. Collection:• When water falls back to earth as precipitation, it may fall back in the oceans, lakes or rivers or it may end up on land. When it ends up on land, it will either soak into the earth and become part of the “ground water” that plants and animals use to drink or it may run over the soil and collect in the oceans, lakes or rivers where the cycle starts ALL OVER AGAIN
  8. 8.
  9. 9. DEFINITIONHydroelectricity is the termreferring to electricity generatedby hydropower; the production ofelectrical power through the useof the gravitational force offalling or flowing water.
  10. 10. Hydroelectric power plantsInstallations and equipmentthat is used to convert theenergy of a stream of waterinto electrical energy
  11. 11. Classification ofpower plants
  12. 12. a) Run of river power plant.b) Power plant water reserve.1.- Central of regulation2.- Pumping station
  13. 13. Run of river power plantNo reservoir. Capture a portion of the flow down the riverfrom a dam and bring it to the plant to be turbinado.Later this flow is returned to the river.Jump useful practically constant, and a flow rate varies,depending on hydrology.The installed power is directly related to flow into the river.MINI usually, smaller and less energy.
  14. 14. The main elements are:1 Dam.2 Water uptake.3 Derivatión channell.4 Loading chamber.5 Pipeline.6 Building withelectromechanicalequipment.
  15. 15. Central of reservoir water In this type of hidroelectric central there stores a considerable amount of water above the turbines, by constructing one or more dams that forms artificial lakes. The reservoir can adjust the amount of water passing through the turbines. With the reservoir electric energy can be produced throughout all the year although the river is dry for several months.
  16. 16. Central of Regulation They are centrals with the possibility of collecting volumes of water in the reservoir, which represent periods shorter or longer, than the average annual flow contributions. Being able to impound water during certain periods of time, night, month or dry year, and so on. Providing a great service in times of low flows, regulating these conveniently for production. They adapt very well to meet peak consumption.
  17. 17. Pumping Station In this type of hidroelectric central the water is accumulated by pumping, so that their performance can be compared as “accumulators” of potencial energy.
  18. 18. Here you can see an image of a hydroelectrical power plant and it’s components.
  19. 19. re=endscreen&NR=1&v=cKeveZgcxsU• In this link you can see how a hydroelectrical power plant works.• First you have to build a dam near a river so the water can pass through it creating electricity. S the water passes through the dam it turns a turbine which is conected to a generator, this creates the electricity which then is stepped up or down to the requiered voltage by transformers, then the electricity is distributed by power lines.
  20. 20. • 1. Once a dam is constructed, electricity can be produced at a constant rate.• 2. If electricity is not needed, the sluice gates can be shut, stopping electricity generation. The water can be saved for use another time when electricity demand is high.• 3. Dams are designed to last many decades and so can contribute to the generation of electricity for many years / decades.
  21. 21. • 4. The lake that forms behind the dam can be used for water sports and leisure / pleasure activities. Often large dams become tourist attractions in their own right.• 5. The lakes water can be used for irrigation purposes.• 6. The build up of water in the lake means that energy can be stored until needed, when the water is released to produce electricity.• 7. When in use, electricity produced by dam systems do not produce green house gases. They do not pollute the atmosphere.
  22. 22. • 1. Dams are extremely expensive to build and must be built to a very high standard.• 2. The high cost of dam construction means that they must operate for many decades to become profitable.• 3. The flooding of large areas of land means that the natural environment is destroyed.• 4. People living in villages and towns that are in the valley that is flooded, must move out. This means that they lose their farms and businesses. In some countries, people are forcibly removed so that hydro-power schemes can go ahead.
  23. 23. 5. The building of large dams can cause serious geological damage. For example, the building of the Hoover Dam in the USA triggered a number of earth quakes .6. Although modern planning and design of dams is good, in the past old dams have been known to be breached (the dam gives under the weight of water in the lake). This has led to deaths and flooding.• 7. Dams built blocking the progress of a river in one country usually means that the water supply from the same river in the following country is out of their control. This can lead to serious problems between neighbouring countries.• 8. Building a large dam alters the natural water table level. For example, the building of the Aswan Dam in Egypt has altered the level of the water table. This is slowly leading to damage of many of its ancient monuments.
  25. 25. SWAMP CAPACITY LOCALITY RIVERConde Guadalhorce 70 hm3 Ardales Ardales Guadalhorce - 282 hm3 Campillos Guadalhorce Guadalteba La Concepción 56 hm3 Marbella Verde La Viñuela 170 hm3 Viñuela Guaro Guadalteba 153hm3 Campillos Guadalteba
  26. 26. RESERVOIR CONDE GUADALHORCE• Reservoir water (14-02-2012): 14 hm3 - 64.29%• Variation of the last week: 0hm3 - 00.00%• Capacity: 70hm3• Same week (2011): 60hm3 – 85.71%• Same week (Average of ten years): 39hm3 – 56.86%• Basin: Mediterránea Andaluza• Province: Málaga• Municipality: Ardales• River: Ardales• Type of dam: Gravity• Year of construction: 1921• Surface: 546 ha
  27. 27. RESERVOIR GUADALHORCE - GUADALTEBA• Reservoir water ( 06/03/12): 246hm3 87.23%• Variation of the last week: - 1hm3 -0.35%• Capacity: 282 hm3• Same week (2011): 275hm3 97.52%• Same week (Averange of the ten years): 127hm3 45.05%• Basin: Mediterránea Andaluza• Province: Málaga• Municipality: Campillos• River: Guadalhorce• Type of dam: Loose materials core clay• Year of construction 1973• Surface 780 ha
  28. 28. RESERVOIR LA CONCEPCIÓN• Reservoir water ( 06/ 03/ 12): 51hm3 91.07%• Variation of the last week: 0 hm3 0%• Capacity: 56 hm3• Same week (2011): 58 hm3 103.57%• Same week (Averange of the ten years): 51 hm 3 91.43%• Basin: Mediterránea Andaluza• Province: Málaga• Municipality: Marbella• River: Verde• Type of dam: Gravity• Year of construction 1971• Surface 214 ha
  29. 29. RESERVOIR LA VIÑUELA• Reservoir water (06/ 03/12 ): 144hm3 84.71%• Variation of the last week: -1 hm3 -0.59%• Capacity: 170hm3• Same week (2011): 147hm3 86.47%• Same week (Averange of the ten years): 98hm3 58.18%• Basin: Mediterránea Andaluza• Province: Málaga• Municipality: Viñuela• River: Guaro• Type of dam: Loose materials core clay• Year of construction: 1986• Surface: 565 ha
  30. 30. Tajo de la Encantada DamThe Tajo de la Encantada Dam was desgined with two reservoirs atdifferent level, joined by a large water pipe. In the one on the lowerlevel there are several electricity-generating turbines and they areoperated with the water pressure from the upper reservoir (VillaverdeDam, near the Bobastro ruins).At night, when energy is less expensive, these turbines will becomedrive motors and the lower water reservoir is pumped to the top. Thenext day, the process starts draining the water supply. The business isin the difference in price of electricity day and night.The Tajo de la Encantada Dam is located on the edge of the tagus, inthe Chorro, municipality of Álora, where the hydroelectric companyhas inmplemented the largest reversible hydroelectric in Spain, Saltode la Encantada.
  31. 31. More About Tajo de la Encantada DamDam Owner: Sevillana de ElectricidadRiver: Guadalhorce Municipality: Álora Province: MálagaReservoir Applications: Supply, Hydropower, Irrigation.Hydrological DataSurface of the river basin (km2): 1740.Design flood peak discharge (m3/s): 2780Reservoir DataReservoir surface (hectares): 34,40Cappacity to NMN (hm3): 4,30Cota of NMN (m): 202.50Dam FactsDam Type: GravityCota coronación (m): 205.00Height from foundation (m): 38,20Crest length (m): 178.00Foundation cota (m): 166,80
  32. 32. -María Alexandrovna Andreeva-Catherine Janen Blackman-Alberto Cano Marañón-Antonio Carmona Lozano-Thomas Anders De Gregorio Christensen-Antoni Della Monica Kopec-Leonie Marie Krohne-Lucía Patricia López Goddard-Cecilia Martín Callejón-Carlos Palicio Bedmar-Francisco Rojas Real